Abstract

A new type of thin-film polarizing beam splitter (PBS) is proposed that is based on the effects of light interference and frustrated total internal reflection. This PBS has a significantly better performance than conventional thin-film PBS’s. It is nonabsorbing, broadband, and wide angle and has high extinction ratios in both the transmitted and the reflected beams. The principles and theory of this PBS are described in detail. Several PBS’s designed for the visible and the infrared spectral regions are described. The measured results for a prototype visible PBS of this type are presented as well.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Bennett, “Polarizers,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. II, pp. 3.1–3.70.
  2. J. M. Bennett, “Polarization,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. I, pp. 5.1–5.30.
  3. L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “New developments in thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 158–160.
  4. L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Thin film polarizing device,” U.S. patent5,912,762 (15June1999).
  5. H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (McGraw Hill, New York, 1986).
  6. A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coatings (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988).
  7. J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical properties of films and coatings,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 1, pp. 42.1–42.130.
  8. S. M. MacNeille, “Beam splitter,” U.S. patent2,403,731 (6July1946).
  9. M. Banning, “Practical methods of making and using multilayer filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 792–297 (1947).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. W. Buchman, S. J. Holmes, F. J. Woodberry, “Single-wavelength thin-film polarizers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1604–1606 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Kermisch, “Analytic solution for single-wavelength thin-film polarizers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, A1010–A1010 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Bergstein, “Novel thin-film polarizer for the visible and infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, A665–A665 (1971).
  13. D. Lees, P. Baumeister, “Versatile frustrated-total-reflection polarizer for the infrared,” Opt. Lett. 4, 66–67 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. J. Ouderkirk, J. O. Benson, J. S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, M. F. Weber, D. L. Wortman, C. A. Stover, “Reflective polarizer display,” U.S. patent5,828,488 (27October1998).
  15. R.-C. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H.-P. Chou, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P.-C. Sun, F. Xu, Y. Fainman, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of form-birefringent multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1627–1636 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. Hodgkinson, Q.-H. Wu, “Birefringent thin-film polarizers for use at normal incidence and with planar technologies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1794–1796 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Mouchart, J. Begel, E. Duda, “Modified MacNeille cube polarizers for a wide angular field,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2847–2853 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Visible broad-band, wide-angle thin film multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2221–2225 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. W. Baumeister, “Rudiments of the design of an immersed polarizing beam divider with a narrow spectral bandwidth and enhanced angular acceptance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3610–3613 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. F. Turner, “Some current developments in multilayer optical filters,” J. Phys. Radium 11, 440–460 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. W. Baumeister, “Optical tunneling and its applications in optical filters,” Appl. Opt. 6, 897–905 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. L. I. Epstein, “The design of optical filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 806–810 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. C. Ohmer, “Design of three-layer equivalent films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 137–139 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Thelen, “Equivalent layers in multilayer filters,” Phys. Thin Films 5, 47–86 (1969).
  25. Z. Knittl, H. Houserkova, “Equivalent layers in oblique incidence: the problem of unsplit admittances and depolarization of partial reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2055–2068 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. K. Rabinovitch, D. Ziv, “Herpin equivalent layer at non-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 24, 312–313 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. Lafait, T. Yamaguchi, J. M. Frigerio, A. Bichri, K. Driss-Khodja, “Effective medium equivalent to a symmetric multilayer at oblique incidence,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2460–2465 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Implementation of a numerical needle method for thin-film design,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5484–5492 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. A. Dobrowolski, R. A. Kemp, “Refinement of optical multilayer systems with different optimization procedures,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2876–2893 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Computation speeds of different optical thin film synthesis methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3790–3799 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S. A. Furman, A. V. Tikhonravov, Optics of Multilayer Systems (Editions Frontières, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 1992).
  32. L. Li, B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “High efficiency projection displays having thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” U.S. patent5,962,541 (9November1999).
  33. L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, G. Marshall, Z. Pang, “High efficiency projection displays with novel thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 29, 687–689 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, Z. Pang, “Novel thin film polarizing beam-splitter and its application in high efficiency projection displays,” in Conference on Projection Displays V, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3634, 52–62 (1999).
  35. A. F. Turner, P. W. Baumeister, “Multilayer mirrors with high reflectance over an extended spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 5, 69–76 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. O. S. Heavens, H. M. Liddell, “Staggered broad-band reflecting multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 5, 373–376 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Angular dependence of polarizing beam-splitter cubes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1916–1929 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  38. V. P. Sobol, R. A. Petrenko, A. S. Dimitreev, “Interference polarizer employing optical contact,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 53, 692–695 (1986).

1999 (1)

I. Hodgkinson, Q.-H. Wu, “Birefringent thin-film polarizers for use at normal incidence and with planar technologies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1794–1796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, G. Marshall, Z. Pang, “High efficiency projection displays with novel thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 29, 687–689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1990 (2)

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

V. P. Sobol, R. A. Petrenko, A. S. Dimitreev, “Interference polarizer employing optical contact,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 53, 692–695 (1986).

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

1972 (1)

D. Kermisch, “Analytic solution for single-wavelength thin-film polarizers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, A1010–A1010 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

L. Bergstein, “Novel thin-film polarizer for the visible and infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, A665–A665 (1971).

W. W. Buchman, S. J. Holmes, F. J. Woodberry, “Single-wavelength thin-film polarizers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1604–1606 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

A. Thelen, “Equivalent layers in multilayer filters,” Phys. Thin Films 5, 47–86 (1969).

1967 (1)

1966 (2)

1952 (1)

1950 (1)

A. F. Turner, “Some current developments in multilayer optical filters,” J. Phys. Radium 11, 440–460 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

Banning, M.

Baumeister, P.

Baumeister, P. W.

Begel, J.

Bennett, J. M.

J. M. Bennett, “Polarization,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. I, pp. 5.1–5.30.

J. M. Bennett, “Polarizers,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. II, pp. 3.1–3.70.

Benson, J. O.

A. J. Ouderkirk, J. O. Benson, J. S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, M. F. Weber, D. L. Wortman, C. A. Stover, “Reflective polarizer display,” U.S. patent5,828,488 (27October1998).

Bergstein, L.

L. Bergstein, “Novel thin-film polarizer for the visible and infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, A665–A665 (1971).

Bichri, A.

Buchman, W. W.

Cheng, C.-C.

Chipman, R. A.

Chou, H.-P.

Cobb, J. S.

A. J. Ouderkirk, J. O. Benson, J. S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, M. F. Weber, D. L. Wortman, C. A. Stover, “Reflective polarizer display,” U.S. patent5,828,488 (27October1998).

Dimitreev, A. S.

V. P. Sobol, R. A. Petrenko, A. S. Dimitreev, “Interference polarizer employing optical contact,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 53, 692–695 (1986).

Dobrowolski, J. A.

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, G. Marshall, Z. Pang, “High efficiency projection displays with novel thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 29, 687–689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Visible broad-band, wide-angle thin film multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2221–2225 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Implementation of a numerical needle method for thin-film design,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5484–5492 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Computation speeds of different optical thin film synthesis methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3790–3799 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, R. A. Kemp, “Refinement of optical multilayer systems with different optimization procedures,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2876–2893 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Thin film polarizing device,” U.S. patent5,912,762 (15June1999).

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical properties of films and coatings,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 1, pp. 42.1–42.130.

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “New developments in thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 158–160.

L. Li, B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “High efficiency projection displays having thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” U.S. patent5,962,541 (9November1999).

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, Z. Pang, “Novel thin film polarizing beam-splitter and its application in high efficiency projection displays,” in Conference on Projection Displays V, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3634, 52–62 (1999).

Driss-Khodja, K.

Duda, E.

Epstein, L. I.

Fainman, Y.

Frigerio, J. M.

Furman, S. A.

S. A. Furman, A. V. Tikhonravov, Optics of Multilayer Systems (Editions Frontières, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 1992).

Heavens, O. S.

Hodgkinson, I.

I. Hodgkinson, Q.-H. Wu, “Birefringent thin-film polarizers for use at normal incidence and with planar technologies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1794–1796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, S. J.

Houserkova, H.

Jonza, J. M.

A. J. Ouderkirk, J. O. Benson, J. S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, M. F. Weber, D. L. Wortman, C. A. Stover, “Reflective polarizer display,” U.S. patent5,828,488 (27October1998).

Kemp, R. A.

Kermisch, D.

D. Kermisch, “Analytic solution for single-wavelength thin-film polarizers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, A1010–A1010 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Knittl, Z.

Lafait, J.

Lees, D.

Li, L.

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, G. Marshall, Z. Pang, “High efficiency projection displays with novel thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 29, 687–689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Visible broad-band, wide-angle thin film multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2221–2225 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Computation speeds of different optical thin film synthesis methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3790–3799 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “High efficiency projection displays having thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” U.S. patent5,962,541 (9November1999).

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, Z. Pang, “Novel thin film polarizing beam-splitter and its application in high efficiency projection displays,” in Conference on Projection Displays V, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3634, 52–62 (1999).

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Thin film polarizing device,” U.S. patent5,912,762 (15June1999).

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “New developments in thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 158–160.

Liddell, H. M.

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (McGraw Hill, New York, 1986).

MacNeille, S. M.

S. M. MacNeille, “Beam splitter,” U.S. patent2,403,731 (6July1946).

Marshall, G.

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, G. Marshall, Z. Pang, “High efficiency projection displays with novel thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 29, 687–689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mouchart, J.

Ohmer, M. C.

Ouderkirk, A. J.

A. J. Ouderkirk, J. O. Benson, J. S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, M. F. Weber, D. L. Wortman, C. A. Stover, “Reflective polarizer display,” U.S. patent5,828,488 (27October1998).

Pang, Z.

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, G. Marshall, Z. Pang, “High efficiency projection displays with novel thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 29, 687–689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, Z. Pang, “Novel thin film polarizing beam-splitter and its application in high efficiency projection displays,” in Conference on Projection Displays V, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3634, 52–62 (1999).

Petrenko, R. A.

V. P. Sobol, R. A. Petrenko, A. S. Dimitreev, “Interference polarizer employing optical contact,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 53, 692–695 (1986).

Pezzaniti, J. L.

Rabinovitch, K.

Salvekar, A. A.

Scherer, A.

Sobol, V. P.

V. P. Sobol, R. A. Petrenko, A. S. Dimitreev, “Interference polarizer employing optical contact,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 53, 692–695 (1986).

Stover, C. A.

A. J. Ouderkirk, J. O. Benson, J. S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, M. F. Weber, D. L. Wortman, C. A. Stover, “Reflective polarizer display,” U.S. patent5,828,488 (27October1998).

Sullivan, B. T.

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, G. Marshall, Z. Pang, “High efficiency projection displays with novel thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 29, 687–689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Implementation of a numerical needle method for thin-film design,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5484–5492 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, Z. Pang, “Novel thin film polarizing beam-splitter and its application in high efficiency projection displays,” in Conference on Projection Displays V, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3634, 52–62 (1999).

L. Li, B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “High efficiency projection displays having thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” U.S. patent5,962,541 (9November1999).

Sun, P.-C.

Thelen, A.

A. Thelen, “Equivalent layers in multilayer filters,” Phys. Thin Films 5, 47–86 (1969).

A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coatings (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988).

Tikhonravov, A. V.

S. A. Furman, A. V. Tikhonravov, Optics of Multilayer Systems (Editions Frontières, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 1992).

Turner, A. F.

A. F. Turner, P. W. Baumeister, “Multilayer mirrors with high reflectance over an extended spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 5, 69–76 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Turner, “Some current developments in multilayer optical filters,” J. Phys. Radium 11, 440–460 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Tyan, R.-C.

Weber, M. F.

A. J. Ouderkirk, J. O. Benson, J. S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, M. F. Weber, D. L. Wortman, C. A. Stover, “Reflective polarizer display,” U.S. patent5,828,488 (27October1998).

Woodberry, F. J.

Wortman, D. L.

A. J. Ouderkirk, J. O. Benson, J. S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, M. F. Weber, D. L. Wortman, C. A. Stover, “Reflective polarizer display,” U.S. patent5,828,488 (27October1998).

Wu, Q.-H.

I. Hodgkinson, Q.-H. Wu, “Birefringent thin-film polarizers for use at normal incidence and with planar technologies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1794–1796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

Yamaguchi, T.

Ziv, D.

Appl. Opt. (13)

A. F. Turner, P. W. Baumeister, “Multilayer mirrors with high reflectance over an extended spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 5, 69–76 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. S. Heavens, H. M. Liddell, “Staggered broad-band reflecting multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 5, 373–376 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Baumeister, “Optical tunneling and its applications in optical filters,” Appl. Opt. 6, 897–905 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Knittl, H. Houserkova, “Equivalent layers in oblique incidence: the problem of unsplit admittances and depolarization of partial reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2055–2068 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rabinovitch, D. Ziv, “Herpin equivalent layer at non-normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 24, 312–313 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lafait, T. Yamaguchi, J. M. Frigerio, A. Bichri, K. Driss-Khodja, “Effective medium equivalent to a symmetric multilayer at oblique incidence,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2460–2465 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, R. A. Kemp, “Refinement of optical multilayer systems with different optimization procedures,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2876–2893 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Computation speeds of different optical thin film synthesis methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3790–3799 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Angular dependence of polarizing beam-splitter cubes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1916–1929 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Baumeister, “Rudiments of the design of an immersed polarizing beam divider with a narrow spectral bandwidth and enhanced angular acceptance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3610–3613 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Visible broad-band, wide-angle thin film multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2221–2225 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Implementation of a numerical needle method for thin-film design,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5484–5492 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mouchart, J. Begel, E. Duda, “Modified MacNeille cube polarizers for a wide angular field,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2847–2853 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Hodgkinson, Q.-H. Wu, “Birefringent thin-film polarizers for use at normal incidence and with planar technologies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1794–1796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Radium (1)

A. F. Turner, “Some current developments in multilayer optical filters,” J. Phys. Radium 11, 440–460 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Thin Films (1)

A. Thelen, “Equivalent layers in multilayer filters,” Phys. Thin Films 5, 47–86 (1969).

SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (1)

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, G. Marshall, Z. Pang, “High efficiency projection displays with novel thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 29, 687–689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (1)

V. P. Sobol, R. A. Petrenko, A. S. Dimitreev, “Interference polarizer employing optical contact,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 53, 692–695 (1986).

Other (12)

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, Z. Pang, “Novel thin film polarizing beam-splitter and its application in high efficiency projection displays,” in Conference on Projection Displays V, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3634, 52–62 (1999).

A. J. Ouderkirk, J. O. Benson, J. S. Cobb, J. M. Jonza, M. F. Weber, D. L. Wortman, C. A. Stover, “Reflective polarizer display,” U.S. patent5,828,488 (27October1998).

S. A. Furman, A. V. Tikhonravov, Optics of Multilayer Systems (Editions Frontières, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 1992).

L. Li, B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “High efficiency projection displays having thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” U.S. patent5,962,541 (9November1999).

J. M. Bennett, “Polarizers,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. II, pp. 3.1–3.70.

J. M. Bennett, “Polarization,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. I, pp. 5.1–5.30.

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “New developments in thin film polarizing beam-splitters,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 158–160.

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Thin film polarizing device,” U.S. patent5,912,762 (15June1999).

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (McGraw Hill, New York, 1986).

A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coatings (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988).

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical properties of films and coatings,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 1, pp. 42.1–42.130.

S. M. MacNeille, “Beam splitter,” U.S. patent2,403,731 (6July1946).

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