Abstract

Segmented mirrors will be used in the telescopes of the Pierre Auger Fluorescence detector. To align the segments, we have developed four methods in which (a) the image of the stop border, (b) the image of a screen with concentric circles, and (c) the Ronchi pattern are used. In addition to these, we have developed a new method, (d), in which instead of the Ronchi ruling, we have used a circular grid. In this case we obtain a moiré pattern for each segment by means of which the experimental setup is simplified, and the sensitivity of the alignment is improved.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.
  2. A. Cordero, E. Cantoral, J. Castro, A. Fernandez, R. Pastrana, “Proposal for the optical system of the fluorescence detector of the Auger project,” in International Report Auger Collaboration ( http://www.auger.org/admin-cgi-bin/woda/gap_notes.pl/search?&firts=50 ).
  3. D. Malacara, “Instrumentos opticos,” in Optica Básica, 1st ed. (Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, D.F., 1989), Chap. 6, pp. 164–165.
  4. D. Malacara, Z. Malacara, “Astronomical telescopes,” in Handbook of Lens Design (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994). Chap. 15, pp. 468–471.
  5. W. J. Smith, “The design of optical systems: particular,” in Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990). Chap. 13, pp. 436–438.
  6. R. N. Wilson, “Modern telescope developments: pupil segmentation and techniques to reduce mass,” in Reflecting Telescope Optics II (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 1999). Chap. 3.
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Cordero-Dávila, J. M. Nuñez-Alfonso, J. Castro Ramos, “Optical alignment of segment mirrors to the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO),” in International Report Auger Collaboration ( http://www.auger.org/admincgibin/woda/gap_notes.pl/search?&firts=250 ).
  8. A. Cordero-Dávila, J. M. Nuñez-Alfonso, J. Castro Ramos, “Optical alignment of segment mirrors to the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO),” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999). Vol. 5, pp. 437–440.
  9. K. Creath, J. C. Wyant, “Moiré and fringe projection techniques,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 16.
  10. A. Cornejo-Rodríguez, “Ronchi test,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 9.
  11. A. Cordero-Dávila, E. Luna-Aguilar, S. Vazquez-Montiel, S. Zárate-Vazquez, M. E. Percino-Zacarias, “Ronchi test with a square grid,” Appl. Opt. 37, 672–675 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998

Bluemer, H.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Bocci, V.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Castro, J.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Castro Ramos, J.

A. Cordero-Dávila, J. M. Nuñez-Alfonso, J. Castro Ramos, “Optical alignment of segment mirrors to the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO),” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999). Vol. 5, pp. 437–440.

Cester, R.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Cordero, A.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Cordero-Dávila, A.

A. Cordero-Dávila, E. Luna-Aguilar, S. Vazquez-Montiel, S. Zárate-Vazquez, M. E. Percino-Zacarias, “Ronchi test with a square grid,” Appl. Opt. 37, 672–675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Cordero-Dávila, J. M. Nuñez-Alfonso, J. Castro Ramos, “Optical alignment of segment mirrors to the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO),” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999). Vol. 5, pp. 437–440.

Cornejo-Rodríguez, A.

A. Cornejo-Rodríguez, “Ronchi test,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 9.

Creath, K.

K. Creath, J. C. Wyant, “Moiré and fringe projection techniques,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 16.

Facal, P.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Fick, B. E.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Fonte, R.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Klages, H. O.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Kleifges, M.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Kleinfeller, J.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Luna-Aguilar, E.

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, Z. Malacara, “Astronomical telescopes,” in Handbook of Lens Design (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994). Chap. 15, pp. 468–471.

D. Malacara, “Instrumentos opticos,” in Optica Básica, 1st ed. (Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, D.F., 1989), Chap. 6, pp. 164–165.

Malacara, Z.

D. Malacara, Z. Malacara, “Astronomical telescopes,” in Handbook of Lens Design (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994). Chap. 15, pp. 468–471.

Matthiae, G.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Menichetti, E.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Nogima, H.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Nunez, J. M.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Nuñez-Alfonso, J. M.

A. Cordero-Dávila, J. M. Nuñez-Alfonso, J. Castro Ramos, “Optical alignment of segment mirrors to the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO),” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999). Vol. 5, pp. 437–440.

Pastrone, N.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Percino-Zacarias, M. E.

Privietera, P.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, “The design of optical systems: particular,” in Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990). Chap. 13, pp. 436–438.

Sommers, P.

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

Vazquez-Montiel, S.

Wilson, R. N.

R. N. Wilson, “Modern telescope developments: pupil segmentation and techniques to reduce mass,” in Reflecting Telescope Optics II (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 1999). Chap. 3.
[CrossRef]

Wyant, J. C.

K. Creath, J. C. Wyant, “Moiré and fringe projection techniques,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 16.

Zárate-Vazquez, S.

Appl. Opt.

Other

H. Bluemer, V. Bocci, J. Castro, R. Cester, A. Cordero, P. Facal, B. E. Fick, R. Fonte, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, G. Matthiae, E. Menichetti, H. Nogima, J. M. Nunez, N. Pastrone, P. Privietera, P. Sommersthe Pierre Auger Collaboration, “The Auger fluorescence detector prototype telescope,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999), Vol. 5, pp. 345–348.

A. Cordero, E. Cantoral, J. Castro, A. Fernandez, R. Pastrana, “Proposal for the optical system of the fluorescence detector of the Auger project,” in International Report Auger Collaboration ( http://www.auger.org/admin-cgi-bin/woda/gap_notes.pl/search?&firts=50 ).

D. Malacara, “Instrumentos opticos,” in Optica Básica, 1st ed. (Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, D.F., 1989), Chap. 6, pp. 164–165.

D. Malacara, Z. Malacara, “Astronomical telescopes,” in Handbook of Lens Design (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994). Chap. 15, pp. 468–471.

W. J. Smith, “The design of optical systems: particular,” in Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990). Chap. 13, pp. 436–438.

R. N. Wilson, “Modern telescope developments: pupil segmentation and techniques to reduce mass,” in Reflecting Telescope Optics II (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 1999). Chap. 3.
[CrossRef]

A. Cordero-Dávila, J. M. Nuñez-Alfonso, J. Castro Ramos, “Optical alignment of segment mirrors to the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO),” in International Report Auger Collaboration ( http://www.auger.org/admincgibin/woda/gap_notes.pl/search?&firts=250 ).

A. Cordero-Dávila, J. M. Nuñez-Alfonso, J. Castro Ramos, “Optical alignment of segment mirrors to the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO),” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC) (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1999). Vol. 5, pp. 437–440.

K. Creath, J. C. Wyant, “Moiré and fringe projection techniques,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 16.

A. Cornejo-Rodríguez, “Ronchi test,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 9.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of Auger telescope design.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Real prototype.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Alignment by means of the image of the stop border: (a) misaligned segments and (b) aligned segments.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Alignment by means of the image of a screen with concentric circles: (a) misaligned segments and (b) aligned segments.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Alignment by means of the Ronchi pattern: (a) misaligned segments and (b) aligned segments.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Pattern with circular symmetry and (b) pattern with displacement (20λ) between gratings.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Pattern with displacement (λ/4) between gratings.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Alignment by means of a circular grid: (a) misaligned segments and (b) aligned segments.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Alignment by means of a circular grid. Only one misaligned segment.

Equations (1)

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Δα=λ/4R,

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