Abstract

Digital speckle photography combined with TV shearography is developed for precise measurement of the magnitude of the shear field in a linear shear configuration. As an application the method is implemented to determine the slope-change variations of a three-dimensional object with TV shearography in which the shear magnitude is obtained with the digital speckle photography technique.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. K. Rastogi, “Techniques of displacement and deformation measurement in speckle metrology,” in Speckle Metrology, R. S. Sirohi, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993), Chap. 2, pp. 41–98.
  2. Y. Y. Hung, “Digital shearography versus TV holography for nondestructive evaluation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 29, 103–116 (1998).
  3. C. Joenathan, “Speckle photography, shearography, and ESPI,” in Optical Measurement Techniques and Applications, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Artech, Boston, 1997), Chap. 6, pp. 151–182.
  4. T. W. Ng, F. S. Chau, “Moiré technique for linear shear measurement in photographic speckle shear interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1726–1727 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. W. Ng, F. S. Chau, “Automated linear shear measurements in digital shearing speckle interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1728–1729 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. W. Ng, “Shear measurement in digital speckle shearing interferometry using digital correlation,” Opt. Commun. 155, 241–244 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Sjödahl, L. R. Benckert, “Electronic speckle photography: analysis of an algorithm giving the displacement with subpixel accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2278–2284 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Sjödahl, “Electronic speckle photography: increased accuracy by nonintegral pixel shifting,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6667–6673 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Sjödahl, “Accuracy in electronic speckle photography,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2875–2885 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. A. Stetson, W. R. Brohinsky, J. Wahid, T. Bushman, “An electro-optic holography system with real-time arithmetic processing,” J. Nondestruc. Eval. 8, 69–76 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. A. Stetson, “Theory and applications of electronic holography,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Hologram Interferometry and Speckle Metrology, K. A. Stetson, R. J. Pryputniewicz, eds. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1990), pp. 294–300.
  12. K. A. Stetson, “Electro-optic holography system for vibration analysis and nondestructive testing,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1234–1239 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. K. Rastogi, “Slope change contouring of a three-dimensional object using speckle interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 108, 37–41 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. K. Rastogi, “Measurement of the derivatives of curved surfaces using speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 659–661 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Krishna Mohan, H. O. Saldner, N.-E. Molin, “Electronic shearography applied to static and vibrating objects,” Opt. Commun. 108, 197–202 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Y. Hung, “Digital shearography versus TV holography for nondestructive evaluation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 29, 103–116 (1998).

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

T. W. Ng, “Shear measurement in digital speckle shearing interferometry using digital correlation,” Opt. Commun. 155, 241–244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (7)

T. W. Ng, F. S. Chau, “Moiré technique for linear shear measurement in photographic speckle shear interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1726–1727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng, F. S. Chau, “Automated linear shear measurements in digital shearing speckle interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1728–1729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Rastogi, “Slope change contouring of a three-dimensional object using speckle interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 108, 37–41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Rastogi, “Measurement of the derivatives of curved surfaces using speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 659–661 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Krishna Mohan, H. O. Saldner, N.-E. Molin, “Electronic shearography applied to static and vibrating objects,” Opt. Commun. 108, 197–202 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjödahl, “Electronic speckle photography: increased accuracy by nonintegral pixel shifting,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6667–6673 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sjödahl, L. R. Benckert, “Electronic speckle photography: analysis of an algorithm giving the displacement with subpixel accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2278–2284 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. A. Stetson, W. R. Brohinsky, J. Wahid, T. Bushman, “An electro-optic holography system with real-time arithmetic processing,” J. Nondestruc. Eval. 8, 69–76 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

K. A. Stetson, “Electro-optic holography system for vibration analysis and nondestructive testing,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1234–1239 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Benckert, L. R.

Brohinsky, W. R.

K. A. Stetson, W. R. Brohinsky, J. Wahid, T. Bushman, “An electro-optic holography system with real-time arithmetic processing,” J. Nondestruc. Eval. 8, 69–76 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bushman, T.

K. A. Stetson, W. R. Brohinsky, J. Wahid, T. Bushman, “An electro-optic holography system with real-time arithmetic processing,” J. Nondestruc. Eval. 8, 69–76 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chau, F. S.

T. W. Ng, F. S. Chau, “Automated linear shear measurements in digital shearing speckle interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1728–1729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng, F. S. Chau, “Moiré technique for linear shear measurement in photographic speckle shear interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1726–1727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hung, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Hung, “Digital shearography versus TV holography for nondestructive evaluation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 29, 103–116 (1998).

Joenathan, C.

C. Joenathan, “Speckle photography, shearography, and ESPI,” in Optical Measurement Techniques and Applications, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Artech, Boston, 1997), Chap. 6, pp. 151–182.

Krishna Mohan, N.

N. Krishna Mohan, H. O. Saldner, N.-E. Molin, “Electronic shearography applied to static and vibrating objects,” Opt. Commun. 108, 197–202 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Molin, N.-E.

N. Krishna Mohan, H. O. Saldner, N.-E. Molin, “Electronic shearography applied to static and vibrating objects,” Opt. Commun. 108, 197–202 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ng, T. W.

T. W. Ng, “Shear measurement in digital speckle shearing interferometry using digital correlation,” Opt. Commun. 155, 241–244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng, F. S. Chau, “Automated linear shear measurements in digital shearing speckle interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1728–1729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng, F. S. Chau, “Moiré technique for linear shear measurement in photographic speckle shear interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1726–1727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rastogi, P. K.

P. K. Rastogi, “Measurement of the derivatives of curved surfaces using speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 659–661 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Rastogi, “Slope change contouring of a three-dimensional object using speckle interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 108, 37–41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Rastogi, “Techniques of displacement and deformation measurement in speckle metrology,” in Speckle Metrology, R. S. Sirohi, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993), Chap. 2, pp. 41–98.

Saldner, H. O.

N. Krishna Mohan, H. O. Saldner, N.-E. Molin, “Electronic shearography applied to static and vibrating objects,” Opt. Commun. 108, 197–202 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sjödahl, M.

Stetson, K. A.

K. A. Stetson, W. R. Brohinsky, J. Wahid, T. Bushman, “An electro-optic holography system with real-time arithmetic processing,” J. Nondestruc. Eval. 8, 69–76 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Stetson, “Electro-optic holography system for vibration analysis and nondestructive testing,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1234–1239 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Stetson, “Theory and applications of electronic holography,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Hologram Interferometry and Speckle Metrology, K. A. Stetson, R. J. Pryputniewicz, eds. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1990), pp. 294–300.

Wahid, J.

K. A. Stetson, W. R. Brohinsky, J. Wahid, T. Bushman, “An electro-optic holography system with real-time arithmetic processing,” J. Nondestruc. Eval. 8, 69–76 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. K. Rastogi, “Measurement of the derivatives of curved surfaces using speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 659–661 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nondestruc. Eval. (1)

K. A. Stetson, W. R. Brohinsky, J. Wahid, T. Bushman, “An electro-optic holography system with real-time arithmetic processing,” J. Nondestruc. Eval. 8, 69–76 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

T. W. Ng, “Shear measurement in digital speckle shearing interferometry using digital correlation,” Opt. Commun. 155, 241–244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Krishna Mohan, H. O. Saldner, N.-E. Molin, “Electronic shearography applied to static and vibrating objects,” Opt. Commun. 108, 197–202 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Rastogi, “Slope change contouring of a three-dimensional object using speckle interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 108, 37–41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

K. A. Stetson, “Electro-optic holography system for vibration analysis and nondestructive testing,” Opt. Eng. 26, 1234–1239 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng, F. S. Chau, “Moiré technique for linear shear measurement in photographic speckle shear interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1726–1727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng, F. S. Chau, “Automated linear shear measurements in digital shearing speckle interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1728–1729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

Y. Y. Hung, “Digital shearography versus TV holography for nondestructive evaluation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 29, 103–116 (1998).

Other (3)

C. Joenathan, “Speckle photography, shearography, and ESPI,” in Optical Measurement Techniques and Applications, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Artech, Boston, 1997), Chap. 6, pp. 151–182.

P. K. Rastogi, “Techniques of displacement and deformation measurement in speckle metrology,” in Speckle Metrology, R. S. Sirohi, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993), Chap. 2, pp. 41–98.

K. A. Stetson, “Theory and applications of electronic holography,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Hologram Interferometry and Speckle Metrology, K. A. Stetson, R. J. Pryputniewicz, eds. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1990), pp. 294–300.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TV shearography configuration for the measurement of the linear shear magnitude and the slope-change contours of a three-dimensional object. M represents a mirror, and PZM represents a piezoelectric mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images for the determination of shear by DSP: (a) Image when the arm of the Michelson interferometer with the tilted mirror is blocked. (b) Image when the PZM mirror of the Michelson interferometer is blocked. In this image the cylinder is moved to the right compared with (a) because of the tilt of the mirror. (c) The results from the DSP calculation. The shear has an average magnitude of 4.89 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wrapped phase map of the rotated cylinder.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Curve A shows the slope of the cylinder surface and represents the experimental result. Curve B represents the theoretical result.

Equations (4)

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IX, Y=|AX, Y+AX+ΔX, Y|2,
ΩX, Y=2πλ1+cos θwx+sin θuxΔx,
Ω=2πλzx Δx sin θ sin ψ.
cδx, δy=F-1{Fsˆ1*Fsˆ2},

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