Abstract

Système pour l’Observation de la Terre images are used to map ground displacements induced by earthquakes. Deformations (offsets) induced by stereoscopic effect and roll, pitch, and yaw of satellite and detector artifacts are estimated and compensated. Images are then resampled in a cartographic projection with a low-bias interpolator. A subpixel correlator in the Fourier domain provides two-dimensional offset maps with independent measurements approximately every 160 m. Biases on offsets are compensated from calibration. High-frequency noise (0.125 m-1) is ∼0.01 pixels. Low-frequency noise (lower than 0.001 m-1) exceeds 0.2 pixels and is partially compensated from modeling. Applied to the Landers earthquake, measurements show the fault with an accuracy of a few tens of meters and yields displacement on the fault with an accuracy of better than 20 cm. Comparison with a model derived from geodetic data shows that offsets bring new insights into the faulting process.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Michel, J. P. Avouac, J. Taboury, “Measuring ground displacements from SAR amplitude images: application to the Landers earthquake,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 875–878 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Michel, E. Rignot, “Flow of Glaciar Moreno, Argentina, from repeat-pass Shuttle Imaging Radar images: comparison of the phase correlation method with radar interferometry,” J. Glaciol. 45, 93–99 (1999).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Y. Chen, A. C. Bovik, L. K. Cormack, “Stereoscopic ranging by matching image modulations,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 785–797 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Michel, J. P. Avouac, J. Taboury, “Measuring near field ground displacements from SAR images: application to the Landers earthquake,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3017–3020 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999

R. Michel, J. P. Avouac, J. Taboury, “Measuring ground displacements from SAR amplitude images: application to the Landers earthquake,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 875–878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Michel, E. Rignot, “Flow of Glaciar Moreno, Argentina, from repeat-pass Shuttle Imaging Radar images: comparison of the phase correlation method with radar interferometry,” J. Glaciol. 45, 93–99 (1999).

T. Y. Chen, A. C. Bovik, L. K. Cormack, “Stereoscopic ranging by matching image modulations,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 785–797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Michel, J. P. Avouac, J. Taboury, “Measuring near field ground displacements from SAR images: application to the Landers earthquake,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3017–3020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Kotynski, K. Chalinska-Macukov, “Optical correlator with dual non-linearity,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 295–310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

J. P. Muller, T. Day, “Digital elevation model production by stereo-matching spot image-pairs: a comparison of algorithms,” Image Vision Comput. 7, 2 (1994).

1993

D. Massonnet, M. Rossi, C. Carmona, F. Adragna, G. Peltzer, K. Feigl, T. Rabaute, “The displacement field of the Landers earthquake mapped by radar interferometry,” Nature (London) 364, 138–142 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

R. E. Crippen, “Measuring of subresolution terrain displacements using SPOT panchromatic imagery,” Episodes 15, 56–61 (1992).

L. G. Brown, “A survey of image registration techniques,” ACM Comput. Surv. 24, 325–376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adragna, F.

D. Massonnet, M. Rossi, C. Carmona, F. Adragna, G. Peltzer, K. Feigl, T. Rabaute, “The displacement field of the Landers earthquake mapped by radar interferometry,” Nature (London) 364, 138–142 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Avouac, J. P.

R. Michel, J. P. Avouac, J. Taboury, “Measuring ground displacements from SAR amplitude images: application to the Landers earthquake,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 875–878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Michel, J. P. Avouac, J. Taboury, “Measuring near field ground displacements from SAR images: application to the Landers earthquake,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3017–3020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bock, Y.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Bovik, A. C.

T. Y. Chen, A. C. Bovik, L. K. Cormack, “Stereoscopic ranging by matching image modulations,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 785–797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. G.

L. G. Brown, “A survey of image registration techniques,” ACM Comput. Surv. 24, 325–376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carmona, C.

D. Massonnet, M. Rossi, C. Carmona, F. Adragna, G. Peltzer, K. Feigl, T. Rabaute, “The displacement field of the Landers earthquake mapped by radar interferometry,” Nature (London) 364, 138–142 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chalinska-Macukov, K.

R. Kotynski, K. Chalinska-Macukov, “Optical correlator with dual non-linearity,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 295–310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. Y.

T. Y. Chen, A. C. Bovik, L. K. Cormack, “Stereoscopic ranging by matching image modulations,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 785–797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cline, M.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Cormack, L. K.

T. Y. Chen, A. C. Bovik, L. K. Cormack, “Stereoscopic ranging by matching image modulations,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 785–797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Crippen, R. E.

R. E. Crippen, “Measuring of subresolution terrain displacements using SPOT panchromatic imagery,” Episodes 15, 56–61 (1992).

Day, T.

J. P. Muller, T. Day, “Digital elevation model production by stereo-matching spot image-pairs: a comparison of algorithms,” Image Vision Comput. 7, 2 (1994).

Eberhart-Phillips, D.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, P.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Feigl, K.

D. Massonnet, M. Rossi, C. Carmona, F. Adragna, G. Peltzer, K. Feigl, T. Rabaute, “The displacement field of the Landers earthquake mapped by radar interferometry,” Nature (London) 364, 138–142 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Freymueller, J.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Ge, X.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Gross, W. K.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Hauksson, E.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heaton, T.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hough, S.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hudnut, K.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hudnut, K. W.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Hutton, K.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, D.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Jones, L.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanamori, H.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

King, N. E.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Kotynski, R.

R. Kotynski, K. Chalinska-Macukov, “Optical correlator with dual non-linearity,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 295–310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Langbein, J.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Larsen, S. C.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Lilje, A.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindvall, S.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lisowski, M.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Massonnet, D.

D. Massonnet, M. Rossi, C. Carmona, F. Adragna, G. Peltzer, K. Feigl, T. Rabaute, “The displacement field of the Landers earthquake mapped by radar interferometry,” Nature (London) 364, 138–142 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McGill, S.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, R.

R. Michel, J. P. Avouac, J. Taboury, “Measuring ground displacements from SAR amplitude images: application to the Landers earthquake,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 875–878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Michel, E. Rignot, “Flow of Glaciar Moreno, Argentina, from repeat-pass Shuttle Imaging Radar images: comparison of the phase correlation method with radar interferometry,” J. Glaciol. 45, 93–99 (1999).

R. Michel, J. P. Avouac, J. Taboury, “Measuring near field ground displacements from SAR images: application to the Landers earthquake,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3017–3020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mori, J.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, J. P.

J. P. Muller, T. Day, “Digital elevation model production by stereo-matching spot image-pairs: a comparison of algorithms,” Image Vision Comput. 7, 2 (1994).

Peltzer, G.

D. Massonnet, M. Rossi, C. Carmona, F. Adragna, G. Peltzer, K. Feigl, T. Rabaute, “The displacement field of the Landers earthquake mapped by radar interferometry,” Nature (London) 364, 138–142 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rabaute, T.

D. Massonnet, M. Rossi, C. Carmona, F. Adragna, G. Peltzer, K. Feigl, T. Rabaute, “The displacement field of the Landers earthquake mapped by radar interferometry,” Nature (London) 364, 138–142 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rignot, E.

R. Michel, E. Rignot, “Flow of Glaciar Moreno, Argentina, from repeat-pass Shuttle Imaging Radar images: comparison of the phase correlation method with radar interferometry,” J. Glaciol. 45, 93–99 (1999).

Rossi, M.

D. Massonnet, M. Rossi, C. Carmona, F. Adragna, G. Peltzer, K. Feigl, T. Rabaute, “The displacement field of the Landers earthquake mapped by radar interferometry,” Nature (London) 364, 138–142 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, C.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Z. K.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Sieh, K.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spotila, J.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stock, J.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svarc, J.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Taboury, J.

R. Michel, J. P. Avouac, J. Taboury, “Measuring near field ground displacements from SAR images: application to the Landers earthquake,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3017–3020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Michel, J. P. Avouac, J. Taboury, “Measuring ground displacements from SAR amplitude images: application to the Landers earthquake,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 875–878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thio, H. K.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treiman, J.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wernicke, B.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zachariasen, J.

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

ACM Comput. Surv.

L. G. Brown, “A survey of image registration techniques,” ACM Comput. Surv. 24, 325–376 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am.

K. W. Hudnut, Y. Bock, M. Cline, P. Fang, Y. Feng, J. Freymueller, X. Ge, W. K. Gross, D. Jackson, M. Kim, N. E. King, J. Langbein, S. C. Larsen, M. Lisowski, Z. K. Shen, J. Svarc, J. Zhang, “Coseismic displacements of the 1992 Landers earthquake sequence,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84, 625–645 (1994).

Episodes

R. E. Crippen, “Measuring of subresolution terrain displacements using SPOT panchromatic imagery,” Episodes 15, 56–61 (1992).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

R. Michel, J. P. Avouac, J. Taboury, “Measuring ground displacements from SAR amplitude images: application to the Landers earthquake,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 875–878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Michel, J. P. Avouac, J. Taboury, “Measuring near field ground displacements from SAR images: application to the Landers earthquake,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3017–3020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process.

T. Y. Chen, A. C. Bovik, L. K. Cormack, “Stereoscopic ranging by matching image modulations,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 785–797 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Image Vision Comput.

J. P. Muller, T. Day, “Digital elevation model production by stereo-matching spot image-pairs: a comparison of algorithms,” Image Vision Comput. 7, 2 (1994).

J. Glaciol.

R. Michel, E. Rignot, “Flow of Glaciar Moreno, Argentina, from repeat-pass Shuttle Imaging Radar images: comparison of the phase correlation method with radar interferometry,” J. Glaciol. 45, 93–99 (1999).

J. Mod. Opt.

R. Kotynski, K. Chalinska-Macukov, “Optical correlator with dual non-linearity,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 295–310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

D. Massonnet, M. Rossi, C. Carmona, F. Adragna, G. Peltzer, K. Feigl, T. Rabaute, “The displacement field of the Landers earthquake mapped by radar interferometry,” Nature (London) 364, 138–142 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science

K. Sieh, L. Jones, E. Hauksson, K. Hudnut, D. Eberhart-Phillips, T. Heaton, S. Hough, K. Hutton, H. Kanamori, A. Lilje, S. Lindvall, S. McGill, J. Mori, C. Rubin, J. Spotila, J. Stock, H. K. Thio, J. Treiman, B. Wernicke, J. Zachariasen, “Near field investigations of the Landers earthquake sequence, April to July 1992,” Science 260, 171–176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

CNES, “Guide des utilisateurs de données SPOT,” Vol. 1, “Manuel de référence”; Vol. 2, “Guide de l’utilisateur”; Vol. 3, “Guide pratique” (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1996).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SPOT push-broom imagery: Lines are acquired successively as SPOT satellite moves along its orbit. Each line of 6000 pixels is acquired with 4 × 1500 CCD detectors. Resolution is ∼10 m. A mirror allows for tuning of viewing angle i. The optical center is at the center of gravity of SPOT that is submitted to roll, pitch, and yaw (R, P, and Y rotation vectors).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Offset measured from correlation of images 1 and 2; M1 M2 depends mainly on orbits, parameters of acquisition, topography, attitude (R, P, Y), detectors, and ground displacement M 1 M 2. Error Δz in the DEM yields biased estimates of M1 and M2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of along line offsets induced by the attitude of SPOT. Modeling from onboard measurements of roll, pitch, and yaw allows for partial compensation of that effect. Residual error due to aliased measurements of roll, pitch, and yaw results in low-frequency noise in offset fields.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Component along columns of offset fields derived from images 1 and 2 (Table 1). Linear discontinuities are induced by misalignment of the four CCD arrays composing the detection lines. White curves, cartography of surface break by Sieh et al.5 Black line, location of profile in (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images are resampled to be in a cartographic projection to compensate all offsets except those induced by the earthquake. No exact interpolator exists to do so, because images include aliasing. The bicubic spline interpolator leads to greater biased estimate of offset than the sinc interpolator (see text for details). Residual bias is ∼0.02 pixels and is postcompensated from calibration.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Subpixel estimate of offset from phase shift. (a) Sliding windows (N = 128) extracted from orthorectified interpolation of SPOT images 1 and 2 (Table 1). (b) Periodogram (log scale) computed from FFT. Vertical cross is an artifact of FFT that results from non-N × N periodicity of images. 12° orientated line reflects residual error in the equalization of detectors (see text). (c) Phase difference (modulo 2π) of FFT’s. Subpixel offsets results in phase ramp. Artifacts in (b) result in artifacts in phase difference. Phase noise is not a monotonic function of periodogram. (d) Binary mask derived from (b). Measurements along the black lines are not used to estimate offsets. (e) Synthetic phase shift that best fits image (c) according to L 1 norm (see text). (f) Residual phase (c)–(e). Offset is estimated from (e). Presented offset is equal (0.7, 0.8) pixels; incertitude is 0.01 pixels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Chart derived from offset fields computed from SPOT images of the Landers area including no ground displacement (see text). Noise on offset fields varies with spatial frequency mainly because of low-frequency errors in modeling influence of roll, pitch, and yaw. High-frequency noise (frequencies greater than 1/1000 m-1) is lower than 0.01 pixels; low-frequency noise may exceed 1 m.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SAR interferogram showing the near-vertical component of the ground displacement induced by the Landers earthquake.12 A fringe represents a near-vertical displacement of 2.8 cm. Near-fault measurement is not available because of signal saturation and decorrelation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Ground displacement induced by the Landers earthquake measured from images 1 and 2 (Table 1). (a) East–West and (b) North–South components. Cartography of rupture fits ground measurements to within ∼80 m (Fig. 4). Near-fault measurements allow for direct estimate of amplitude of faulting. Far-field, low-frequency measurements include noise with an amplitude of ∼1 m.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

East–West and North–South elastic modeling of ground displacement constrained by numerous geodetic measurements.6

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Profile in offsets and elastic model of Figs. 9 and 10 show good agreement. Ground displacement on the fault can be measured on offsets with an accuracy of ∼20 cm.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 SPOT Images Used to Study the Landers Earthquake

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Table 2 Amplitude of Misalignments of SPOT 2 HVR1 and HVR2 Subarray Detectorsa

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔMΔzfi/hpx pixels,
Δl=Ph/py+c sinY, Δc=fR/px+c1-cosY pixels.
binterpx, y=c,l bc, lsin πc-xπc-xsin πl-yπl-y,
exp jΘexp2πjνt,
=| mit,p* exp jΘ| m,
=sin2πΔ2NM2πΔ2NM.

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