Abstract

Chromatic-discrimination thresholds have been determined by use of a CRT color monitor that simulates aperture and object observation modes. The results were compared with earlier ones [Appl. Opt. 35, 176 (1996)] that were obtained under the same experimental observation conditions with different devices. The differences found between the results obtained with the CRT monitor and with visual colorimeters are of the order of magnitude of interobserver variability (9%). However, greater differences were found between results for CRT monitors and for illuminated samples, which could be attributed to suboptimal distribution of the samples in color space. The current results support the usefulness of CRT color monitors in new chromatic-discrimination experiments.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  6. R. S. Berns, “Color tolerance feasibility study comparing CRT-generated stimuli with an acrylic-lacquer coating,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 232–242 (1991).
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  9. E. D. Montag, R. S. Berns, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using CRT-generated stimuli,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 164–176 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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1999 (3)

E. D. Montag, R. S. Berns, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using CRT-generated stimuli,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 164–176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, A. El Moraghi, E. Hita, “Color discrimination results from a CRT device: influence of luminance,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 38–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Guan, M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences pairs,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

K. Witt, “CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 399–403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

R. S. Berns, R. J. Motta, M. E. Gorzinski, “CRT colorimetry. I. Theory and practice,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 299–314 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. García, J. Romero, A. García-Beltrán, J. R. Jiménez, “Interobserver variability of chromaticity discrimination and color representation spaces,” J. Opt. 24, 65–69 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. von Grunau, G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Rich, D. L. Alston, H. Allen, “Psychophysical verification of the accuracy of color and color-difference simulations of surface samples on a CRT display,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 45–56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. S. Berns, “Color tolerance feasibility study comparing CRT-generated stimuli with an acrylic-lacquer coating,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 232–242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Witt, “Parametric effects on surface color-difference evaluation at threshold,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 189–200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. C. Carter, E. C. Carter, “Color coding for rapid location of small symbols,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 226–234 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

K. Witt, “Three-dimensional thresholds of color-difference perceptibility in painted samples: variability of observers in four CIE color regions,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 128–134 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Cheung, B. Rigg, “Colour-difference ellipsoids for five CIE colour centres,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 185–195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

K. Witt, G. Döring, “Parametric variation in a threshold color-difference ellipsoid for green painted samples,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 153–163 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Strocka, A. Brockes, W. Paffhausen, “Influence of experimental parameters on the evaluation of color-difference ellipsoids,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 169–175 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

E. Hita, J. Romero, “Análisis de la influencia de las condiciones de observación en los procesos de discriminación en color,” Opt. Pur. Apl. 14, 11–17 (1981).

1978 (1)

A. R. Robertson, “CIE guidelines for coordinated research on colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 149–151 (1978).

1970 (1)

1966 (1)

1959 (1)

1943 (1)

1942 (1)

Allen, H.

D. C. Rich, D. L. Alston, H. Allen, “Psychophysical verification of the accuracy of color and color-difference simulations of surface samples on a CRT display,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 45–56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Alman, D. H.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alston, D. L.

D. C. Rich, D. L. Alston, H. Allen, “Psychophysical verification of the accuracy of color and color-difference simulations of surface samples on a CRT display,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 45–56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ben Aldelfadel, M. A.

A. Moraghi, M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, M. A. Ben Aldelfadel, E. Hita, “Analyse de la distribution des stimuli employé pour la determination des seuils de couleurs,” in Proceedings of the Journées Scientifiques OPTIQUE’98 (Laboratoire d’Optique et Photonique, Faculté des Sciences, Tetouan, Morroco, 1998), pp. 110–114.

Berns, R. S.

E. D. Montag, R. S. Berns, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using CRT-generated stimuli,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 164–176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, “Deriving instrumental tolerances from pass–fail and colorimetric data,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 459–452 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, R. J. Motta, M. E. Gorzinski, “CRT colorimetry. I. Theory and practice,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 299–314 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, “Color tolerance feasibility study comparing CRT-generated stimuli with an acrylic-lacquer coating,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 232–242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brockes, A.

D. Strocka, A. Brockes, W. Paffhausen, “Influence of experimental parameters on the evaluation of color-difference ellipsoids,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 169–175 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Carter, E. C.

R. C. Carter, E. C. Carter, “Color coding for rapid location of small symbols,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 226–234 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carter, R. C.

R. C. Carter, E. C. Carter, “Color coding for rapid location of small symbols,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 226–234 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, M.

M. Cheung, B. Rigg, “Colour-difference ellipsoids for five CIE colour centres,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 185–195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cui, G. H.

G. H. Cui, M. R. Luo, W. Li, “Colour-difference evaluation using CRT colours,” in Proceedings of the Colour Visual Scaling Conference (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, 2000), pp. 3/4–5/4.

Döring, G.

K. Witt, G. Döring, “Parametric variation in a threshold color-difference ellipsoid for green painted samples,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 153–163 (1983).
[CrossRef]

El Moraghi, A.

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, A. El Moraghi, E. Hita, “Color discrimination results from a CRT device: influence of luminance,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 38–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fielder, G. H.

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. von Grunau, G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

García, J. A.

J. A. García, J. Romero, A. García-Beltrán, J. R. Jiménez, “Interobserver variability of chromaticity discrimination and color representation spaces,” J. Opt. 24, 65–69 (1993).
[CrossRef]

García-Beltrán, A.

J. A. García, J. Romero, A. García-Beltrán, J. R. Jiménez, “Interobserver variability of chromaticity discrimination and color representation spaces,” J. Opt. 24, 65–69 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gorzinski, M. E.

R. S. Berns, R. J. Motta, M. E. Gorzinski, “CRT colorimetry. I. Theory and practice,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 299–314 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guan, S.

S. Guan, M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences pairs,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hita, E.

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, A. El Moraghi, E. Hita, “Color discrimination results from a CRT device: influence of luminance,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 38–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, E. Hita, “Chromaticity-discrimination thresholds with aperture and object colors: experimental results and predictions of some recent color-difference formulas,” Appl. Opt. 35, 176–187 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hita, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, R. Martínez, “Temporal aspects of color discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 578–582 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hita, J. Romero, “Análisis de la influencia de las condiciones de observación en los procesos de discriminación en color,” Opt. Pur. Apl. 14, 11–17 (1981).

A. Moraghi, M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, M. A. Ben Aldelfadel, E. Hita, “Analyse de la distribution des stimuli employé pour la determination des seuils de couleurs,” in Proceedings of the Journées Scientifiques OPTIQUE’98 (Laboratoire d’Optique et Photonique, Faculté des Sciences, Tetouan, Morroco, 1998), pp. 110–114.

Indow, T.

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. von Grunau, G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez, J. R.

J. A. García, J. Romero, A. García-Beltrán, J. R. Jiménez, “Interobserver variability of chromaticity discrimination and color representation spaces,” J. Opt. 24, 65–69 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez del Barco, L.

Li, W.

G. H. Cui, M. R. Luo, W. Li, “Colour-difference evaluation using CRT colours,” in Proceedings of the Colour Visual Scaling Conference (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, 2000), pp. 3/4–5/4.

Luo, M. R.

S. Guan, M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences pairs,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Cui, M. R. Luo, W. Li, “Colour-difference evaluation using CRT colours,” in Proceedings of the Colour Visual Scaling Conference (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, 2000), pp. 3/4–5/4.

MacAdam, D. L.

Martínez, R.

Melgosa, M.

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, A. El Moraghi, E. Hita, “Color discrimination results from a CRT device: influence of luminance,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 38–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, E. Hita, “Chromaticity-discrimination thresholds with aperture and object colors: experimental results and predictions of some recent color-difference formulas,” Appl. Opt. 35, 176–187 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Moraghi, M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, M. A. Ben Aldelfadel, E. Hita, “Analyse de la distribution des stimuli employé pour la determination des seuils de couleurs,” in Proceedings of the Journées Scientifiques OPTIQUE’98 (Laboratoire d’Optique et Photonique, Faculté des Sciences, Tetouan, Morroco, 1998), pp. 110–114.

Montag, E. D.

E. D. Montag, R. S. Berns, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using CRT-generated stimuli,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 164–176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moraghi, A.

A. Moraghi, M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, M. A. Ben Aldelfadel, E. Hita, “Analyse de la distribution des stimuli employé pour la determination des seuils de couleurs,” in Proceedings of the Journées Scientifiques OPTIQUE’98 (Laboratoire d’Optique et Photonique, Faculté des Sciences, Tetouan, Morroco, 1998), pp. 110–114.

Motta, R. J.

R. S. Berns, R. J. Motta, M. E. Gorzinski, “CRT colorimetry. I. Theory and practice,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 299–314 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Paffhausen, W.

D. Strocka, A. Brockes, W. Paffhausen, “Influence of experimental parameters on the evaluation of color-difference ellipsoids,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 169–175 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pérez, M. M.

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, A. El Moraghi, E. Hita, “Color discrimination results from a CRT device: influence of luminance,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 38–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, E. Hita, “Chromaticity-discrimination thresholds with aperture and object colors: experimental results and predictions of some recent color-difference formulas,” Appl. Opt. 35, 176–187 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Moraghi, M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, M. A. Ben Aldelfadel, E. Hita, “Analyse de la distribution des stimuli employé pour la determination des seuils de couleurs,” in Proceedings of the Journées Scientifiques OPTIQUE’98 (Laboratoire d’Optique et Photonique, Faculté des Sciences, Tetouan, Morroco, 1998), pp. 110–114.

Poza, A. J.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rich, D. C.

D. C. Rich, D. L. Alston, H. Allen, “Psychophysical verification of the accuracy of color and color-difference simulations of surface samples on a CRT display,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 45–56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rigg, B.

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Cheung, B. Rigg, “Colour-difference ellipsoids for five CIE colour centres,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 185–195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, A. R.

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. von Grunau, G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Robertson, “CIE guidelines for coordinated research on colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 149–151 (1978).

Romero, J.

J. A. García, J. Romero, A. García-Beltrán, J. R. Jiménez, “Interobserver variability of chromaticity discrimination and color representation spaces,” J. Opt. 24, 65–69 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Hita, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, R. Martínez, “Temporal aspects of color discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 578–582 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hita, J. Romero, “Análisis de la influencia de las condiciones de observación en los procesos de discriminación en color,” Opt. Pur. Apl. 14, 11–17 (1981).

Schultz, W.

W. Schultz, “Umfassender vergleich von sieben Farbabstandsformeln,” in Proceedings of the Color 69 (Muster-Schmidt, Göttingen, Sweden, 1970), pp. 621–640.

Semmelroth, C. C.

Strocka, D.

D. Strocka, A. Brockes, W. Paffhausen, “Influence of experimental parameters on the evaluation of color-difference ellipsoids,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 169–175 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Takasaki, H.

von Grunau, M.

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. von Grunau, G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Witt, K.

K. Witt, “CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 399–403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “Parametric effects on surface color-difference evaluation at threshold,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 189–200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “Three-dimensional thresholds of color-difference perceptibility in painted samples: variability of observers in four CIE color regions,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 128–134 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, G. Döring, “Parametric variation in a threshold color-difference ellipsoid for green painted samples,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 153–163 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Color Res. Appl. (18)

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, A. El Moraghi, E. Hita, “Color discrimination results from a CRT device: influence of luminance,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 38–44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Strocka, A. Brockes, W. Paffhausen, “Influence of experimental parameters on the evaluation of color-difference ellipsoids,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 169–175 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “Three-dimensional thresholds of color-difference perceptibility in painted samples: variability of observers in four CIE color regions,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 128–134 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Robertson, “CIE guidelines for coordinated research on colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 149–151 (1978).

K. Witt, “CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 399–403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, R. J. Motta, M. E. Gorzinski, “CRT colorimetry. I. Theory and practice,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 299–314 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, “Color tolerance feasibility study comparing CRT-generated stimuli with an acrylic-lacquer coating,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 232–242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. von Grunau, G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Rich, D. L. Alston, H. Allen, “Psychophysical verification of the accuracy of color and color-difference simulations of surface samples on a CRT display,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 45–56 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Montag, R. S. Berns, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using CRT-generated stimuli,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 164–176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “Parametric effects on surface color-difference evaluation at threshold,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 189–200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22, 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, “Deriving instrumental tolerances from pass–fail and colorimetric data,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 459–452 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, G. Döring, “Parametric variation in a threshold color-difference ellipsoid for green painted samples,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 153–163 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Cheung, B. Rigg, “Colour-difference ellipsoids for five CIE colour centres,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 185–195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Carter, E. C. Carter, “Color coding for rapid location of small symbols,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 226–234 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Guan, M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences pairs,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

J. A. García, J. Romero, A. García-Beltrán, J. R. Jiménez, “Interobserver variability of chromaticity discrimination and color representation spaces,” J. Opt. 24, 65–69 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

Opt. Pur. Apl. (1)

E. Hita, J. Romero, “Análisis de la influencia de las condiciones de observación en los procesos de discriminación en color,” Opt. Pur. Apl. 14, 11–17 (1981).

Other (5)

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G. H. Cui, M. R. Luo, W. Li, “Colour-difference evaluation using CRT colours,” in Proceedings of the Colour Visual Scaling Conference (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, 2000), pp. 3/4–5/4.

A. Moraghi, M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, M. A. Ben Aldelfadel, E. Hita, “Analyse de la distribution des stimuli employé pour la determination des seuils de couleurs,” in Proceedings of the Journées Scientifiques OPTIQUE’98 (Laboratoire d’Optique et Photonique, Faculté des Sciences, Tetouan, Morroco, 1998), pp. 110–114.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Filled squares, differences in orientation, semiaxis relation, and area of the threshold ellipses obtained by simulated aperture and object modes. Open circles and open triangles, interobserver variability in aperture and object modes, respectively. The results correspond to the average value of our three observers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Differences of orientation, semiaxis relation, and area of threshold ellipses obtained with aperture mode. The increments correspond to differences between the results of other authors7,10,19 and those of the current study (observer MM).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Differences of orientation, semiaxis relation, and area of threshold ellipses obtained with object mode. The increments correspond to differences between the results of other authors7,10,20-22 and those of the current study (observer MM).

Tables (8)

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Table 1 Experimental Ellipses in the CIE x, y Diagram for Our Three Observers for Aperture Mode

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Table 2 Experimental Ellipses in the CIE x, y Diagram for Our Three Observers for Object Mode

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Table 3 Interobserver Variability for the Aperture Mode in Terms of Main Parameters of the x, y Ellipses and of Coefficient V AB a

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Table 4 Interobserver Variability for the Object Mode in Terms of Main Parameters of the x, y Ellipses and of Coefficient V AB a

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Table 5 Intraobserver Variability for Observer MM in Terms of Main Parameters of the x, y Ellipses and of Coefficient V AB a

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Table 6 Ellipse Variation in Simulated Aperture and Object Modes in Terms of Coefficient VAB a (Average of the Three Observer’s Results)

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Table 7 Our Results with CRT Monitors (Simulated Aperture Mode) Compared with Other Studies in the Aperture Mode in Terms of the Coefficient VAB a

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Table 8 Our Results with CRT Monitors (Simulated Object Mode) Compared with Other Studies in Object Mode in Terms of the Coefficient VAB a

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

VAB=1ni=1nΔEA-FΔEBΔEAFΔEB1/2,
F=i=1nΔEAΔEBi=1nΔEBΔEA1/2,
ΔE=g11Δx2+2g12ΔxΔy+g22Δy21/2;

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