Abstract

We have constructed tapered fiber-optic microsensors with a tip diameter of less than 10 µm to measure profiles of backscattered light in biofilms, which are thin layers of micro-organisms firmly attached to surfaces. The observed response agrees well with local effective diffusivity microelectrode measurements, with R 2 > 0.85. A strong relation between signal intensity and wavelength has been observed at 670 and 1320 nm. These sensors have the potential to replace local effective diffusivity microelectrodes for true in situ biofilm measurements.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. W. Costerton, Z. Lewandowski, D. E. Caldwell, D. R. Korber, H. M. Lappin-Scott, “Microbial biofilms,” Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 49, 711–745 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. B. Cunningham, B. M. Peyton, “Bench-scale/field-scale interpretations: an Overview,” in Applied Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, R. E. Hinchee, J. A. Kittel, H. J. Reisinger, eds. (Battelle, Dayton, Ohio, 1995), pp. 97–100.
  3. P. D. Marsh, “Dental plaque,” in Microbial Biofilms, H. M. Lappin-Scott, J. W. Costerton, eds., (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1995), pp. 282–300.
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. I. Chen, M. A. Reinsel, R. F. Mueller, “Kinetic investigation of microbial souring in porous media using microbial consortia from oil reservoirs,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 44, 263–269 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Lee, Z. Lewandowski, P. H. Nielsen, W. A. Hamilton, “Role of sulfate-reducing bacteria in corrosion of mild steel: a review,” Biofouling 8, 165–194 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. G. Gristina, “Biofilms and chronic bacterial infections,” Clin. Microbiol. News. 16, 171–178 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. P. Revsbech, “An oxygen microsensor with a guard cathode,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 474–478 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Yang, Z. Lewandowski, “Measurement of local mass transfer coefficient in biofilms,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 48, 737–744 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Beyenal, A. Tanyolaç, Z. Lewandowski, “Measurement of local effective diffusivity and cell density variations in heterogeneous biofilms,” Water Sci. Technol. 38, 171–178 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Klimant, G. Holst, M. Kuhl, “A simple fiber optic sensor to detect the penetration of microsensors in the sediments and other biogeochemical systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1638–1643 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Gao, Z. Chen, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, D. Kaplan, “Tapered fiber tips for fiber optic biosensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3465–3470 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1980).
  13. M. Yarborough, Photonics Design and Applications Handbook (Laurin, Pittsfield, Mass., 1996), pp. H287–H290.

1998 (1)

H. Beyenal, A. Tanyolaç, Z. Lewandowski, “Measurement of local effective diffusivity and cell density variations in heterogeneous biofilms,” Water Sci. Technol. 38, 171–178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

I. Klimant, G. Holst, M. Kuhl, “A simple fiber optic sensor to detect the penetration of microsensors in the sediments and other biogeochemical systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1638–1643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

H. Gao, Z. Chen, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, D. Kaplan, “Tapered fiber tips for fiber optic biosensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3465–3470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Yang, Z. Lewandowski, “Measurement of local mass transfer coefficient in biofilms,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 48, 737–744 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Costerton, Z. Lewandowski, D. E. Caldwell, D. R. Korber, H. M. Lappin-Scott, “Microbial biofilms,” Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 49, 711–745 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lee, Z. Lewandowski, P. H. Nielsen, W. A. Hamilton, “Role of sulfate-reducing bacteria in corrosion of mild steel: a review,” Biofouling 8, 165–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

A. G. Gristina, “Biofilms and chronic bacterial infections,” Clin. Microbiol. News. 16, 171–178 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Chen, M. A. Reinsel, R. F. Mueller, “Kinetic investigation of microbial souring in porous media using microbial consortia from oil reservoirs,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 44, 263–269 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

N. P. Revsbech, “An oxygen microsensor with a guard cathode,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 474–478 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Beyenal, H.

H. Beyenal, A. Tanyolaç, Z. Lewandowski, “Measurement of local effective diffusivity and cell density variations in heterogeneous biofilms,” Water Sci. Technol. 38, 171–178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1980).

Caldwell, D. E.

J. W. Costerton, Z. Lewandowski, D. E. Caldwell, D. R. Korber, H. M. Lappin-Scott, “Microbial biofilms,” Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 49, 711–745 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. I.

C. I. Chen, M. A. Reinsel, R. F. Mueller, “Kinetic investigation of microbial souring in porous media using microbial consortia from oil reservoirs,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 44, 263–269 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

H. Gao, Z. Chen, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, D. Kaplan, “Tapered fiber tips for fiber optic biosensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3465–3470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Costerton, J. W.

J. W. Costerton, Z. Lewandowski, D. E. Caldwell, D. R. Korber, H. M. Lappin-Scott, “Microbial biofilms,” Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 49, 711–745 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, A. B.

A. B. Cunningham, B. M. Peyton, “Bench-scale/field-scale interpretations: an Overview,” in Applied Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, R. E. Hinchee, J. A. Kittel, H. J. Reisinger, eds. (Battelle, Dayton, Ohio, 1995), pp. 97–100.

Gao, H.

H. Gao, Z. Chen, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, D. Kaplan, “Tapered fiber tips for fiber optic biosensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3465–3470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gristina, A. G.

A. G. Gristina, “Biofilms and chronic bacterial infections,” Clin. Microbiol. News. 16, 171–178 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, W. A.

W. Lee, Z. Lewandowski, P. H. Nielsen, W. A. Hamilton, “Role of sulfate-reducing bacteria in corrosion of mild steel: a review,” Biofouling 8, 165–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holst, G.

I. Klimant, G. Holst, M. Kuhl, “A simple fiber optic sensor to detect the penetration of microsensors in the sediments and other biogeochemical systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1638–1643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, D.

H. Gao, Z. Chen, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, D. Kaplan, “Tapered fiber tips for fiber optic biosensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3465–3470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klimant, I.

I. Klimant, G. Holst, M. Kuhl, “A simple fiber optic sensor to detect the penetration of microsensors in the sediments and other biogeochemical systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1638–1643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Korber, D. R.

J. W. Costerton, Z. Lewandowski, D. E. Caldwell, D. R. Korber, H. M. Lappin-Scott, “Microbial biofilms,” Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 49, 711–745 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhl, M.

I. Klimant, G. Holst, M. Kuhl, “A simple fiber optic sensor to detect the penetration of microsensors in the sediments and other biogeochemical systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1638–1643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

H. Gao, Z. Chen, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, D. Kaplan, “Tapered fiber tips for fiber optic biosensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3465–3470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lappin-Scott, H. M.

J. W. Costerton, Z. Lewandowski, D. E. Caldwell, D. R. Korber, H. M. Lappin-Scott, “Microbial biofilms,” Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 49, 711–745 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W.

W. Lee, Z. Lewandowski, P. H. Nielsen, W. A. Hamilton, “Role of sulfate-reducing bacteria in corrosion of mild steel: a review,” Biofouling 8, 165–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lewandowski, Z.

H. Beyenal, A. Tanyolaç, Z. Lewandowski, “Measurement of local effective diffusivity and cell density variations in heterogeneous biofilms,” Water Sci. Technol. 38, 171–178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee, Z. Lewandowski, P. H. Nielsen, W. A. Hamilton, “Role of sulfate-reducing bacteria in corrosion of mild steel: a review,” Biofouling 8, 165–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Costerton, Z. Lewandowski, D. E. Caldwell, D. R. Korber, H. M. Lappin-Scott, “Microbial biofilms,” Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 49, 711–745 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yang, Z. Lewandowski, “Measurement of local mass transfer coefficient in biofilms,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 48, 737–744 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marsh, P. D.

P. D. Marsh, “Dental plaque,” in Microbial Biofilms, H. M. Lappin-Scott, J. W. Costerton, eds., (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1995), pp. 282–300.
[CrossRef]

Mueller, R. F.

C. I. Chen, M. A. Reinsel, R. F. Mueller, “Kinetic investigation of microbial souring in porous media using microbial consortia from oil reservoirs,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 44, 263–269 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, P. H.

W. Lee, Z. Lewandowski, P. H. Nielsen, W. A. Hamilton, “Role of sulfate-reducing bacteria in corrosion of mild steel: a review,” Biofouling 8, 165–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Peyton, B. M.

A. B. Cunningham, B. M. Peyton, “Bench-scale/field-scale interpretations: an Overview,” in Applied Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, R. E. Hinchee, J. A. Kittel, H. J. Reisinger, eds. (Battelle, Dayton, Ohio, 1995), pp. 97–100.

Reinsel, M. A.

C. I. Chen, M. A. Reinsel, R. F. Mueller, “Kinetic investigation of microbial souring in porous media using microbial consortia from oil reservoirs,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 44, 263–269 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Revsbech, N. P.

N. P. Revsbech, “An oxygen microsensor with a guard cathode,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 474–478 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tanyolaç, A.

H. Beyenal, A. Tanyolaç, Z. Lewandowski, “Measurement of local effective diffusivity and cell density variations in heterogeneous biofilms,” Water Sci. Technol. 38, 171–178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S.

H. Gao, Z. Chen, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, D. Kaplan, “Tapered fiber tips for fiber optic biosensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3465–3470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1980).

Yang, S.

S. Yang, Z. Lewandowski, “Measurement of local mass transfer coefficient in biofilms,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 48, 737–744 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yarborough, M.

M. Yarborough, Photonics Design and Applications Handbook (Laurin, Pittsfield, Mass., 1996), pp. H287–H290.

Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (1)

J. W. Costerton, Z. Lewandowski, D. E. Caldwell, D. R. Korber, H. M. Lappin-Scott, “Microbial biofilms,” Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 49, 711–745 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biofouling (1)

W. Lee, Z. Lewandowski, P. H. Nielsen, W. A. Hamilton, “Role of sulfate-reducing bacteria in corrosion of mild steel: a review,” Biofouling 8, 165–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2)

S. Yang, Z. Lewandowski, “Measurement of local mass transfer coefficient in biofilms,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 48, 737–744 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Chen, M. A. Reinsel, R. F. Mueller, “Kinetic investigation of microbial souring in porous media using microbial consortia from oil reservoirs,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 44, 263–269 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Microbiol. News. (1)

A. G. Gristina, “Biofilms and chronic bacterial infections,” Clin. Microbiol. News. 16, 171–178 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

N. P. Revsbech, “An oxygen microsensor with a guard cathode,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 474–478 (1989).
[CrossRef]

I. Klimant, G. Holst, M. Kuhl, “A simple fiber optic sensor to detect the penetration of microsensors in the sediments and other biogeochemical systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1638–1643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. Gao, Z. Chen, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, D. Kaplan, “Tapered fiber tips for fiber optic biosensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3465–3470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Water Sci. Technol. (1)

H. Beyenal, A. Tanyolaç, Z. Lewandowski, “Measurement of local effective diffusivity and cell density variations in heterogeneous biofilms,” Water Sci. Technol. 38, 171–178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1980).

M. Yarborough, Photonics Design and Applications Handbook (Laurin, Pittsfield, Mass., 1996), pp. H287–H290.

A. B. Cunningham, B. M. Peyton, “Bench-scale/field-scale interpretations: an Overview,” in Applied Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, R. E. Hinchee, J. A. Kittel, H. J. Reisinger, eds. (Battelle, Dayton, Ohio, 1995), pp. 97–100.

P. D. Marsh, “Dental plaque,” in Microbial Biofilms, H. M. Lappin-Scott, J. W. Costerton, eds., (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1995), pp. 282–300.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of experimental setup: 1, open channel, flat-plate reactor; 2, mixing chamber; 3, air conduit; 4, fresh-feed conduit; 5, effluent; 6, micromanipulator; 7, fiber-optic microsensor; 8, inverted microscope; 9, biofilm cluster; 10, biofilm void; 11, data-acquisition system; 12, 50:50 coupler; 13, single-mode fiber; 14, receiver; 15, source; and 16, angled connector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscope micrograph of fiber-optic microsensor tip.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Backscattered signal from the fiber-optic microsensor (1320-nm laser source) in various liquids.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation in the percent of maximum backscattered light intensity (670- and 1320-nm lasers) and local relative effective diffusivity by depth in a heterogeneous biofilm at the same location.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Correlation between percent of maximum backscattered light intensity (at 1320 nm) and local relative effective diffusivity.

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