Abstract

A high peak power and high pulse energy passively Q-switched diode-pumped cw Nd:YAG laser at 1.064-µm wavelength has been demonstrated with Cr4+:YAG crystal as the saturable absorber. The average output power of 7–12 W and pulse duration of 100–250 ns was obtained with kilohertz repetition rates. The highest peak power and pulse energy obtained were 30 kW and 3.4 mJ, respectively. All the output resulted from the TEM00 mode with M 2 < 1.1. The thermal lensing effect of the saturable absorber was investigated, demonstrating that it played an important role in optimization of the output.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. S. Afzal, A. W. Yu, J. J. Zayhowski, T. Y. Fan, “Single-mode high-peak-power passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1314–1316 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Zayhowski, C. Dill, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched picosecond microchip lasers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1427–1429 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+:YAG as passive Q-switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1738–1741 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, A. Ben-AmarBaranga, Y. Kalisky, M. Strauss, “Repetitive Q-switching of a CW Nd:YAG laser using Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 305–310 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Freitag, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “Passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ring lasers with high average output power in single-frequency operation,” Opt. Lett. 22, 706–708 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, G. C. Reali, “1.5 watt passively Q-switched diode-pumped cw Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 211–215 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, C. Morello, G. Piccinno, G. C. Reali, Z. Sun, “Diode-pumped neodymium lasers repetitively Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG solid-state saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 45–52 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kellner, F. Heine, G. Huber, S. Kück, “Passive Q switching of a diode-pumped 946-nm Nd:YAG laser with 1.6-W average output power,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7076–7079 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, “Passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/Cr4+:YAG single-frequency microchip laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1880–1881 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. F. Chen, “Passive Q-switching of an intracavity frequency doubled diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with Cr4+:YAG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1481–1483 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Bai, N. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Li, S. Li, J. Xu, P. Deng, “Passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with a Cr4+:YAG crystal saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2468–2472 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Zendzian, J. K. Jabczynski, Z. Mierczyk, “Passively Q-switched, 5 mJ, Nd:YAG triangle slab laser pumped by 300 W quasi cw diode laser,” in The Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ, 08855-1331, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 223–224.
  13. N. Uehara, K. Nakahara, K. Ueda, “Continuous-wave TEM00-mode 26.5-W-output virtual-point-source diode-array-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1707–1709 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Song, A. P. Liu, K. Okino, K. Ueda, “Control of the thermal lensing effect with different pump light distributions,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8051–8055 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (8)

A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, G. C. Reali, “1.5 watt passively Q-switched diode-pumped cw Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 211–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, C. Morello, G. Piccinno, G. C. Reali, Z. Sun, “Diode-pumped neodymium lasers repetitively Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG solid-state saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 45–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, “Passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/Cr4+:YAG single-frequency microchip laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1880–1881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, “Passive Q-switching of an intracavity frequency doubled diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with Cr4+:YAG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1481–1483 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Freitag, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “Passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ring lasers with high average output power in single-frequency operation,” Opt. Lett. 22, 706–708 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Afzal, A. W. Yu, J. J. Zayhowski, T. Y. Fan, “Single-mode high-peak-power passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1314–1316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, N. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Li, S. Li, J. Xu, P. Deng, “Passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with a Cr4+:YAG crystal saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2468–2472 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Song, A. P. Liu, K. Okino, K. Ueda, “Control of the thermal lensing effect with different pump light distributions,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8051–8055 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, A. Ben-AmarBaranga, Y. Kalisky, M. Strauss, “Repetitive Q-switching of a CW Nd:YAG laser using Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 305–310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+:YAG as passive Q-switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1738–1741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Uehara, K. Nakahara, K. Ueda, “Continuous-wave TEM00-mode 26.5-W-output virtual-point-source diode-array-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1707–1709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Afzal, R. S.

Agnesi, A.

A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, G. C. Reali, “1.5 watt passively Q-switched diode-pumped cw Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 211–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, C. Morello, G. Piccinno, G. C. Reali, Z. Sun, “Diode-pumped neodymium lasers repetitively Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG solid-state saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 45–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Ben-AmarBaranga, A.

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, A. Ben-AmarBaranga, Y. Kalisky, M. Strauss, “Repetitive Q-switching of a CW Nd:YAG laser using Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 305–310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burshtein, Z.

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, A. Ben-AmarBaranga, Y. Kalisky, M. Strauss, “Repetitive Q-switching of a CW Nd:YAG laser using Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 305–310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+:YAG as passive Q-switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1738–1741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, “Passive Q-switching of an intracavity frequency doubled diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with Cr4+:YAG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1481–1483 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, “Passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/Cr4+:YAG single-frequency microchip laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1880–1881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dell’Acqua, S.

A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, C. Morello, G. Piccinno, G. C. Reali, Z. Sun, “Diode-pumped neodymium lasers repetitively Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG solid-state saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 45–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, G. C. Reali, “1.5 watt passively Q-switched diode-pumped cw Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 211–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deng, P.

Dill, C.

Fan, T. Y.

Freitag, I.

Heine, F.

Huang, T. M.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, “Passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/Cr4+:YAG single-frequency microchip laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1880–1881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Jabczynski, J. K.

W. Zendzian, J. K. Jabczynski, Z. Mierczyk, “Passively Q-switched, 5 mJ, Nd:YAG triangle slab laser pumped by 300 W quasi cw diode laser,” in The Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ, 08855-1331, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 223–224.

Kalisky, Y.

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, A. Ben-AmarBaranga, Y. Kalisky, M. Strauss, “Repetitive Q-switching of a CW Nd:YAG laser using Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 305–310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+:YAG as passive Q-switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1738–1741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kellner, T.

Kück, S.

Li, J.

Li, S.

Liu, A. P.

Mierczyk, Z.

W. Zendzian, J. K. Jabczynski, Z. Mierczyk, “Passively Q-switched, 5 mJ, Nd:YAG triangle slab laser pumped by 300 W quasi cw diode laser,” in The Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ, 08855-1331, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 223–224.

Morello, C.

A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, C. Morello, G. Piccinno, G. C. Reali, Z. Sun, “Diode-pumped neodymium lasers repetitively Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG solid-state saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 45–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakahara, K.

Okino, K.

Piccinno, G.

A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, C. Morello, G. Piccinno, G. C. Reali, Z. Sun, “Diode-pumped neodymium lasers repetitively Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG solid-state saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 45–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reali, G. C.

A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, C. Morello, G. Piccinno, G. C. Reali, Z. Sun, “Diode-pumped neodymium lasers repetitively Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG solid-state saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 45–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, G. C. Reali, “1.5 watt passively Q-switched diode-pumped cw Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 211–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shimony, Y.

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, A. Ben-AmarBaranga, Y. Kalisky, M. Strauss, “Repetitive Q-switching of a CW Nd:YAG laser using Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 305–310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+:YAG as passive Q-switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1738–1741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Strauss, M.

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, A. Ben-AmarBaranga, Y. Kalisky, M. Strauss, “Repetitive Q-switching of a CW Nd:YAG laser using Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 305–310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, C. Morello, G. Piccinno, G. C. Reali, Z. Sun, “Diode-pumped neodymium lasers repetitively Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG solid-state saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 45–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Ueda, K.

Uehara, N.

Wang, C. L.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, “Passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/Cr4+:YAG single-frequency microchip laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1880–1881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

Wu, N.

Xu, J.

Yu, A. W.

Zayhowski, J. J.

Zendzian, W.

W. Zendzian, J. K. Jabczynski, Z. Mierczyk, “Passively Q-switched, 5 mJ, Nd:YAG triangle slab laser pumped by 300 W quasi cw diode laser,” in The Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ, 08855-1331, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 223–224.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, “Passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/Cr4+:YAG single-frequency microchip laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1880–1881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+:YAG as passive Q-switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1738–1741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, A. Ben-AmarBaranga, Y. Kalisky, M. Strauss, “Repetitive Q-switching of a CW Nd:YAG laser using Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 305–310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, C. Morello, G. Piccinno, G. C. Reali, Z. Sun, “Diode-pumped neodymium lasers repetitively Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG solid-state saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 45–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. F. Chen, “Passive Q-switching of an intracavity frequency doubled diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser with Cr4+:YAG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1481–1483 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, G. C. Reali, “1.5 watt passively Q-switched diode-pumped cw Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 211–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

W. Zendzian, J. K. Jabczynski, Z. Mierczyk, “Passively Q-switched, 5 mJ, Nd:YAG triangle slab laser pumped by 300 W quasi cw diode laser,” in The Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Service Center, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ, 08855-1331, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 223–224.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber at position P1, P2, or P3. The inset shows the enlarged VPS head.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average output power versus LD pump power for Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers of initial transmission T 0 = 90%, 80%, and 70%. The cw performance output is also shown by the open diamonds. The transmission of the output coupler is 38% in all cases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulse parameters versus LD pump power for Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers of initial transmission T 0 = 90%, 80%, and 70%: (a) repetition rate, (b) pulse energy, (c) pulse duration, (d) peak power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Beam size at the center of the Nd:YAG rod versus dioptric power of Cr4+:YAG samples inserted at positions P1, P2, and P3.

Equations (1)

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tw=Sptrtγsat,rtδ1+δηδ-ln1+δ,

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