Abstract

The camera described here makes color TV images that include information about the distance between the camera and the objects in the images. This range information is obtained from two images of the same scene taken under different illumination conditions. The camera does not require scanning, multiple camera units, or complicated computation. Range information for each pixel is acquired fast enough to keep up with the video rate of a TV camera. We describe various operational features and technical specifications such as ranging errors as well as the results of experimental investigations of the dependence on the color and reflectivity of the objects, of the sensitivity to interference from external light, and of the effects of the movement of the objects.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Rioux, “Laser range finder based on synchronized scanners,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3837–3844 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Shirai, M. Suwa, “Recognition of polyhedrons with a range finder,” in Proceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (British Computer Society, London, 1971), pp. 80–87.
  3. G. Häusler, W. Heckel, “Light sectioning with large depth and high resolution,” Appl. Opt. 27, 5165–5169 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Azuma, K. Uomori, A. Morimura, “Real-time active range finder using light intensity modulation,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, J. Nurre, B. Corner, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 11–20 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Inokuchi, Y. Morita, Y. Sakurai, “Optical pattern processing utilizing nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2223–2227 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Carrihill, R. Hummel, “Experiments with the intensity ratio depth sensor,” Computer Vis. Graph. Image Process. (CVGIP), 32, 337–358 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Tajima, “Rainbow range finder principle for range data acquisition,” in Proceedings of International Workshop on Industrial Applications of Machine Vision and Machine Intelligence Seiken Symposium (IEEE-Industrial Electronics Society, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 1987), pp. 381–386.
  8. S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.
  9. Y. Yakimovsky, R. Cunningham, “A system for extracting three-dimensional measurements from a stereo pair of TV cameras,” Comput. Graph. Image Process 7, 195–210 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The measurement and use of registered reflectance and range data in scene analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206–220 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. A. Duguay, A. T. Mattick, “Ultrahigh speed photography of picosecond light pulses and echoes,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2162–2170 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. A. Jarvis, “A laser time-of-flight range scanner for robotic vision,” IEEE Trans. PAMI-5, 505–512 (1983).
  13. K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, Z. Zhang, T. Yagi, “Simultaneous 3-D imaging using chirped ultrashort optical pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L1348–L1351 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Scott, P. Garcia, “Use of predetection mixing of intensity modulated optical beams,” Appl. Opt. 27, 5119–5122 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Höfler, V. Jetter, E. Wagner, “3D-profiling by optical demodulation with an image intensifier,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, J. Nurre, B. Corner, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 21–27 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” [Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers (ITE), 1998], Vol. 22, pp. 19–24 (in Japanese).
  17. M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera for ranging,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 1999 Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers General Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), D-11-161, p. 161.
  18. M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Development of Axi-vision camera,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 3D Image Conference ’99 (Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), 6-1, pp. 151–156.
  19. M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. Corner, J. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (1)

K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, Z. Zhang, T. Yagi, “Simultaneous 3-D imaging using chirped ultrashort optical pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L1348–L1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

1985 (1)

B. Carrihill, R. Hummel, “Experiments with the intensity ratio depth sensor,” Computer Vis. Graph. Image Process. (CVGIP), 32, 337–358 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

R. A. Jarvis, “A laser time-of-flight range scanner for robotic vision,” IEEE Trans. PAMI-5, 505–512 (1983).

1978 (1)

Y. Yakimovsky, R. Cunningham, “A system for extracting three-dimensional measurements from a stereo pair of TV cameras,” Comput. Graph. Image Process 7, 195–210 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The measurement and use of registered reflectance and range data in scene analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206–220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

Aida, T.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” [Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers (ITE), 1998], Vol. 22, pp. 19–24 (in Japanese).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera for ranging,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 1999 Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers General Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), D-11-161, p. 161.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Development of Axi-vision camera,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 3D Image Conference ’99 (Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), 6-1, pp. 151–156.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. Corner, J. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Azuma, T.

T. Azuma, K. Uomori, A. Morimura, “Real-time active range finder using light intensity modulation,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, J. Nurre, B. Corner, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 11–20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brain, A. E.

D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The measurement and use of registered reflectance and range data in scene analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206–220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Carrihill, B.

B. Carrihill, R. Hummel, “Experiments with the intensity ratio depth sensor,” Computer Vis. Graph. Image Process. (CVGIP), 32, 337–358 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, R.

Y. Yakimovsky, R. Cunningham, “A system for extracting three-dimensional measurements from a stereo pair of TV cameras,” Comput. Graph. Image Process 7, 195–210 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Duda, R. O.

D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The measurement and use of registered reflectance and range data in scene analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206–220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

Fujikake, H.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. Corner, J. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Development of Axi-vision camera,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 3D Image Conference ’99 (Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), 6-1, pp. 151–156.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera for ranging,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 1999 Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers General Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), D-11-161, p. 161.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” [Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers (ITE), 1998], Vol. 22, pp. 19–24 (in Japanese).

Garcia, P.

Häusler, G.

Heckel, W.

Höfler, H.

H. Höfler, V. Jetter, E. Wagner, “3D-profiling by optical demodulation with an image intensifier,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, J. Nurre, B. Corner, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 21–27 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hummel, R.

B. Carrihill, R. Hummel, “Experiments with the intensity ratio depth sensor,” Computer Vis. Graph. Image Process. (CVGIP), 32, 337–358 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Iizuka, K.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” [Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers (ITE), 1998], Vol. 22, pp. 19–24 (in Japanese).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera for ranging,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 1999 Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers General Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), D-11-161, p. 161.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Development of Axi-vision camera,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 3D Image Conference ’99 (Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), 6-1, pp. 151–156.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. Corner, J. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inokuchi, S.

Jarvis, R. A.

R. A. Jarvis, “A laser time-of-flight range scanner for robotic vision,” IEEE Trans. PAMI-5, 505–512 (1983).

Jetter, V.

H. Höfler, V. Jetter, E. Wagner, “3D-profiling by optical demodulation with an image intensifier,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, J. Nurre, B. Corner, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 21–27 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kanade, T.

S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.

Kano, H.

S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.

Kawakita, M.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” [Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers (ITE), 1998], Vol. 22, pp. 19–24 (in Japanese).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera for ranging,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 1999 Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers General Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), D-11-161, p. 161.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Development of Axi-vision camera,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 3D Image Conference ’99 (Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), 6-1, pp. 151–156.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. Corner, J. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, E.

S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.

Kikuchi, H.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” [Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers (ITE), 1998], Vol. 22, pp. 19–24 (in Japanese).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Development of Axi-vision camera,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 3D Image Conference ’99 (Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), 6-1, pp. 151–156.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera for ranging,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 1999 Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers General Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), D-11-161, p. 161.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. Corner, J. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, S.

S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.

Matsumoto, H.

K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, Z. Zhang, T. Yagi, “Simultaneous 3-D imaging using chirped ultrashort optical pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L1348–L1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mattick, A. T.

Minoshima, K.

K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, Z. Zhang, T. Yagi, “Simultaneous 3-D imaging using chirped ultrashort optical pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L1348–L1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morimura, A.

T. Azuma, K. Uomori, A. Morimura, “Real-time active range finder using light intensity modulation,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, J. Nurre, B. Corner, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 11–20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morita, Y.

Nitzan, D.

D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The measurement and use of registered reflectance and range data in scene analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206–220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Oda, K.

S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.

Rioux, M.

Sakurai, Y.

Scott, M.

Shirai, Y.

Y. Shirai, M. Suwa, “Recognition of polyhedrons with a range finder,” in Proceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (British Computer Society, London, 1971), pp. 80–87.

Suwa, M.

Y. Shirai, M. Suwa, “Recognition of polyhedrons with a range finder,” in Proceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (British Computer Society, London, 1971), pp. 80–87.

Tajima, J.

J. Tajima, “Rainbow range finder principle for range data acquisition,” in Proceedings of International Workshop on Industrial Applications of Machine Vision and Machine Intelligence Seiken Symposium (IEEE-Industrial Electronics Society, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 1987), pp. 381–386.

Takizawa, K.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera for ranging,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 1999 Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers General Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), D-11-161, p. 161.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. Corner, J. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Development of Axi-vision camera,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 3D Image Conference ’99 (Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), 6-1, pp. 151–156.

Uomori, K.

T. Azuma, K. Uomori, A. Morimura, “Real-time active range finder using light intensity modulation,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, J. Nurre, B. Corner, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 11–20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, E.

H. Höfler, V. Jetter, E. Wagner, “3D-profiling by optical demodulation with an image intensifier,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, J. Nurre, B. Corner, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 21–27 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, T.

K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, Z. Zhang, T. Yagi, “Simultaneous 3-D imaging using chirped ultrashort optical pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L1348–L1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yakimovsky, Y.

Y. Yakimovsky, R. Cunningham, “A system for extracting three-dimensional measurements from a stereo pair of TV cameras,” Comput. Graph. Image Process 7, 195–210 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yonai, J.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera for ranging,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 1999 Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers General Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), D-11-161, p. 161.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Development of Axi-vision camera,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 3D Image Conference ’99 (Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), 6-1, pp. 151–156.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” [Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers (ITE), 1998], Vol. 22, pp. 19–24 (in Japanese).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. Corner, J. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, A.

S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.

Zhang, Z.

K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, Z. Zhang, T. Yagi, “Simultaneous 3-D imaging using chirped ultrashort optical pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L1348–L1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Comput. Graph. Image Process (1)

Y. Yakimovsky, R. Cunningham, “A system for extracting three-dimensional measurements from a stereo pair of TV cameras,” Comput. Graph. Image Process 7, 195–210 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Computer Vis. Graph. Image Process. (CVGIP) (1)

B. Carrihill, R. Hummel, “Experiments with the intensity ratio depth sensor,” Computer Vis. Graph. Image Process. (CVGIP), 32, 337–358 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. (1)

R. A. Jarvis, “A laser time-of-flight range scanner for robotic vision,” IEEE Trans. PAMI-5, 505–512 (1983).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, Z. Zhang, T. Yagi, “Simultaneous 3-D imaging using chirped ultrashort optical pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L1348–L1351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The measurement and use of registered reflectance and range data in scene analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206–220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

H. Höfler, V. Jetter, E. Wagner, “3D-profiling by optical demodulation with an image intensifier,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, J. Nurre, B. Corner, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 21–27 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, T. Aida, “A 3D camera system using a high-speed shutter and intensity modulated illuminator,” [Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers (ITE), 1998], Vol. 22, pp. 19–24 (in Japanese).

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera for ranging,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 1999 Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers General Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), D-11-161, p. 161.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Development of Axi-vision camera,” (in Japanese) in Proceedings of the 3D Image Conference ’99 (Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), 6-1, pp. 151–156.

M. Kawakita, K. Iizuka, T. Aida, H. Kikuchi, H. Fujikake, J. Yonai, K. Takizawa, “Axi-vision camera: a three-dimension camera,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications III, B. Corner, J. Nurre, eds., Proc. SPIE3958, 61–70 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Tajima, “Rainbow range finder principle for range data acquisition,” in Proceedings of International Workshop on Industrial Applications of Machine Vision and Machine Intelligence Seiken Symposium (IEEE-Industrial Electronics Society, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 1987), pp. 381–386.

S. Kimura, H. Kano, T. Kanade, A. Yoshida, E. Kawamura, K. Oda, “CMU video-rate stereo machine,” in Proceedings of 1995 Mobile Mapping Symposium (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Columbus, Ohio, 1995), pp. 9–18.

T. Azuma, K. Uomori, A. Morimura, “Real-time active range finder using light intensity modulation,” in Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications II, J. Nurre, B. Corner, eds., Proc. SPIE3640, 11–20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shirai, M. Suwa, “Recognition of polyhedrons with a range finder,” in Proceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (British Computer Society, London, 1971), pp. 80–87.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of acquiring distance information by use of modulated illumination and an ultrafast camera shutter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental test of the principle of operation: (a) experimental setup and images obtained when the four plastic posts were illuminated (b) by an increasing modulated light and (c) by a decreasing modulated light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illuminating light and reflected light (a) with linearly increasing illumination and (b) with linearly decreasing illumination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the Axi-Vision Camera.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Axi-Vision Camera system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sequence of the black-and-white distance images of a swinging pendulum (tennis ball). (a) When the ball is closest to the camera and (b) when the ball is farthest from the camera.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Color-coded distance image of the Axi-Vision Camera. The left-hand column shows the sequence of scenes when the doll on the swing was swung from the back to the front. The right-hand column shows the corresponding color-coded distance images. Blue represents the longest distance, and red, the shortest.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Color and distance images of the Axi-Vision Camera with the targets immersed in a fish tank: (a) color image of the objects and (b) color-coded distance image.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Axi-Key procedure system with the Axi-Vision Camera: (a) color image of the objects, (b) color-coded distance image, (c) selected image, (d) amalgamated image.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Color chart was used as a target. It is to demonstrate that regardless of the color of the strips in the color-coded distance, the image indicates the distance (same color): (a) Object. Color-coded distance images when the chart is at distances (b) d = 2.5 m, (c) 2.0 m, (d) 1.5 m.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of the Axi-Vision Camera

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I+t, 0=st,
I+ts, d=σs4πd22ts-2dv,
I-t, 0=sT2-t,
0<t<T2,
I-ts, d=σs4πd22T2-ts-2dv.
R=ts-2dvT2-ts-2dv.
d=12 vts-T2R1+R.
T2>2dmaxv.
dmax<v4f.
R=1.5-1/1.5+12=1/25

Metrics