Abstract

The optical characterization of a fiber-connected planar optics beam combiner dedicated to astronomical interferometry for two telescopes is presented. The beam combiner, fully integrated on a single 5 mm × 40 mm glass chip, is tested as the central part of an astronomical instrument. The single-mode waveguides are made by silver-ion-exchange technology upon glass substrates and provide spatial filtering, which improves the visibility measurement accuracy by selecting only the fundamental mode of the beams at the telescope focal plane. A global optical throughput of 43% is measured, and the sources of losses are identified and examined in detail. Solutions for improving this throughput are proposed. High and stable contrasts are obtained with a 1.55-µm laser diode (≳96%) and with a white-light source (∼92%) in the astronomical H filter (1.43 µm; 1.77 µm). The need for accurate control of differential instrumental polarization is demonstrated. In this context the intrinsic polarization-maintaining property of the planar optics component is characterized. This validation of the important potential uses of integrated planar optics should be valuable for future design of optical telescope arrays.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Labeyrie, “Interference fringes obtained on Vega with two optical telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 196, L71–L75 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. R. Lawson, Selected Papers on Long Baseline Stellar Interferometry, Vol. MS 139 of SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1997).
  3. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1985).
  4. M. M. Colavita, “Phase referencing for stellar interferometry,” in High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. M. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds., Vol. 39 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1991), pp. 845–851.
  5. J. W. Goodman, “Synthetic-aperture synthesis,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1970), Vol. VIII.
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).
  8. J. M. Mariotti, “VLTI: a status report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. van Belle, G. Vasisht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “Keck interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. A. McAlister, W. G. Bagnuolo, T. Ten Brummelaar, W. I. Hartkopf, N. H. Turner, A. K. Garrison, W. G. Robinson, S. T. Ridgway, “CHARA array,” in Sensing, Imaging and Vision for Control and Guidance of Aerospace Vehicles, J. G. Verly, S. S. Welch, eds., Proc. SPIE2220, 129–139 (1994).
  11. W. A. Traub, “Recent results from the IOTA interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 848–855 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Froehly, “Coherence and interferometry through optical fibers,” in Science Importance of High Angular Resolution at Infrared and Optical Wavelengths, M. H. Ulrich, K. Kjär, eds., ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1981), pp. 285–293.
  13. V. Coudé du Foresto, “Interférométrie astronomique infrarouge par optique guidée monomode,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Paris, Paris, 1994).
  14. H. Lagorceix, “Application des fibres optiques unimodales à l’interférométrie stellaire,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Limoges, Limoges, France, 1995).
  15. V. Coudé du Foresto, S. Ridgway, J. M. Mariotti, “Deriving object visibilities from interferograms obtained with a fiber stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 379–392 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Roddier, F. Roddier, “On the fringe visibility in a Michelson stellar interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 580–584 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, “Integrated optics single-mode interferometric beam combiner for near infrared astronomy,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), p. 195.
  18. F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135–145 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Benech, “Review on integrated optics technology,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), p. 47.
  21. R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion exchange glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Rousselet-Perraut, F. Vakili, D. Mourard, “Polarization effects in stellar interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2943–2955 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 1991).
  24. S. El-Sabban, D. Khalil, I. Schanen Duport, P. Benech, S. Tedjini, “Design of an integrated optical magic T using the multimode interference phenomena,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, S. Najafi, G. C. Righini, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 298–302 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Ruilier, “A study of degraded light coupling into single-mode fibers,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 319–329 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. B. Shaklan, F. Roddier, “Coupling starlight into single-mode fiber optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2334–2338 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. P. Mottier, “Integrated optics and micro-optics at LETI,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, 1996), p. 63.
  28. M. Severi, P. Pouteau, P. Mottier, P. Kern, “A waveguide interferometer for phase closure in astronomy,” presented at the European Conference on Integrated Optics, Turin, Italy, 14–16 April 1999.
  29. H. Lagorceix, F. Reynaud, “Birefringent effect measurement and compensation in a highly birefringent fiber optical path modulator,” Opt. Commun. 118, 235–240 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  30. F. Reynaud, J. J. Alleman, P. Connes, “Interferometric control of fiber lengths for a coherent telescope array,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3736–3743 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. F. Reynaud, H. Lagorceix, “Stabilization and control of a fiber array for the coherent transport of beams in a stellar interferometer,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), p. 249.
  32. J. P. Berger, M. Severi, I. Schanen-Duport, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenauer, Y. Duchene, P. Kern, F. Malbet, P. Benech, “Integrated optics beam combiners for application to interferometric aperture synthesis,” in Working on the Fringe: An International Conference on Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–270.

1999 (2)

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. Coudé du Foresto, S. Ridgway, J. M. Mariotti, “Deriving object visibilities from interferograms obtained with a fiber stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 379–392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

K. Rousselet-Perraut, F. Vakili, D. Mourard, “Polarization effects in stellar interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2943–2955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. Lagorceix, F. Reynaud, “Birefringent effect measurement and compensation in a highly birefringent fiber optical path modulator,” Opt. Commun. 118, 235–240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1988 (2)

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion exchange glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Shaklan, F. Roddier, “Coupling starlight into single-mode fiber optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2334–2338 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

A. Labeyrie, “Interference fringes obtained on Vega with two optical telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 196, L71–L75 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Alleman, J. J.

Armstrong, J. T.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bagnuolo, W. G.

H. A. McAlister, W. G. Bagnuolo, T. Ten Brummelaar, W. I. Hartkopf, N. H. Turner, A. K. Garrison, W. G. Robinson, S. T. Ridgway, “CHARA array,” in Sensing, Imaging and Vision for Control and Guidance of Aerospace Vehicles, J. G. Verly, S. S. Welch, eds., Proc. SPIE2220, 129–139 (1994).

Baldwin, J. E.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Beckett, M. G.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Benech, P.

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Benech, “Review on integrated optics technology,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), p. 47.

P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, “Integrated optics single-mode interferometric beam combiner for near infrared astronomy,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), p. 195.

S. El-Sabban, D. Khalil, I. Schanen Duport, P. Benech, S. Tedjini, “Design of an integrated optical magic T using the multimode interference phenomena,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, S. Najafi, G. C. Righini, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 298–302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, M. Severi, I. Schanen-Duport, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenauer, Y. Duchene, P. Kern, F. Malbet, P. Benech, “Integrated optics beam combiners for application to interferometric aperture synthesis,” in Working on the Fringe: An International Conference on Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–270.

Benson, J. A.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J. P.

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, M. Severi, I. Schanen-Duport, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenauer, Y. Duchene, P. Kern, F. Malbet, P. Benech, “Integrated optics beam combiners for application to interferometric aperture synthesis,” in Working on the Fringe: An International Conference on Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–270.

Boden, A. F.

M. M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. van Belle, G. Vasisht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “Keck interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

Bowers, P. F.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boysen, R. C.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Burns, D.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Buscher, D. F.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Clark, J. H.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Colavita, M. M.

M. M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. van Belle, G. Vasisht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “Keck interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Colavita, “Phase referencing for stellar interferometry,” in High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. M. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds., Vol. 39 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1991), pp. 845–851.

Connes, P.

Coudé du Foresto, V.

V. Coudé du Foresto, S. Ridgway, J. M. Mariotti, “Deriving object visibilities from interferograms obtained with a fiber stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 379–392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Coudé du Foresto, “Interférométrie astronomique infrarouge par optique guidée monomode,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Paris, Paris, 1994).

Cox, G. C.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Crawford, S. L.

M. M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. van Belle, G. Vasisht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “Keck interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duchene, Y.

J. P. Berger, M. Severi, I. Schanen-Duport, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenauer, Y. Duchene, P. Kern, F. Malbet, P. Benech, “Integrated optics beam combiners for application to interferometric aperture synthesis,” in Working on the Fringe: An International Conference on Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–270.

Elias, N. M.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

El-Sabban, S.

S. El-Sabban, D. Khalil, I. Schanen Duport, P. Benech, S. Tedjini, “Design of an integrated optical magic T using the multimode interference phenomena,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, S. Najafi, G. C. Righini, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 298–302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Froehly, C.

C. Froehly, “Coherence and interferometry through optical fibers,” in Science Importance of High Angular Resolution at Infrared and Optical Wavelengths, M. H. Ulrich, K. Kjär, eds., ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1981), pp. 285–293.

Garrison, A. K.

H. A. McAlister, W. G. Bagnuolo, T. Ten Brummelaar, W. I. Hartkopf, N. H. Turner, A. K. Garrison, W. G. Robinson, S. T. Ridgway, “CHARA array,” in Sensing, Imaging and Vision for Control and Guidance of Aerospace Vehicles, J. G. Verly, S. S. Welch, eds., Proc. SPIE2220, 129–139 (1994).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, “Synthetic-aperture synthesis,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1970), Vol. VIII.
[CrossRef]

Ha, L.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haguenauer, P.

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, M. Severi, I. Schanen-Duport, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenauer, Y. Duchene, P. Kern, F. Malbet, P. Benech, “Integrated optics beam combiners for application to interferometric aperture synthesis,” in Working on the Fringe: An International Conference on Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–270.

Haniff, C. A.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Hartkopf, W. I.

H. A. McAlister, W. G. Bagnuolo, T. Ten Brummelaar, W. I. Hartkopf, N. H. Turner, A. K. Garrison, W. G. Robinson, S. T. Ridgway, “CHARA array,” in Sensing, Imaging and Vision for Control and Guidance of Aerospace Vehicles, J. G. Verly, S. S. Welch, eds., Proc. SPIE2220, 129–139 (1994).

Hummel, C. A.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hutter, D. J.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, K. J.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kern, P.

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, M. Severi, I. Schanen-Duport, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenauer, Y. Duchene, P. Kern, F. Malbet, P. Benech, “Integrated optics beam combiners for application to interferometric aperture synthesis,” in Working on the Fringe: An International Conference on Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–270.

P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, “Integrated optics single-mode interferometric beam combiner for near infrared astronomy,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), p. 195.

M. Severi, P. Pouteau, P. Mottier, P. Kern, “A waveguide interferometer for phase closure in astronomy,” presented at the European Conference on Integrated Optics, Turin, Italy, 14–16 April 1999.

Khalil, D.

S. El-Sabban, D. Khalil, I. Schanen Duport, P. Benech, S. Tedjini, “Design of an integrated optical magic T using the multimode interference phenomena,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, S. Najafi, G. C. Righini, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 298–302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, “Interference fringes obtained on Vega with two optical telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 196, L71–L75 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lagorceix, H.

H. Lagorceix, F. Reynaud, “Birefringent effect measurement and compensation in a highly birefringent fiber optical path modulator,” Opt. Commun. 118, 235–240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Reynaud, H. Lagorceix, “Stabilization and control of a fiber array for the coherent transport of beams in a stellar interferometer,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), p. 249.

H. Lagorceix, “Application des fibres optiques unimodales à l’interférométrie stellaire,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Limoges, Limoges, France, 1995).

Lawson, P. R.

P. R. Lawson, Selected Papers on Long Baseline Stellar Interferometry, Vol. MS 139 of SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1997).

Ling, L.-C.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, C. D.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Malbet, F.

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, “Integrated optics single-mode interferometric beam combiner for near infrared astronomy,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), p. 195.

J. P. Berger, M. Severi, I. Schanen-Duport, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenauer, Y. Duchene, P. Kern, F. Malbet, P. Benech, “Integrated optics beam combiners for application to interferometric aperture synthesis,” in Working on the Fringe: An International Conference on Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–270.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 1991).

Mariotti, J. M.

V. Coudé du Foresto, S. Ridgway, J. M. Mariotti, “Deriving object visibilities from interferograms obtained with a fiber stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 379–392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Mariotti, “VLTI: a status report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McAlister, H. A.

H. A. McAlister, W. G. Bagnuolo, T. Ten Brummelaar, W. I. Hartkopf, N. H. Turner, A. K. Garrison, W. G. Robinson, S. T. Ridgway, “CHARA array,” in Sensing, Imaging and Vision for Control and Guidance of Aerospace Vehicles, J. G. Verly, S. S. Welch, eds., Proc. SPIE2220, 129–139 (1994).

Meinel, A. B.

M. M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. van Belle, G. Vasisht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “Keck interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mottier, P.

P. Mottier, “Integrated optics and micro-optics at LETI,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, 1996), p. 63.

M. Severi, P. Pouteau, P. Mottier, P. Kern, “A waveguide interferometer for phase closure in astronomy,” presented at the European Conference on Integrated Optics, Turin, Italy, 14–16 April 1999.

Mourard, D.

K. Rousselet-Perraut, F. Vakili, D. Mourard, “Polarization effects in stellar interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2943–2955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mozurkewich, D.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nightingale, N. S.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Pouteau, P.

M. Severi, P. Pouteau, P. Mottier, P. Kern, “A waveguide interferometer for phase closure in astronomy,” presented at the European Conference on Integrated Optics, Turin, Italy, 14–16 April 1999.

Ramaswamy, R. V.

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion exchange glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, F.

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Lagorceix, F. Reynaud, “Birefringent effect measurement and compensation in a highly birefringent fiber optical path modulator,” Opt. Commun. 118, 235–240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Reynaud, J. J. Alleman, P. Connes, “Interferometric control of fiber lengths for a coherent telescope array,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3736–3743 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Reynaud, H. Lagorceix, “Stabilization and control of a fiber array for the coherent transport of beams in a stellar interferometer,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), p. 249.

Rickard, L. J.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, S.

V. Coudé du Foresto, S. Ridgway, J. M. Mariotti, “Deriving object visibilities from interferograms obtained with a fiber stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 379–392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, S. T.

H. A. McAlister, W. G. Bagnuolo, T. Ten Brummelaar, W. I. Hartkopf, N. H. Turner, A. K. Garrison, W. G. Robinson, S. T. Ridgway, “CHARA array,” in Sensing, Imaging and Vision for Control and Guidance of Aerospace Vehicles, J. G. Verly, S. S. Welch, eds., Proc. SPIE2220, 129–139 (1994).

Robinson, W. G.

H. A. McAlister, W. G. Bagnuolo, T. Ten Brummelaar, W. I. Hartkopf, N. H. Turner, A. K. Garrison, W. G. Robinson, S. T. Ridgway, “CHARA array,” in Sensing, Imaging and Vision for Control and Guidance of Aerospace Vehicles, J. G. Verly, S. S. Welch, eds., Proc. SPIE2220, 129–139 (1994).

Roddier, C.

Roddier, F.

Rogers, J.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Rousselet-Perraut, K.

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Rousselet-Perraut, F. Vakili, D. Mourard, “Polarization effects in stellar interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2943–2955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, M. Severi, I. Schanen-Duport, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenauer, Y. Duchene, P. Kern, F. Malbet, P. Benech, “Integrated optics beam combiners for application to interferometric aperture synthesis,” in Working on the Fringe: An International Conference on Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–270.

Ruilier, C.

C. Ruilier, “A study of degraded light coupling into single-mode fibers,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 319–329 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schanen Duport, I.

S. El-Sabban, D. Khalil, I. Schanen Duport, P. Benech, S. Tedjini, “Design of an integrated optical magic T using the multimode interference phenomena,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, S. Najafi, G. C. Righini, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 298–302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schanen-Duport, I.

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, M. Severi, I. Schanen-Duport, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenauer, Y. Duchene, P. Kern, F. Malbet, P. Benech, “Integrated optics beam combiners for application to interferometric aperture synthesis,” in Working on the Fringe: An International Conference on Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–270.

P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, “Integrated optics single-mode interferometric beam combiner for near infrared astronomy,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), p. 195.

Scheuer, P. A. G.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Scott, T. R.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Severi, M.

J. P. Berger, M. Severi, I. Schanen-Duport, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenauer, Y. Duchene, P. Kern, F. Malbet, P. Benech, “Integrated optics beam combiners for application to interferometric aperture synthesis,” in Working on the Fringe: An International Conference on Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–270.

M. Severi, P. Pouteau, P. Mottier, P. Kern, “A waveguide interferometer for phase closure in astronomy,” presented at the European Conference on Integrated Optics, Turin, Italy, 14–16 April 1999.

Shaklan, S. B.

Shao, M.

M. M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. van Belle, G. Vasisht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “Keck interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simon, R. S.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion exchange glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, P. N.

M. M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. van Belle, G. Vasisht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “Keck interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tedjini, S.

S. El-Sabban, D. Khalil, I. Schanen Duport, P. Benech, S. Tedjini, “Design of an integrated optical magic T using the multimode interference phenomena,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, S. Najafi, G. C. Righini, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 298–302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ten Brummelaar, T.

H. A. McAlister, W. G. Bagnuolo, T. Ten Brummelaar, W. I. Hartkopf, N. H. Turner, A. K. Garrison, W. G. Robinson, S. T. Ridgway, “CHARA array,” in Sensing, Imaging and Vision for Control and Guidance of Aerospace Vehicles, J. G. Verly, S. S. Welch, eds., Proc. SPIE2220, 129–139 (1994).

Traub, W. A.

W. A. Traub, “Recent results from the IOTA interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 848–855 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Turner, N. H.

H. A. McAlister, W. G. Bagnuolo, T. Ten Brummelaar, W. I. Hartkopf, N. H. Turner, A. K. Garrison, W. G. Robinson, S. T. Ridgway, “CHARA array,” in Sensing, Imaging and Vision for Control and Guidance of Aerospace Vehicles, J. G. Verly, S. S. Welch, eds., Proc. SPIE2220, 129–139 (1994).

Tuthill, P. G.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Vakili, F.

K. Rousselet-Perraut, F. Vakili, D. Mourard, “Polarization effects in stellar interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2943–2955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van Belle, G. T.

M. M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. van Belle, G. Vasisht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “Keck interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vasisht, G.

M. M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. van Belle, G. Vasisht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “Keck interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. M.

M. M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. van Belle, G. Vasisht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “Keck interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, J. K.

M. M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. van Belle, G. Vasisht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “Keck interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Warner, P. J.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

White, N. M.

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. M. A.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Wilson, R. W.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Wizinowich, P. L.

M. M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. van Belle, G. Vasisht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “Keck interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (3)

V. Coudé du Foresto, S. Ridgway, J. M. Mariotti, “Deriving object visibilities from interferograms obtained with a fiber stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 379–392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (2)

A. Labeyrie, “Interference fringes obtained on Vega with two optical telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 196, L71–L75 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, L. J. Rickard, D. J. Hutter, J. A. Benson, P. F. Bowers, N. M. Elias, C. A. Hummel, K. J. Johnston, D. F. Buscher, J. H. Clark, L. Ha, L.-C. Ling, N. M. White, R. S. Simon, “The Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 496, 550–571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion exchange glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Lagorceix, F. Reynaud, “Birefringent effect measurement and compensation in a highly birefringent fiber optical path modulator,” Opt. Commun. 118, 235–240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

K. Rousselet-Perraut, F. Vakili, D. Mourard, “Polarization effects in stellar interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2943–2955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (20)

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 1991).

S. El-Sabban, D. Khalil, I. Schanen Duport, P. Benech, S. Tedjini, “Design of an integrated optical magic T using the multimode interference phenomena,” in Integrated Optics Devices III, S. Najafi, G. C. Righini, eds., Proc. SPIE3620, 298–302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Ruilier, “A study of degraded light coupling into single-mode fibers,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 319–329 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Mottier, “Integrated optics and micro-optics at LETI,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, 1996), p. 63.

M. Severi, P. Pouteau, P. Mottier, P. Kern, “A waveguide interferometer for phase closure in astronomy,” presented at the European Conference on Integrated Optics, Turin, Italy, 14–16 April 1999.

F. Reynaud, H. Lagorceix, “Stabilization and control of a fiber array for the coherent transport of beams in a stellar interferometer,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), p. 249.

J. P. Berger, M. Severi, I. Schanen-Duport, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Haguenauer, Y. Duchene, P. Kern, F. Malbet, P. Benech, “Integrated optics beam combiners for application to interferometric aperture synthesis,” in Working on the Fringe: An International Conference on Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Vol. 194 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 264–270.

P. R. Lawson, Selected Papers on Long Baseline Stellar Interferometry, Vol. MS 139 of SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1997).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

M. M. Colavita, “Phase referencing for stellar interferometry,” in High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. M. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds., Vol. 39 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1991), pp. 845–851.

J. W. Goodman, “Synthetic-aperture synthesis,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1970), Vol. VIII.
[CrossRef]

P. Benech, “Review on integrated optics technology,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), p. 47.

P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, “Integrated optics single-mode interferometric beam combiner for near infrared astronomy,” in Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, Grenoble, France, 1996), p. 195.

J. M. Mariotti, “VLTI: a status report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Colavita, A. F. Boden, S. L. Crawford, A. B. Meinel, M. Shao, P. N. Swanson, G. T. van Belle, G. Vasisht, J. M. Walker, J. K. Wallace, P. L. Wizinowich, “Keck interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 776–784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. McAlister, W. G. Bagnuolo, T. Ten Brummelaar, W. I. Hartkopf, N. H. Turner, A. K. Garrison, W. G. Robinson, S. T. Ridgway, “CHARA array,” in Sensing, Imaging and Vision for Control and Guidance of Aerospace Vehicles, J. G. Verly, S. S. Welch, eds., Proc. SPIE2220, 129–139 (1994).

W. A. Traub, “Recent results from the IOTA interferometer,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, S. C. Unwin, eds., Proc. SPIE3350, 848–855 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Froehly, “Coherence and interferometry through optical fibers,” in Science Importance of High Angular Resolution at Infrared and Optical Wavelengths, M. H. Ulrich, K. Kjär, eds., ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1981), pp. 285–293.

V. Coudé du Foresto, “Interférométrie astronomique infrarouge par optique guidée monomode,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Paris, Paris, 1994).

H. Lagorceix, “Application des fibres optiques unimodales à l’interférométrie stellaire,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Limoges, Limoges, France, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an astronomical interferometer. Fringe visibility V is related to the Fourier transform Õ(B/λ) of the object intensity distribution O(α). V is measured at spatial frequency B/λ, where B is the baseline vector linking the two telescopes and λ is the observing wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Integrated optics two-way beam combiner. The light from the telescopes is coupled into the beam combiner through polarization-maintaining single-mode fibers (component fibers). The integrated optics component behaves as a two-telescope beam combiner (interferometric output after the reverse Y junction) with two calibration signals of the flux variations extracted with Y junctions (photometric outputs).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laboratory interferometric workbench for testing integrated optics beam combiners based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The collimated beam provided by the sources is split in two beams, which are focused onto polarization-maintaining single-mode fibers by microscope objectives. Fibers are directly connected to the integrated optics beam combiner. The OPD between the beams is equalized and modulated by either a translating stage or a piezoelectric actuator. For ease of illustration the reflection angles on the beam splitter and on the mirror are emphasized. In our setup the three outputs are imaged with a 5× microscope objective onto a 128 × 128 infrared array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top, interferogram in the H band obtained with 2 cm of fiber-length difference with the two photometric calibration signals (the background has been subtracted). The contrast is 78%. Bottom, interferogram in the H band with no fiber-length difference, corrected from the photometry and showing a contrast of 92%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic view of the silver-ion-exchanged beam combiner with successive optical losses (see text for details). The numbers of output photons are given for 100 incoherent photons injected into each channel of a silver-exchanged beam combiner.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Profiles of the field at the output of one photometric output. Curves at the top and bottom correspond, respectively, to cuts along the y and x axes. The asterisks correspond to the measured values; the dashed curves, to Gaussian fits. Measurements of the other photometric and the interferometric outputs led to identical results.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Modes radiated outside the waveguide at the reverse Y junction and images of the three outputs of the device: The lateral images correspond to the photometric signals; the central image, to the interferometric signal.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Top, spectrum of the output of the interferometric waveguide. Bottom, ratio of the spectral response of interferometric outputs to photometric outputs (see text for details).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Polarization-maintaining properties of the entire device. Top, a linear polarization is injected for three orientations related to the device’s neutral axes. These neutral axes correspond to the directions denoted 1 and 2. For 1 and 2 the polarization is linear during the entire propagation inside the device, whereas for 3 the polarization becomes elliptical because of different propagation constants along the two neutral axes. Bottom, polarization measurements at 1.55 µm at the output of the device for various orientations of the polarizers before injection into the intermediate fibers (see text for details).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Phase difference for interferograms obtained with piezoelectric modulation. The crosses correspond to the measured phase for an interferogram obtained with a fiber length difference of 2 cm; the dashed curve, to the corresponding parabolic fit, allowing us to determine the fiber length difference between the two interferometer arms (see text for details). The asterisks correspond to the phase difference computed from an interferogram obtained with no fiber-length difference.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Polarization effects on fringe visibility. Left, interferogram obtained with polarizers along one neutral axis (contrast, 31%). Right, interferogram with polarizers along the crossed neutral axis (contrast, 24%). Middle, interferogram without polarizers (contrasts are, from left to right, 5.5%, 21%, 8%, 16%, and 4%). The three smallest interferograms are certainly due to cross effects between perpendicular polarizations.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Measurements of Optical Losses at Different Levels of the Fiber-Connected Silver-Exchanged Beam Combiner

Tables Icon

Table 2 Expected Losses and Global Throughput with Optimized Technological Parametersa and Beam Combination Functionb

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ic=I0-αP1-βP22αP1βP2,
V=Icmax-Icmin2,
ΔΦ=-πcDΔL σ-σ0σ2.

Metrics