Abstract

We report on birefringence measurements in double-clad fibers with large cross section, doped with neodymium and ytterbium. The experimental results for rectangular double-clad fibers are compared with those for single-clad circular neodymium-doped fibers, taking into account existing models of stress- and geometry-induced birefringence. We demonstrated that the ellipticity of an outer silica cladding has no effect on birefringence in large-area double-clad fibers. The stress-induced birefringence is shown to depend on the ratio between the diameter of an internal silica support and the linear dimensions of the rectangular outer cladding. The stress-distribution pattern is derived to prove the experimental results.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

Y. Barad, Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of soliton in birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

T. Chartier, F. Sanchez, G. Stephan, P. Le Boudec, E. Delevaque, R. Lener, P. L. Francois, “Channeled spectrum of a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 355–357 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Bielawski, D. Derozier, P. Glorieux, “Antiphase dynamics and polarization effects in the Nd-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811–2822 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1984 (1)

R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, “High-birefringent optical fibers by preform deformation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 639–641 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

S. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 312–330 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, “Single-polarization optical fiber: slab model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 268–272 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N. N.

Andersen, D. R.

Ankiewicz, A.

Barad, Y.

Y. Barad, Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of soliton in birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bielawski, S.

S. Bielawski, D. Derozier, P. Glorieux, “Antiphase dynamics and polarization effects in the Nd-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811–2822 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buryak, A. V.

Cao, J. D.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, T.

Cho, N. M.

Collings, B. C.

Cundiff, S. T.

Delevaque, E.

Derozier, D.

S. Bielawski, D. Derozier, P. Glorieux, “Antiphase dynamics and polarization effects in the Nd-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811–2822 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eickhoff, W.

Francois, P. L.

Gambling, W. A.

J. T. Lin, W. A. Gambling, “Polarization effects in fiber lasers: phenomena, theory, and applications,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers II, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. SPIE1373, 42–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Glorieux, P.

S. Bielawski, D. Derozier, P. Glorieux, “Antiphase dynamics and polarization effects in the Nd-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811–2822 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hakimi, F.

Jeunhomme, L. B.

L. B. Jeunhomme, Single-Mode Fiber Optics Principles and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1990), pp. 53–80.

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, “Single-polarization optical fiber: slab model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 268–272 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

Lalibert, B. M.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Le Boudec, P.

Lederer, M. J.

Lener, R.

Lin, J. T.

J. T. Lin, W. A. Gambling, “Polarization effects in fiber lasers: phenomena, theory, and applications,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers II, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. SPIE1373, 42–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

McCollum, B. C.

Monns, R. A.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pleibel, W.

R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, “High-birefringent optical fibers by preform deformation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 639–641 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Po, H.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Hakimi, H. Po, R. Tumminelli, B. C. McCollum, L. Zenteno, N. M. Cho, E. Snitzer, “Glass fiber laser at 1.36 µm for SiO2:Nd,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1060–1061 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramaswamy, V.

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, “Single-polarization optical fiber: slab model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 268–272 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rashleigh, S.

S. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 312–330 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, R. F.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rockney, B. H.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

Sanchez, F.

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Barad, Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of soliton in birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, “High-birefringent optical fibers by preform deformation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 639–641 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

Stephan, G.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, “High-birefringent optical fibers by preform deformation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 639–641 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tricca, R. R.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tumminelli, R.

Williams, Q. L.

Zenteno, L.

Zhang, Y. H.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, “Single-polarization optical fiber: slab model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 268–272 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Lalibert, R. A. Monns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1500–1501 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 312–330 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, W. Pleibel, J. R. Simpson, “High-birefringent optical fibers by preform deformation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 639–641 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. Bielawski, D. Derozier, P. Glorieux, “Antiphase dynamics and polarization effects in the Nd-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811–2822 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Barad, Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of soliton in birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. T. Lin, W. A. Gambling, “Polarization effects in fiber lasers: phenomena, theory, and applications,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers II, M. J. Digonnet, ed., Proc. SPIE1373, 42–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Jeunhomme, Single-Mode Fiber Optics Principles and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1990), pp. 53–80.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Rectangular DC fibers: (a) Neodymium-doped fiber 112 µm × 48 µm fabricated from one preform, (b) large-area 380 µm × 133 µm neodymium-doped fiber, (c) large-area 374 µm × 199 µm ytterbium-doped fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup, where l 1, l 2, l 3, and l 4, are 5× objectives with N.A. = 0.12; p 1, and p 2 are the polarizers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Birefringence-induced spectrum modulation: (a) ytterbium-doped DC fiber (12-m length), (b) neodymium-doped single-clad circular fiber (13-m length), (c) neodymium-doped DC fiber (11-m length).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stress distribution in the large-area neodymium-doped DC fiber.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Fiber Parameters and Measured Birefringence

Equations (4)

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Bclad=12 n3kp11-p12α1-α2ΔT1-ν2,
ε=1-ayax21/2,
Δn=0.2εk0n1-n22,
Δn=λ2ΔλL.

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