Abstract

Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of calcified human heart-valve tissue and LIF spectra of macroscopic calcinosis fragments dissected from human heart valves were compared with LIF spectra of pig myocardium tissues. Excitation was provided by an excimer laser with wavelength λ = 248 nm. Fluorescence bands that were due to mineral and organic tissue components were identified by measurement of LIF spectra of macroscopic fragments of calcified tissues that had been heat treated at 700 °C. The studies showed that LIF spectra of calcified tissues include fluorescence emission from tryptophan, collagen, elastin, and a mineral component of tissue, hydroxylapatite. The observed differences in LIF spectra of normal and calcified tissues with different pathologies may result not only from calcification-induced changes in relative collagen and elastin concentrations but also from additional (absent in normal heart tissue) fluorescence of hydroxylapatite. The calcification-induced changes in the LIF spectra of human heart-valve tissues, characterized by a 330/450 nm ratio, were found to be quite appreciable, which suggests that this ratio can be used with LIF measurements to evaluate the degree of heart-tissue calcification.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. I. Burshtein, Luminescence Emission from Proteins: Nature and Application, Vol. 3 of Frontiers of Science and Technology Series on Molecular Biology (Viniti, Moscow, 1973; in Russian).
  2. S. V. Konev, I. D. Volotovskii, Introduction into Molecular Photobiology (Nauka i Tekhnika, Minsk, 1971; in Russian).
  3. E. A. Chernitskii, E. I. Slobozhanina, Spectral Fluorometric Analysis in Medicine (Nauka i Tekhnika, Minsk, 1989; in Russian).
  4. A. P. Demchenko, Luminescence and Dynamic Structure of Proteins (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1988; in Russian).
  5. A. V. Priez’zhev, V. V. Tuchin, A. P. Shubochkin, Laser-Assisted Diagnosis in Biology and Medicine (Nauka, Moscow, 1986; in Russian).
  6. F. W. Cutruzzola, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, G. R. Gindi, L. I. Laifer, T. J. Garrand, L. I. Deckelbaum, “Change in laser-induced arterial fluorescence during ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 109–116 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, P. Taroni, C. Kittrell, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of normal and atherosclerotic human aorta using 306–310 nm exitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 245–261 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. Cothren, A. Metha, M. Fitzmaurice, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A model for extraction of diagnostic information from laser induced fluorescence spectra of human artery wall,” Spectrochem. Acta Part A 45, 87–93 (1989).
  9. G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, K. Hohla, R. Horvat, K.-H. Henke, M. Buchelt, G. Wutzl, E. Wolner, “Excimer laser-induced simultaneous ablation and spectral identification of normal and atherosclerotic arterial tissue layers,” Circulation 78, 1031–1039 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, B. Rueckle, M. Buchelt, C. Kuckla, H. Ruatti, P. Buxbaum, R. Fasol, P. Zilla, “Characteristics of 308 nm excimer laser activated arterial tissue photoemission under ablative and non-ablative conditions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 557–571 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. J. Morguet, B. Korber, H. Hippler, V. Wiegand, H. Kreuzer, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy using a XeCl excimer laser system for simultaneous plaque ablation and fluorescence excitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 238–248 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. M. Larionov, A. N. Malov, A. M. Orishich, B. C. Schukin, “Laser-induced fluorescence of human heart valve tissues affected by calcinosis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 64, 539–541 (1997; in Russian).
  13. S. Mann, “Molecular recognition in biomineralization,” Nature 332, 119–124 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Novak, “US FDA to issue new rules of xenotransplantation,” Nature Med. 4, 876 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. P. Gott, Pan Chih, L. M. Dorsey, J. L. Jay, G. K. Jett, F. J. Schoen, J. M. Girardot, R. A. Guyton, “Calcification of porcine valves: a successful new method of antimineralization,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 53, 207–215 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

K. Novak, “US FDA to issue new rules of xenotransplantation,” Nature Med. 4, 876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. M. Larionov, A. N. Malov, A. M. Orishich, B. C. Schukin, “Laser-induced fluorescence of human heart valve tissues affected by calcinosis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 64, 539–541 (1997; in Russian).

1994 (1)

A. J. Morguet, B. Korber, H. Hippler, V. Wiegand, H. Kreuzer, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy using a XeCl excimer laser system for simultaneous plaque ablation and fluorescence excitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 238–248 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. P. Gott, Pan Chih, L. M. Dorsey, J. L. Jay, G. K. Jett, F. J. Schoen, J. M. Girardot, R. A. Guyton, “Calcification of porcine valves: a successful new method of antimineralization,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 53, 207–215 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, P. Taroni, C. Kittrell, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of normal and atherosclerotic human aorta using 306–310 nm exitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 245–261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. Cothren, A. Metha, M. Fitzmaurice, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A model for extraction of diagnostic information from laser induced fluorescence spectra of human artery wall,” Spectrochem. Acta Part A 45, 87–93 (1989).

F. W. Cutruzzola, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, G. R. Gindi, L. I. Laifer, T. J. Garrand, L. I. Deckelbaum, “Change in laser-induced arterial fluorescence during ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 109–116 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, B. Rueckle, M. Buchelt, C. Kuckla, H. Ruatti, P. Buxbaum, R. Fasol, P. Zilla, “Characteristics of 308 nm excimer laser activated arterial tissue photoemission under ablative and non-ablative conditions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 557–571 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, K. Hohla, R. Horvat, K.-H. Henke, M. Buchelt, G. Wutzl, E. Wolner, “Excimer laser-induced simultaneous ablation and spectral identification of normal and atherosclerotic arterial tissue layers,” Circulation 78, 1031–1039 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mann, “Molecular recognition in biomineralization,” Nature 332, 119–124 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baraga, J. J.

J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, P. Taroni, C. Kittrell, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of normal and atherosclerotic human aorta using 306–310 nm exitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 245–261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Buchelt, M.

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, B. Rueckle, M. Buchelt, C. Kuckla, H. Ruatti, P. Buxbaum, R. Fasol, P. Zilla, “Characteristics of 308 nm excimer laser activated arterial tissue photoemission under ablative and non-ablative conditions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 557–571 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, K. Hohla, R. Horvat, K.-H. Henke, M. Buchelt, G. Wutzl, E. Wolner, “Excimer laser-induced simultaneous ablation and spectral identification of normal and atherosclerotic arterial tissue layers,” Circulation 78, 1031–1039 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burshtein, E. I.

E. I. Burshtein, Luminescence Emission from Proteins: Nature and Application, Vol. 3 of Frontiers of Science and Technology Series on Molecular Biology (Viniti, Moscow, 1973; in Russian).

Buxbaum, P.

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, B. Rueckle, M. Buchelt, C. Kuckla, H. Ruatti, P. Buxbaum, R. Fasol, P. Zilla, “Characteristics of 308 nm excimer laser activated arterial tissue photoemission under ablative and non-ablative conditions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 557–571 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chernitskii, E. A.

E. A. Chernitskii, E. I. Slobozhanina, Spectral Fluorometric Analysis in Medicine (Nauka i Tekhnika, Minsk, 1989; in Russian).

Chih, Pan

J. P. Gott, Pan Chih, L. M. Dorsey, J. L. Jay, G. K. Jett, F. J. Schoen, J. M. Girardot, R. A. Guyton, “Calcification of porcine valves: a successful new method of antimineralization,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 53, 207–215 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cothren, R.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. Cothren, A. Metha, M. Fitzmaurice, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A model for extraction of diagnostic information from laser induced fluorescence spectra of human artery wall,” Spectrochem. Acta Part A 45, 87–93 (1989).

Cutruzzola, F. W.

F. W. Cutruzzola, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, G. R. Gindi, L. I. Laifer, T. J. Garrand, L. I. Deckelbaum, “Change in laser-induced arterial fluorescence during ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 109–116 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Deckelbaum, L. I.

F. W. Cutruzzola, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, G. R. Gindi, L. I. Laifer, T. J. Garrand, L. I. Deckelbaum, “Change in laser-induced arterial fluorescence during ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 109–116 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Demchenko, A. P.

A. P. Demchenko, Luminescence and Dynamic Structure of Proteins (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1988; in Russian).

Dorsey, L. M.

J. P. Gott, Pan Chih, L. M. Dorsey, J. L. Jay, G. K. Jett, F. J. Schoen, J. M. Girardot, R. A. Guyton, “Calcification of porcine valves: a successful new method of antimineralization,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 53, 207–215 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fasol, R.

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, B. Rueckle, M. Buchelt, C. Kuckla, H. Ruatti, P. Buxbaum, R. Fasol, P. Zilla, “Characteristics of 308 nm excimer laser activated arterial tissue photoemission under ablative and non-ablative conditions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 557–571 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, P. Taroni, C. Kittrell, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of normal and atherosclerotic human aorta using 306–310 nm exitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 245–261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. Cothren, A. Metha, M. Fitzmaurice, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A model for extraction of diagnostic information from laser induced fluorescence spectra of human artery wall,” Spectrochem. Acta Part A 45, 87–93 (1989).

Fitzmaurice, M.

J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, P. Taroni, C. Kittrell, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of normal and atherosclerotic human aorta using 306–310 nm exitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 245–261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. Cothren, A. Metha, M. Fitzmaurice, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A model for extraction of diagnostic information from laser induced fluorescence spectra of human artery wall,” Spectrochem. Acta Part A 45, 87–93 (1989).

Garrand, T. J.

F. W. Cutruzzola, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, G. R. Gindi, L. I. Laifer, T. J. Garrand, L. I. Deckelbaum, “Change in laser-induced arterial fluorescence during ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 109–116 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gindi, G. R.

F. W. Cutruzzola, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, G. R. Gindi, L. I. Laifer, T. J. Garrand, L. I. Deckelbaum, “Change in laser-induced arterial fluorescence during ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 109–116 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Girardot, J. M.

J. P. Gott, Pan Chih, L. M. Dorsey, J. L. Jay, G. K. Jett, F. J. Schoen, J. M. Girardot, R. A. Guyton, “Calcification of porcine valves: a successful new method of antimineralization,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 53, 207–215 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gott, J. P.

J. P. Gott, Pan Chih, L. M. Dorsey, J. L. Jay, G. K. Jett, F. J. Schoen, J. M. Girardot, R. A. Guyton, “Calcification of porcine valves: a successful new method of antimineralization,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 53, 207–215 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guyton, R. A.

J. P. Gott, Pan Chih, L. M. Dorsey, J. L. Jay, G. K. Jett, F. J. Schoen, J. M. Girardot, R. A. Guyton, “Calcification of porcine valves: a successful new method of antimineralization,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 53, 207–215 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henke, K.-H.

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, K. Hohla, R. Horvat, K.-H. Henke, M. Buchelt, G. Wutzl, E. Wolner, “Excimer laser-induced simultaneous ablation and spectral identification of normal and atherosclerotic arterial tissue layers,” Circulation 78, 1031–1039 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hippler, H.

A. J. Morguet, B. Korber, H. Hippler, V. Wiegand, H. Kreuzer, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy using a XeCl excimer laser system for simultaneous plaque ablation and fluorescence excitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 238–248 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohla, K.

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, K. Hohla, R. Horvat, K.-H. Henke, M. Buchelt, G. Wutzl, E. Wolner, “Excimer laser-induced simultaneous ablation and spectral identification of normal and atherosclerotic arterial tissue layers,” Circulation 78, 1031–1039 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horvat, R.

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, K. Hohla, R. Horvat, K.-H. Henke, M. Buchelt, G. Wutzl, E. Wolner, “Excimer laser-induced simultaneous ablation and spectral identification of normal and atherosclerotic arterial tissue layers,” Circulation 78, 1031–1039 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jay, J. L.

J. P. Gott, Pan Chih, L. M. Dorsey, J. L. Jay, G. K. Jett, F. J. Schoen, J. M. Girardot, R. A. Guyton, “Calcification of porcine valves: a successful new method of antimineralization,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 53, 207–215 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jett, G. K.

J. P. Gott, Pan Chih, L. M. Dorsey, J. L. Jay, G. K. Jett, F. J. Schoen, J. M. Girardot, R. A. Guyton, “Calcification of porcine valves: a successful new method of antimineralization,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 53, 207–215 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kittrell, C.

J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, P. Taroni, C. Kittrell, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of normal and atherosclerotic human aorta using 306–310 nm exitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 245–261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. Cothren, A. Metha, M. Fitzmaurice, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A model for extraction of diagnostic information from laser induced fluorescence spectra of human artery wall,” Spectrochem. Acta Part A 45, 87–93 (1989).

Konev, S. V.

S. V. Konev, I. D. Volotovskii, Introduction into Molecular Photobiology (Nauka i Tekhnika, Minsk, 1971; in Russian).

Korber, B.

A. J. Morguet, B. Korber, H. Hippler, V. Wiegand, H. Kreuzer, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy using a XeCl excimer laser system for simultaneous plaque ablation and fluorescence excitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 238–248 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kramer, J. R.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. Cothren, A. Metha, M. Fitzmaurice, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A model for extraction of diagnostic information from laser induced fluorescence spectra of human artery wall,” Spectrochem. Acta Part A 45, 87–93 (1989).

Kreuzer, H.

A. J. Morguet, B. Korber, H. Hippler, V. Wiegand, H. Kreuzer, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy using a XeCl excimer laser system for simultaneous plaque ablation and fluorescence excitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 238–248 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuckla, C.

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, B. Rueckle, M. Buchelt, C. Kuckla, H. Ruatti, P. Buxbaum, R. Fasol, P. Zilla, “Characteristics of 308 nm excimer laser activated arterial tissue photoemission under ablative and non-ablative conditions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 557–571 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Laifer, L. I.

F. W. Cutruzzola, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, G. R. Gindi, L. I. Laifer, T. J. Garrand, L. I. Deckelbaum, “Change in laser-induced arterial fluorescence during ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 109–116 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Larionov, P. M.

P. M. Larionov, A. N. Malov, A. M. Orishich, B. C. Schukin, “Laser-induced fluorescence of human heart valve tissues affected by calcinosis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 64, 539–541 (1997; in Russian).

Laufer, G.

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, B. Rueckle, M. Buchelt, C. Kuckla, H. Ruatti, P. Buxbaum, R. Fasol, P. Zilla, “Characteristics of 308 nm excimer laser activated arterial tissue photoemission under ablative and non-ablative conditions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 557–571 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, K. Hohla, R. Horvat, K.-H. Henke, M. Buchelt, G. Wutzl, E. Wolner, “Excimer laser-induced simultaneous ablation and spectral identification of normal and atherosclerotic arterial tissue layers,” Circulation 78, 1031–1039 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malov, A. N.

P. M. Larionov, A. N. Malov, A. M. Orishich, B. C. Schukin, “Laser-induced fluorescence of human heart valve tissues affected by calcinosis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 64, 539–541 (1997; in Russian).

Mann, S.

S. Mann, “Molecular recognition in biomineralization,” Nature 332, 119–124 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Metha, A.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. Cothren, A. Metha, M. Fitzmaurice, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A model for extraction of diagnostic information from laser induced fluorescence spectra of human artery wall,” Spectrochem. Acta Part A 45, 87–93 (1989).

Morguet, A. J.

A. J. Morguet, B. Korber, H. Hippler, V. Wiegand, H. Kreuzer, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy using a XeCl excimer laser system for simultaneous plaque ablation and fluorescence excitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 238–248 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novak, K.

K. Novak, “US FDA to issue new rules of xenotransplantation,” Nature Med. 4, 876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, K. M.

F. W. Cutruzzola, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, G. R. Gindi, L. I. Laifer, T. J. Garrand, L. I. Deckelbaum, “Change in laser-induced arterial fluorescence during ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 109–116 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Orishich, A. M.

P. M. Larionov, A. N. Malov, A. M. Orishich, B. C. Schukin, “Laser-induced fluorescence of human heart valve tissues affected by calcinosis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 64, 539–541 (1997; in Russian).

Priez’zhev, A. V.

A. V. Priez’zhev, V. V. Tuchin, A. P. Shubochkin, Laser-Assisted Diagnosis in Biology and Medicine (Nauka, Moscow, 1986; in Russian).

Ratliff, N. B.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. Cothren, A. Metha, M. Fitzmaurice, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A model for extraction of diagnostic information from laser induced fluorescence spectra of human artery wall,” Spectrochem. Acta Part A 45, 87–93 (1989).

Rava, R. P.

J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, P. Taroni, C. Kittrell, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of normal and atherosclerotic human aorta using 306–310 nm exitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 245–261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. Cothren, A. Metha, M. Fitzmaurice, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A model for extraction of diagnostic information from laser induced fluorescence spectra of human artery wall,” Spectrochem. Acta Part A 45, 87–93 (1989).

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. Cothren, A. Metha, M. Fitzmaurice, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A model for extraction of diagnostic information from laser induced fluorescence spectra of human artery wall,” Spectrochem. Acta Part A 45, 87–93 (1989).

Ruatti, H.

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, B. Rueckle, M. Buchelt, C. Kuckla, H. Ruatti, P. Buxbaum, R. Fasol, P. Zilla, “Characteristics of 308 nm excimer laser activated arterial tissue photoemission under ablative and non-ablative conditions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 557–571 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rueckle, B.

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, B. Rueckle, M. Buchelt, C. Kuckla, H. Ruatti, P. Buxbaum, R. Fasol, P. Zilla, “Characteristics of 308 nm excimer laser activated arterial tissue photoemission under ablative and non-ablative conditions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 557–571 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schoen, F. J.

J. P. Gott, Pan Chih, L. M. Dorsey, J. L. Jay, G. K. Jett, F. J. Schoen, J. M. Girardot, R. A. Guyton, “Calcification of porcine valves: a successful new method of antimineralization,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 53, 207–215 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schukin, B. C.

P. M. Larionov, A. N. Malov, A. M. Orishich, B. C. Schukin, “Laser-induced fluorescence of human heart valve tissues affected by calcinosis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 64, 539–541 (1997; in Russian).

Shubochkin, A. P.

A. V. Priez’zhev, V. V. Tuchin, A. P. Shubochkin, Laser-Assisted Diagnosis in Biology and Medicine (Nauka, Moscow, 1986; in Russian).

Slobozhanina, E. I.

E. A. Chernitskii, E. I. Slobozhanina, Spectral Fluorometric Analysis in Medicine (Nauka i Tekhnika, Minsk, 1989; in Russian).

Stetz, M. L.

F. W. Cutruzzola, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, G. R. Gindi, L. I. Laifer, T. J. Garrand, L. I. Deckelbaum, “Change in laser-induced arterial fluorescence during ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 109–116 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Taroni, P.

J. J. Baraga, R. P. Rava, P. Taroni, C. Kittrell, M. Fitzmaurice, M. S. Feld, “Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of normal and atherosclerotic human aorta using 306–310 nm exitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 245–261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tuchin, V. V.

A. V. Priez’zhev, V. V. Tuchin, A. P. Shubochkin, Laser-Assisted Diagnosis in Biology and Medicine (Nauka, Moscow, 1986; in Russian).

Volotovskii, I. D.

S. V. Konev, I. D. Volotovskii, Introduction into Molecular Photobiology (Nauka i Tekhnika, Minsk, 1971; in Russian).

Wiegand, V.

A. J. Morguet, B. Korber, H. Hippler, V. Wiegand, H. Kreuzer, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy using a XeCl excimer laser system for simultaneous plaque ablation and fluorescence excitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 238–248 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wollenek, G.

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, B. Rueckle, M. Buchelt, C. Kuckla, H. Ruatti, P. Buxbaum, R. Fasol, P. Zilla, “Characteristics of 308 nm excimer laser activated arterial tissue photoemission under ablative and non-ablative conditions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 557–571 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, K. Hohla, R. Horvat, K.-H. Henke, M. Buchelt, G. Wutzl, E. Wolner, “Excimer laser-induced simultaneous ablation and spectral identification of normal and atherosclerotic arterial tissue layers,” Circulation 78, 1031–1039 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolner, E.

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, K. Hohla, R. Horvat, K.-H. Henke, M. Buchelt, G. Wutzl, E. Wolner, “Excimer laser-induced simultaneous ablation and spectral identification of normal and atherosclerotic arterial tissue layers,” Circulation 78, 1031–1039 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wutzl, G.

G. Laufer, G. Wollenek, K. Hohla, R. Horvat, K.-H. Henke, M. Buchelt, G. Wutzl, E. Wolner, “Excimer laser-induced simultaneous ablation and spectral identification of normal and atherosclerotic arterial tissue layers,” Circulation 78, 1031–1039 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zilla, P.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LIF spectra of calcified human heart tissue: dashed curve, macroscopic calcified formation; solid curve, fibrose tissue harboring imbibition-type calcinosis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LIF spectra of macroscopic calcinosis fragments dissected from human heart valves: solid curve, as dissected; dashed and dotted curves, after thermal treatment at 500 and 700 °C, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LIF spectra of normal animal tissues: solid curve, heart muscle; dotted curve, aorta; dashed curve, heart-valve wall.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Relative LIF Intensities I Exhibited by Several Tissues

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