Abstract

The threshold fluences at which vaporization is initiated at the tip of a multimode fiber that is submerged in water were investigated when free-running and Q-switched thulium laser pulses (λ = 2.01 µm) were applied with different pulse energies. We focused on the quantification of temporal and spatial fluence modulations of the beam profile at the tip of a 400-µm fiber. The spatial and the temporal fluence peaks over the average fluence were measured to as high as 1.5 and 4 in the Q-switched mode, respectively, and 2.5 and 40 in the free-running mode, respectively. The fluence peaks significantly influence the vaporization process. An increase in the threshold fluence with increasing pulse energy was found for the Q-switched mode, but there was a decrease for the free-running mode. Pressure transients of the order of 1 kbar and temperatures higher than 200 °C were calculated for a 30-mJ Q-switched laser pulse at the onset of vaporization. Collecting all the data allowed us to trace the thermodynamic path of rapid heating and vaporization in a phase diagram of water.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. E. D. Jansen, T. H. Le, A. J. Welch, “Excimer, Ho:YAG, and Q-switched Ho:YAG ablation of aorta: a comparison of temperatures and tissue damage in vitro,” Appl. Opt. 32, 526–534 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. G. Barton, H. J. Foth, M. Christ, K. Hörmann, “Interaction of holmium laser radiation and cortical bone: ablation and thermal damage in a turpid medium,” Appl. Opt. 36, 32–43 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Haase, A. Baumbach, M. Wehrmann, S. Duda, G. Cerullo, B. Rückle, E. Steiger, K. R. Karsch, “Potential use of holmium lasers for angioplasty: evaluation of a new solid-state laser for ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 232–237 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Buchelt, B. Schlangmann, S. Schmolke, W. Siebert, “High-power Ho:YAG laser ablation of intervertebral discs: effects on ablation rates and temperature profile,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 179–183 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Brinkmann, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, M. Scheu, R. Birngruber, “Ablation dynamics in laser sclerostomy ab externo by means of pulsed lasers in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Ophthal. Surg. Lasers 28, 853–865 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. H. Cole, Underwater Explosions (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1948).
  22. G. Paltauf, M. Frenz, H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Laser-induced microbubble formation at a fiber tip in absorbing media: experiments and theory,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, G. P. Delacrétaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, T. H. Meier, eds., Proc. SPIE2624, 72–82 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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  24. S. L. Jacques, “Laser–tissue interactions. Photochemical, photothermal, and photomechanical,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 72, 531–558 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  25. H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1959).
  26. M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, F. Könz, E. D. Jansen, A. J. Welch, H. P. Weber, “Comparison of the effects of absorption coefficient and pulse duration of 2.12-µm and 2.79-µm on the ablation of tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2025–2036 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, E. Jansen, A. J. Welch, M. Frenz, “Acoustic transients in pulsed holmium laser ablation: effects of pulse duration,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacrétaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 117–129 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1999

R. Brinkmann, D. Theisen, T. Brendel, R. Birngruber, “Single-pulse 30-J holmium laser for myocardial revascularization—a study on ablation dynamics in comparison to CO2 laser–TMR,” IEEE Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 969–980 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. Brinkmann, A. Knipper, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, B. Gromoll, R. Birngruber, “Fundamental studies of fiber-guided soft tissue cutting by means of pulsed midinfrared lasers and their application in ureterotomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 85–95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Frenz, F. Könz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. G. Barton, H. J. Foth, M. Christ, K. Hörmann, “Interaction of holmium laser radiation and cortical bone: ablation and thermal damage in a turpid medium,” Appl. Opt. 36, 32–43 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Brinkmann, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, M. Scheu, R. Birngruber, “Ablation dynamics in laser sclerostomy ab externo by means of pulsed lasers in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Ophthal. Surg. Lasers 28, 853–865 (1997).

1996

C. J. Lee, G. Han, N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers II: experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 104–111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Brinkmann, C. Hansen, D. Mohrenstecher, M. Scheu, R. Birngruber, “Analysis of cavitation dynamics during pulsed laser tissue ablation by optical on-line monitoring,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 826–835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, F. Könz, E. D. Jansen, A. J. Welch, H. P. Weber, “Comparison of the effects of absorption coefficient and pulse duration of 2.12-µm and 2.79-µm on the ablation of tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2025–2036 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

E. D. Jansen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1–8 (1995).

M. Buchelt, B. Schlangmann, S. Schmolke, W. Siebert, “High-power Ho:YAG laser ablation of intervertebral discs: effects on ablation rates and temperature profile,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 179–183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

E. D. Jansen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–268 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. v. Leeuwen, E. D. Jansen, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, C. Borst, “Excimer laser ablation of soft tissue: a study of the content of rapidly expanding and collapsing bubbles,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1339–1345 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

T. G. v. Leeuwen, L. v. Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jacques, “Laser–tissue interactions. Photochemical, photothermal, and photomechanical,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 72, 531–558 (1992).
[PubMed]

1991

T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. J. v. d. Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium:YSSG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Haase, A. Baumbach, M. Wehrmann, S. Duda, G. Cerullo, B. Rückle, E. Steiger, K. R. Karsch, “Potential use of holmium lasers for angioplasty: evaluation of a new solid-state laser for ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 232–237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

I. Thormählen, J. Straub, U. Grigull, “Refractive index of water and its dependence on wavelength, temperature, and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 14, 933–945 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Asshauer, T.

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, E. Jansen, A. J. Welch, M. Frenz, “Acoustic transients in pulsed holmium laser ablation: effects of pulse duration,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacrétaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 117–129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

C. J. Lee, G. Han, N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers II: experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 104–111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barton, T. G.

Baumbach, A.

K. Haase, A. Baumbach, M. Wehrmann, S. Duda, G. Cerullo, B. Rückle, E. Steiger, K. R. Karsch, “Potential use of holmium lasers for angioplasty: evaluation of a new solid-state laser for ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 232–237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birngruber, R.

R. Brinkmann, D. Theisen, T. Brendel, R. Birngruber, “Single-pulse 30-J holmium laser for myocardial revascularization—a study on ablation dynamics in comparison to CO2 laser–TMR,” IEEE Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 969–980 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Brinkmann, A. Knipper, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, B. Gromoll, R. Birngruber, “Fundamental studies of fiber-guided soft tissue cutting by means of pulsed midinfrared lasers and their application in ureterotomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 85–95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Brinkmann, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, M. Scheu, R. Birngruber, “Ablation dynamics in laser sclerostomy ab externo by means of pulsed lasers in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Ophthal. Surg. Lasers 28, 853–865 (1997).

R. Brinkmann, C. Hansen, D. Mohrenstecher, M. Scheu, R. Birngruber, “Analysis of cavitation dynamics during pulsed laser tissue ablation by optical on-line monitoring,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 826–835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Hansen, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, “Influence of pulse width and speckle formation on the ablation threshold in water by means of pulsed mid-IR laser radiation,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction, Tissue Optics, and Laser Welding III, G. P. Delacrétaz, G. Godlewski, R. Pini, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE3195, 197–202 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borst, C.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1–8 (1995).

T. v. Leeuwen, E. D. Jansen, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, C. Borst, “Excimer laser ablation of soft tissue: a study of the content of rapidly expanding and collapsing bubbles,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1339–1345 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Jansen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–268 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. v. Leeuwen, L. v. Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. J. v. d. Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium:YSSG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brendel, T.

R. Brinkmann, D. Theisen, T. Brendel, R. Birngruber, “Single-pulse 30-J holmium laser for myocardial revascularization—a study on ablation dynamics in comparison to CO2 laser–TMR,” IEEE Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 969–980 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmann, R.

R. Brinkmann, D. Theisen, T. Brendel, R. Birngruber, “Single-pulse 30-J holmium laser for myocardial revascularization—a study on ablation dynamics in comparison to CO2 laser–TMR,” IEEE Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 969–980 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Brinkmann, A. Knipper, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, B. Gromoll, R. Birngruber, “Fundamental studies of fiber-guided soft tissue cutting by means of pulsed midinfrared lasers and their application in ureterotomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 85–95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Brinkmann, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, M. Scheu, R. Birngruber, “Ablation dynamics in laser sclerostomy ab externo by means of pulsed lasers in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Ophthal. Surg. Lasers 28, 853–865 (1997).

R. Brinkmann, C. Hansen, D. Mohrenstecher, M. Scheu, R. Birngruber, “Analysis of cavitation dynamics during pulsed laser tissue ablation by optical on-line monitoring,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 826–835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Brinkmann, C. Hansen, “The analysis of cavitation bubble dynamics by optical on-line monitoring,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction, Tissue Optics, and Laser Welding III, G. P. Delacrétaz, G. Godlewski, R. Pini, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE3195, 273–279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Hansen, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, “Influence of pulse width and speckle formation on the ablation threshold in water by means of pulsed mid-IR laser radiation,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction, Tissue Optics, and Laser Welding III, G. P. Delacrétaz, G. Godlewski, R. Pini, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE3195, 197–202 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buchelt, M.

M. Buchelt, B. Schlangmann, S. Schmolke, W. Siebert, “High-power Ho:YAG laser ablation of intervertebral discs: effects on ablation rates and temperature profile,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 179–183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carslaw, H. S.

H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1959).

Cerullo, G.

K. Haase, A. Baumbach, M. Wehrmann, S. Duda, G. Cerullo, B. Rückle, E. Steiger, K. R. Karsch, “Potential use of holmium lasers for angioplasty: evaluation of a new solid-state laser for ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 232–237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christ, M.

Cole, R. H.

R. H. Cole, Underwater Explosions (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1948).

Delacrétaz, G.

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, E. Jansen, A. J. Welch, M. Frenz, “Acoustic transients in pulsed holmium laser ablation: effects of pulse duration,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacrétaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 117–129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dröge, G.

R. Brinkmann, A. Knipper, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, B. Gromoll, R. Birngruber, “Fundamental studies of fiber-guided soft tissue cutting by means of pulsed midinfrared lasers and their application in ureterotomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 85–95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Brinkmann, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, M. Scheu, R. Birngruber, “Ablation dynamics in laser sclerostomy ab externo by means of pulsed lasers in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Ophthal. Surg. Lasers 28, 853–865 (1997).

Duda, S.

K. Haase, A. Baumbach, M. Wehrmann, S. Duda, G. Cerullo, B. Rückle, E. Steiger, K. R. Karsch, “Potential use of holmium lasers for angioplasty: evaluation of a new solid-state laser for ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 232–237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erven, L. v.

T. G. v. Leeuwen, L. v. Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Foth, H. J.

Frenz, M.

M. Frenz, F. Könz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, F. Könz, E. D. Jansen, A. J. Welch, H. P. Weber, “Comparison of the effects of absorption coefficient and pulse duration of 2.12-µm and 2.79-µm on the ablation of tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2025–2036 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Paltauf, M. Frenz, H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Laser-induced microbubble formation at a fiber tip in absorbing media: experiments and theory,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, G. P. Delacrétaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, T. H. Meier, eds., Proc. SPIE2624, 72–82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms of bubble formation induced by Ho:Tm:YAG laser in water,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, G. P. Delacrétaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, T. H. Meier, eds., Proc. SPIE2624, 67–71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, E. Jansen, A. J. Welch, M. Frenz, “Acoustic transients in pulsed holmium laser ablation: effects of pulse duration,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacrétaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 117–129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grigull, U.

I. Thormählen, J. Straub, U. Grigull, “Refractive index of water and its dependence on wavelength, temperature, and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 14, 933–945 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gromoll, B.

R. Brinkmann, A. Knipper, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, B. Gromoll, R. Birngruber, “Fundamental studies of fiber-guided soft tissue cutting by means of pulsed midinfrared lasers and their application in ureterotomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 85–95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haase, K.

K. Haase, A. Baumbach, M. Wehrmann, S. Duda, G. Cerullo, B. Rückle, E. Steiger, K. R. Karsch, “Potential use of holmium lasers for angioplasty: evaluation of a new solid-state laser for ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 232–237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, G.

C. J. Lee, G. Han, N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers II: experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 104–111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, C.

R. Brinkmann, C. Hansen, D. Mohrenstecher, M. Scheu, R. Birngruber, “Analysis of cavitation dynamics during pulsed laser tissue ablation by optical on-line monitoring,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 826–835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Brinkmann, C. Hansen, “The analysis of cavitation bubble dynamics by optical on-line monitoring,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction, Tissue Optics, and Laser Welding III, G. P. Delacrétaz, G. Godlewski, R. Pini, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE3195, 273–279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Hansen, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, “Influence of pulse width and speckle formation on the ablation threshold in water by means of pulsed mid-IR laser radiation,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction, Tissue Optics, and Laser Welding III, G. P. Delacrétaz, G. Godlewski, R. Pini, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE3195, 197–202 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hörmann, K.

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Laser–tissue interactions. Photochemical, photothermal, and photomechanical,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 72, 531–558 (1992).
[PubMed]

Jaeger, J. C.

H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1959).

Jansen, E.

T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, E. Jansen, A. J. Welch, M. Frenz, “Acoustic transients in pulsed holmium laser ablation: effects of pulse duration,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacrétaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 117–129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, E. D.

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, F. Könz, E. D. Jansen, A. J. Welch, H. P. Weber, “Comparison of the effects of absorption coefficient and pulse duration of 2.12-µm and 2.79-µm on the ablation of tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2025–2036 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1–8 (1995).

T. v. Leeuwen, E. D. Jansen, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, C. Borst, “Excimer laser ablation of soft tissue: a study of the content of rapidly expanding and collapsing bubbles,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1339–1345 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Jansen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–268 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, T. H. Le, A. J. Welch, “Excimer, Ho:YAG, and Q-switched Ho:YAG ablation of aorta: a comparison of temperatures and tissue damage in vitro,” Appl. Opt. 32, 526–534 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karsch, K. R.

K. Haase, A. Baumbach, M. Wehrmann, S. Duda, G. Cerullo, B. Rückle, E. Steiger, K. R. Karsch, “Potential use of holmium lasers for angioplasty: evaluation of a new solid-state laser for ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 232–237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knipper, A.

R. Brinkmann, A. Knipper, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, B. Gromoll, R. Birngruber, “Fundamental studies of fiber-guided soft tissue cutting by means of pulsed midinfrared lasers and their application in ureterotomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 85–95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konov, V. I.

M. Frenz, F. Könz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms of bubble formation induced by Ho:Tm:YAG laser in water,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, G. P. Delacrétaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, T. H. Meier, eds., Proc. SPIE2624, 67–71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Könz, F.

M. Frenz, F. Könz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, F. Könz, E. D. Jansen, A. J. Welch, H. P. Weber, “Comparison of the effects of absorption coefficient and pulse duration of 2.12-µm and 2.79-µm on the ablation of tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2025–2036 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms of bubble formation induced by Ho:Tm:YAG laser in water,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, G. P. Delacrétaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, T. H. Meier, eds., Proc. SPIE2624, 67–71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Le, T. H.

Lee, C. J.

C. J. Lee, G. Han, N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers II: experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 104–111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leeuwen, T. G. v.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1–8 (1995).

E. D. Jansen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–268 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. v. Leeuwen, L. v. Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. J. v. d. Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium:YSSG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leeuwen, T. v.

T. v. Leeuwen, E. D. Jansen, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, C. Borst, “Excimer laser ablation of soft tissue: a study of the content of rapidly expanding and collapsing bubbles,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1339–1345 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lutzke, D.

D. Lutzke, Lichtwellenleitertechnik (Pflaum Verlag, München, Germany, 1986).

Meertens, J. H.

T. G. v. Leeuwen, L. v. Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mohrenstecher, D.

R. Brinkmann, C. Hansen, D. Mohrenstecher, M. Scheu, R. Birngruber, “Analysis of cavitation dynamics during pulsed laser tissue ablation by optical on-line monitoring,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 826–835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, M.

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1–8 (1995).

E. D. Jansen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–268 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. v. Leeuwen, E. D. Jansen, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, C. Borst, “Excimer laser ablation of soft tissue: a study of the content of rapidly expanding and collapsing bubbles,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1339–1345 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. G. v. Leeuwen, L. v. Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paltauf, G.

G. Paltauf, M. Frenz, H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Laser-induced microbubble formation at a fiber tip in absorbing media: experiments and theory,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, G. P. Delacrétaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, T. H. Meier, eds., Proc. SPIE2624, 72–82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Post, M. J.

T. G. v. Leeuwen, L. v. Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pratisto, H.

M. Frenz, F. Könz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, F. Könz, E. D. Jansen, A. J. Welch, H. P. Weber, “Comparison of the effects of absorption coefficient and pulse duration of 2.12-µm and 2.79-µm on the ablation of tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2025–2036 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms of bubble formation induced by Ho:Tm:YAG laser in water,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, G. P. Delacrétaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, T. H. Meier, eds., Proc. SPIE2624, 67–71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rückle, B.

K. Haase, A. Baumbach, M. Wehrmann, S. Duda, G. Cerullo, B. Rückle, E. Steiger, K. R. Karsch, “Potential use of holmium lasers for angioplasty: evaluation of a new solid-state laser for ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 232–237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheu, M.

R. Brinkmann, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, M. Scheu, R. Birngruber, “Ablation dynamics in laser sclerostomy ab externo by means of pulsed lasers in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Ophthal. Surg. Lasers 28, 853–865 (1997).

R. Brinkmann, C. Hansen, D. Mohrenstecher, M. Scheu, R. Birngruber, “Analysis of cavitation dynamics during pulsed laser tissue ablation by optical on-line monitoring,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 826–835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schlangmann, B.

M. Buchelt, B. Schlangmann, S. Schmolke, W. Siebert, “High-power Ho:YAG laser ablation of intervertebral discs: effects on ablation rates and temperature profile,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 179–183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Kloiber, H.

G. Paltauf, M. Frenz, H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Laser-induced microbubble formation at a fiber tip in absorbing media: experiments and theory,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, G. P. Delacrétaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, T. H. Meier, eds., Proc. SPIE2624, 72–82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schmolke, S.

M. Buchelt, B. Schlangmann, S. Schmolke, W. Siebert, “High-power Ho:YAG laser ablation of intervertebral discs: effects on ablation rates and temperature profile,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 179–183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schröer, F.

R. Brinkmann, A. Knipper, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, B. Gromoll, R. Birngruber, “Fundamental studies of fiber-guided soft tissue cutting by means of pulsed midinfrared lasers and their application in ureterotomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 85–95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Brinkmann, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, M. Scheu, R. Birngruber, “Ablation dynamics in laser sclerostomy ab externo by means of pulsed lasers in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Ophthal. Surg. Lasers 28, 853–865 (1997).

Siebert, W.

M. Buchelt, B. Schlangmann, S. Schmolke, W. Siebert, “High-power Ho:YAG laser ablation of intervertebral discs: effects on ablation rates and temperature profile,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 179–183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Silenok, A. S.

M. Frenz, F. Könz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms of bubble formation induced by Ho:Tm:YAG laser in water,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, G. P. Delacrétaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, T. H. Meier, eds., Proc. SPIE2624, 67–71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steiger, E.

K. Haase, A. Baumbach, M. Wehrmann, S. Duda, G. Cerullo, B. Rückle, E. Steiger, K. R. Karsch, “Potential use of holmium lasers for angioplasty: evaluation of a new solid-state laser for ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 232–237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Straub, J.

I. Thormählen, J. Straub, U. Grigull, “Refractive index of water and its dependence on wavelength, temperature, and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 14, 933–945 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Theisen, D.

R. Brinkmann, D. Theisen, T. Brendel, R. Birngruber, “Single-pulse 30-J holmium laser for myocardial revascularization—a study on ablation dynamics in comparison to CO2 laser–TMR,” IEEE Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 969–980 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thormählen, I.

I. Thormählen, J. Straub, U. Grigull, “Refractive index of water and its dependence on wavelength, temperature, and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 14, 933–945 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Veen, M. J. v. d.

T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. J. v. d. Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium:YSSG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Verdaasdonk, R. M.

T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. J. v. d. Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium:YSSG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

M. Frenz, F. Könz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, F. Könz, E. D. Jansen, A. J. Welch, H. P. Weber, “Comparison of the effects of absorption coefficient and pulse duration of 2.12-µm and 2.79-µm on the ablation of tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2025–2036 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms of bubble formation induced by Ho:Tm:YAG laser in water,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, G. P. Delacrétaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, T. H. Meier, eds., Proc. SPIE2624, 67–71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wehrmann, M.

K. Haase, A. Baumbach, M. Wehrmann, S. Duda, G. Cerullo, B. Rückle, E. Steiger, K. R. Karsch, “Potential use of holmium lasers for angioplasty: evaluation of a new solid-state laser for ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 232–237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, F. Könz, E. D. Jansen, A. J. Welch, H. P. Weber, “Comparison of the effects of absorption coefficient and pulse duration of 2.12-µm and 2.79-µm on the ablation of tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2025–2036 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Jansen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1–8 (1995).

E. D. Jansen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–268 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. v. Leeuwen, E. D. Jansen, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, C. Borst, “Excimer laser ablation of soft tissue: a study of the content of rapidly expanding and collapsing bubbles,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1339–1345 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Jansen, T. H. Le, A. J. Welch, “Excimer, Ho:YAG, and Q-switched Ho:YAG ablation of aorta: a comparison of temperatures and tissue damage in vitro,” Appl. Opt. 32, 526–534 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, E. Jansen, A. J. Welch, M. Frenz, “Acoustic transients in pulsed holmium laser ablation: effects of pulse duration,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacrétaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 117–129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. J. Lee, G. Han, N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers II: experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 104–111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. v. Leeuwen, E. D. Jansen, M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, C. Borst, “Excimer laser ablation of soft tissue: a study of the content of rapidly expanding and collapsing bubbles,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1339–1345 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, F. Könz, E. D. Jansen, A. J. Welch, H. P. Weber, “Comparison of the effects of absorption coefficient and pulse duration of 2.12-µm and 2.79-µm on the ablation of tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2025–2036 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. Brinkmann, C. Hansen, D. Mohrenstecher, M. Scheu, R. Birngruber, “Analysis of cavitation dynamics during pulsed laser tissue ablation by optical on-line monitoring,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 826–835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Select. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. Brinkmann, D. Theisen, T. Brendel, R. Birngruber, “Single-pulse 30-J holmium laser for myocardial revascularization—a study on ablation dynamics in comparison to CO2 laser–TMR,” IEEE Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 969–980 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.

T. G. v. Leeuwen, L. v. Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1–8 (1995).

M. Frenz, F. Könz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms and dynamics of bubble formation induced by a Ho:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5905–5912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

R. Brinkmann, A. Knipper, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, B. Gromoll, R. Birngruber, “Fundamental studies of fiber-guided soft tissue cutting by means of pulsed midinfrared lasers and their application in ureterotomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 85–95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data

I. Thormählen, J. Straub, U. Grigull, “Refractive index of water and its dependence on wavelength, temperature, and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 14, 933–945 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–268 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. v. Leeuwen, M. J. v. d. Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium:YSSG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Haase, A. Baumbach, M. Wehrmann, S. Duda, G. Cerullo, B. Rückle, E. Steiger, K. R. Karsch, “Potential use of holmium lasers for angioplasty: evaluation of a new solid-state laser for ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 232–237 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Buchelt, B. Schlangmann, S. Schmolke, W. Siebert, “High-power Ho:YAG laser ablation of intervertebral discs: effects on ablation rates and temperature profile,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 179–183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthal. Surg. Lasers

R. Brinkmann, G. Dröge, F. Schröer, M. Scheu, R. Birngruber, “Ablation dynamics in laser sclerostomy ab externo by means of pulsed lasers in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Ophthal. Surg. Lasers 28, 853–865 (1997).

Surg. Clin. North Am.

S. L. Jacques, “Laser–tissue interactions. Photochemical, photothermal, and photomechanical,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 72, 531–558 (1992).
[PubMed]

Other

H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1959).

T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, E. Jansen, A. J. Welch, M. Frenz, “Acoustic transients in pulsed holmium laser ablation: effects of pulse duration,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacrétaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 117–129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Cole, Underwater Explosions (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1948).

G. Paltauf, M. Frenz, H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Laser-induced microbubble formation at a fiber tip in absorbing media: experiments and theory,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, G. P. Delacrétaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, T. H. Meier, eds., Proc. SPIE2624, 72–82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Lutzke, Lichtwellenleitertechnik (Pflaum Verlag, München, Germany, 1986).

R. Brinkmann, C. Hansen, “The analysis of cavitation bubble dynamics by optical on-line monitoring,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction, Tissue Optics, and Laser Welding III, G. P. Delacrétaz, G. Godlewski, R. Pini, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE3195, 273–279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Hansen, R. Brinkmann, R. Birngruber, “Influence of pulse width and speckle formation on the ablation threshold in water by means of pulsed mid-IR laser radiation,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction, Tissue Optics, and Laser Welding III, G. P. Delacrétaz, G. Godlewski, R. Pini, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE3195, 197–202 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, A. S. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Starting mechanisms of bubble formation induced by Ho:Tm:YAG laser in water,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, G. P. Delacrétaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, T. H. Meier, eds., Proc. SPIE2624, 67–71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for investigating the vaporization of water by pulsed thulium laser radiation. See text for details.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the measurement of the fluence modulation at the fiber tip by use of either an IR camera to obtain the spatial modulation or a fast IR diode to monitor the temporal modulation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial interference pattern at the distal fiber when a 100-mJ free-running thulium laser pulse is applied. The cursor profiles on the right-hand side represent a section across the fiber-tip area.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pulse shapes of (a) a 20-mJ Q-switched and (b) a 60-mJ free-running thulium laser pulse. The pulse shapes were measured simultaneously at the resonator and at the fiber tip. The gray regions denote the time at which the most significant deviations from the pulse shape at the resonator occur.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Initial cavitation bubbles surrounded by thermal schlieren. The laser was used in the free-running mode with E p = 50 mJ. The photograph was taken 20 µs after the beginning of the laser pulse.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Laser-pulse shape and reflected probe-light power from the distal fiber tip. The moderate slope of the reflected probe light monitors the heating of the water in front of the fiber tip. At the onset of bubble formation a steep increase in the slope of the time of onset of vaporization is observed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Free-running mode: The mean vaporization fluence and the time of onset of bubble formation are plotted versus the laser-pulse energy. The vertical error bars represent the standard deviation; the horizontal error bars are estimated errors with respect to the energy measurement.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Q-switched mode: The mean vaporization fluence and the time of onset of bubble formation represented by single corresponding measurements.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated pressure at a distance of 50 µm from the origin of the bubble and the calculated temperature at bubble formation plotted as functions of the mean threshold fluence, Hmean* = f sp H mean. The plots correspond to the data shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Sketch of a possible fluence modulation at the fiber tip and its consequences for the onset of bubble formation. The right-hand side shows a part of a free-running laser-pulse shape.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Phase diagram of water: The thermodynamic path that is sketched shows the heating of water in front of a 400-µm fiber with a Q-switched, 20-mJ thulium laser pulse. A mean vaporization fluence of Hmean* = 210 mJ/mm2 was calculated; this value yields a temperature of 185 °C at the onset of bubble formation. The internal energy delivered at that time can be calculated and was found to be 773 J/g.

Equations (14)

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ΔT=μaTρc ItΔt,
μaT=A+BT
Tt0=1BA+BTsexpBρc Ht0-A,
Pr=Pddr.
N=12πdλ2 Na2,
Δl=nl1cos β-1
Hjτp=1Aj0τp Pjtdt.
Honset =maxHjτonset =max1Ai0τonset Pjtdt.
fsp=maxHjτpmeanHτp=Afiber maxHjτpEp.
Hth*=fspHth=fspEp/Afiber.
Hmean*=fspHmean=fsp1Afiber0tonset Prestdt.
τa=d/c.
τRd24κ.
ft=AfiberH100Espike=H100Hmeanτonset.

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