Abstract

A variable duty cycle quasi-cw frequency scanning technique was applied to reduce thermal effects resulting from the high heat dissipation of type I quantum-cascade lasers. This technique was combined with a 100-m path-length multipass cell and a zero-air background-subtraction technique to enhance detection sensitivity to a parts-in-109 (ppb) concentration level for spectroscopic trace-gas detection of CH4, N2O, H2O, and C2H5OH in ambient air at 7.9 µm. A new technique for analysis of dense high-resolution absorption spectra was applied to detection of ethanol in ambient air, yielding a 125-ppb detection limit.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1999

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World 12, 27–33 (1999); F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “High performance quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Photon. News 10(10), 32–37 (1999).

M. Kubista, J. Nygren, A. Elbergali, R. Sjöback, “Making reference samples redundant,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 29, 1–28 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, J. Oomens, F. J. M. Harren, D. H. Parker, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 178–180 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1762–1764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. R. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground-based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

1989

A. A. Stuchebrukhov, S. I. Ionov, V. S. Letokhov, “IR spectra of highly vibrationally excited large polyatomic molecules and intramolecular relaxation,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 5357–5365 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Bergamaschi, P.

Cai, S.

Capasso, F.

Cho, A. Y.

Coté, G. L.

Curl, R. F.

Drummond, J. R.

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. R. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground-based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Elbergali, A.

M. Kubista, J. Nygren, A. Elbergali, R. Sjöback, “Making reference samples redundant,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 29, 1–28 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Fried, A.

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. R. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground-based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gilpin, T.

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. R. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground-based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

Harren, F. J. M.

Harris, G. W.

Hartman, J. S.

Henry, B.

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. R. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground-based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

Ionov, S. I.

A. A. Stuchebrukhov, S. I. Ionov, V. S. Letokhov, “IR spectra of highly vibrationally excited large polyatomic molecules and intramolecular relaxation,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 5357–5365 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. F.

Kosterev, A. A.

Kubista, M.

M. Kubista, J. Nygren, A. Elbergali, R. Sjöback, “Making reference samples redundant,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 29, 1–28 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

A. A. Stuchebrukhov, S. I. Ionov, V. S. Letokhov, “IR spectra of highly vibrationally excited large polyatomic molecules and intramolecular relaxation,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 5357–5365 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McShane, M. J.

Namjou, K.

Nygren, J.

M. Kubista, J. Nygren, A. Elbergali, R. Sjöback, “Making reference samples redundant,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 29, 1–28 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oomens, J.

Paldus, B. A.

Parker, D. H.

Schupp, M.

Sewell, S.

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. R. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground-based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, S. W.

Sivco, D. L.

Sjöback, R.

M. Kubista, J. Nygren, A. Elbergali, R. Sjöback, “Making reference samples redundant,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 29, 1–28 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spence, T. G.

Spiegelman, C. H.

Stuchebrukhov, A. A.

A. A. Stuchebrukhov, S. I. Ionov, V. S. Letokhov, “IR spectra of highly vibrationally excited large polyatomic molecules and intramolecular relaxation,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 5357–5365 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Wert, B. P.

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. R. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground-based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, E. A.

Zare, R. N.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spectrosc.

Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem.

M. Kubista, J. Nygren, A. Elbergali, R. Sjöback, “Making reference samples redundant,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 29, 1–28 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

A. Fried, S. Sewell, B. Henry, B. P. Wert, T. Gilpin, J. R. Drummond, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for ground-based measurements of formaldehyde,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6253–6266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

A. A. Stuchebrukhov, S. I. Ionov, V. S. Letokhov, “IR spectra of highly vibrationally excited large polyatomic molecules and intramolecular relaxation,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 5357–5365 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. World

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World 12, 27–33 (1999); F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “High performance quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Photon. News 10(10), 32–37 (1999).

Other

P. Fritz, J. Ch. Fontes, eds., Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry (Elsevier, New York, 1980), Vol. 1, pp. 1–19.

International Atomic Energy Agency and World Meteorological Organization, Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation. The GNIP Database release 3, October1999, http://www.iaea.org/programs/ri/gnip/gnipmain.htm .

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