Abstract

We present the results of a comprehensive experimental study of the modal behavior of electrically pumped circular grating-coupled surface-emitting lasers with resonant second-order gratings. Our results show stable cylindrical mode operation with azimuthal orders m = 1 and m = 52. We have found that, when a passive, unpumped 0.7-µm-deep indentation is included at the center of the circular resonator contact, the modal behavior becomes more stable with respect to increasing current. This result manifests itself in the lasing of two orthogonal m = 1 modes along with one higher-order mode from threshold to 2.2 times threshold or more. The spatial coherence of the cylindrical modes over the area of the resonator leads to better beam quality. Lasers without passive central indentations exhibit mode hopping between quasi-linear modes and higher-order cylindrical modes as the current is increased.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Suhara, T. Taniguchi, M. Uemukai, H. Nishihara, T. Hirata, S. Iio, M. Suehiro, “Monolithic integrated-optic position/displacement sensor using waveguide gratings and QW-DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1195–1197 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Andersson, M. J. Rooks, “Circularly symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Olson, P. L. Green, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, S. Rishton, “Higher-order azimuthal spatial modes of concentric-circle-grating surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1284–1286 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Olson, D. G. Hall, “Radiation patterns of higher azimuthal order spatial modes from a concentric-circle-grating waveguide cavity using the volume-current method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2298–2307 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. M. Tempelton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, D. K. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. M. Wu, T. Makino, I. Najafi, R. Maciejko, M. Svilans, J. Glinski, M. Fallahi, “Threshold gain and threshold current analysis of circular grating DFB and DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2596–2606 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Tempelton, K. A. McGreer, G. Champion, R. Barber, “Low divergence electrically pumped circular-grating surface-emitting DBR laser on an InGaAs/GaAs structure,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1412–1414 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Templeton, R. Barber, “High power emission from a strained DQW circular-grating surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. M. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 33, L427–L429 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416–418 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, M. Li, A. Larsson, “Optical field analysis of a circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 834–840 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, S. J. Sheard, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled surface-emitter with high-quality focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 497–499 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. M. Gong, A. K. Chan, H. F. Taylor, “Lateral mode discrimination in surface emitting DBR lasers with circular symmetry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1212–1218 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Kjellberg, M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, “Low-threshold grating coupled surface-emitting laser with etch-stop for precise grating positioning,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1149–1152 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. O. King, T. Erdogan, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, D. Costello, M. J. Rooks, “Curved grating fabrication techniques for surface emitting distributed feedback lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2974–2977 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2096–2105 (1989).
  18. A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, W. Streifer, “Analysis of second-order gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1773–1775 (1992).

1999

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, S. J. Sheard, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled surface-emitter with high-quality focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 497–499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, M. Li, A. Larsson, “Optical field analysis of a circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 834–840 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Olson, P. L. Green, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, S. Rishton, “Higher-order azimuthal spatial modes of concentric-circle-grating surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1284–1286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Olson, D. G. Hall, “Radiation patterns of higher azimuthal order spatial modes from a concentric-circle-grating waveguide cavity using the volume-current method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2298–2307 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Suhara, T. Taniguchi, M. Uemukai, H. Nishihara, T. Hirata, S. Iio, M. Suehiro, “Monolithic integrated-optic position/displacement sensor using waveguide gratings and QW-DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1195–1197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Gong, A. K. Chan, H. F. Taylor, “Lateral mode discrimination in surface emitting DBR lasers with circular symmetry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1212–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

T. Kjellberg, M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, “Low-threshold grating coupled surface-emitting laser with etch-stop for precise grating positioning,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1149–1152 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, I. Najafi, R. Maciejko, M. Svilans, J. Glinski, M. Fallahi, “Threshold gain and threshold current analysis of circular grating DFB and DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2596–2606 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Tempelton, K. A. McGreer, G. Champion, R. Barber, “Low divergence electrically pumped circular-grating surface-emitting DBR laser on an InGaAs/GaAs structure,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Templeton, R. Barber, “High power emission from a strained DQW circular-grating surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Andersson, M. J. Rooks, “Circularly symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. M. Tempelton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, D. K. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O. King, T. Erdogan, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, D. Costello, M. J. Rooks, “Curved grating fabrication techniques for surface emitting distributed feedback lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2974–2977 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, W. Streifer, “Analysis of second-order gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1773–1775 (1992).

1991

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2096–2105 (1989).

Anderson, E. H.

O. King, T. Erdogan, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, D. Costello, M. J. Rooks, “Curved grating fabrication techniques for surface emitting distributed feedback lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2974–2977 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, E. H.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Andersson, M. J. Rooks, “Circularly symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barber, R.

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Tempelton, K. A. McGreer, G. Champion, R. Barber, “Low divergence electrically pumped circular-grating surface-emitting DBR laser on an InGaAs/GaAs structure,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Templeton, R. Barber, “High power emission from a strained DQW circular-grating surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Blaauw, C.

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. M. Tempelton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, D. K. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Champion, G.

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Tempelton, K. A. McGreer, G. Champion, R. Barber, “Low divergence electrically pumped circular-grating surface-emitting DBR laser on an InGaAs/GaAs structure,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chan, A. K.

X. M. Gong, A. K. Chan, H. F. Taylor, “Lateral mode discrimination in surface emitting DBR lasers with circular symmetry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1212–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chatenoud, F.

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Templeton, R. Barber, “High power emission from a strained DQW circular-grating surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Tempelton, K. A. McGreer, G. Champion, R. Barber, “Low divergence electrically pumped circular-grating surface-emitting DBR laser on an InGaAs/GaAs structure,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Costello, D.

O. King, T. Erdogan, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, D. Costello, M. J. Rooks, “Curved grating fabrication techniques for surface emitting distributed feedback lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2974–2977 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Craig, R. G. A.

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, C. L.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2096–2105 (1989).

Dion, M.

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Templeton, R. Barber, “High power emission from a strained DQW circular-grating surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Tempelton, K. A. McGreer, G. Champion, R. Barber, “Low divergence electrically pumped circular-grating surface-emitting DBR laser on an InGaAs/GaAs structure,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Andersson, M. J. Rooks, “Circularly symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O. King, T. Erdogan, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, D. Costello, M. J. Rooks, “Curved grating fabrication techniques for surface emitting distributed feedback lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2974–2977 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2096–2105 (1989).

Eriksson, N.

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, S. J. Sheard, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled surface-emitter with high-quality focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 497–499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, M. Li, A. Larsson, “Optical field analysis of a circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 834–840 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Kjellberg, M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, “Low-threshold grating coupled surface-emitting laser with etch-stop for precise grating positioning,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1149–1152 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fallahi, M.

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Templeton, R. Barber, “High power emission from a strained DQW circular-grating surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, I. Najafi, R. Maciejko, M. Svilans, J. Glinski, M. Fallahi, “Threshold gain and threshold current analysis of circular grating DFB and DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2596–2606 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Tempelton, K. A. McGreer, G. Champion, R. Barber, “Low divergence electrically pumped circular-grating surface-emitting DBR laser on an InGaAs/GaAs structure,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. M. Tempelton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, D. K. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Glinski, J.

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, I. Najafi, R. Maciejko, M. Svilans, J. Glinski, M. Fallahi, “Threshold gain and threshold current analysis of circular grating DFB and DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2596–2606 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. M. Tempelton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, D. K. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gong, X. M.

X. M. Gong, A. K. Chan, H. F. Taylor, “Lateral mode discrimination in surface emitting DBR lasers with circular symmetry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1212–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Green, P. L.

C. Olson, P. L. Green, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, S. Rishton, “Higher-order azimuthal spatial modes of concentric-circle-grating surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1284–1286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hagberg, M.

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Kjellberg, M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, “Low-threshold grating coupled surface-emitting laser with etch-stop for precise grating positioning,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1149–1152 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

C. Olson, P. L. Green, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, S. Rishton, “Higher-order azimuthal spatial modes of concentric-circle-grating surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1284–1286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Olson, D. G. Hall, “Radiation patterns of higher azimuthal order spatial modes from a concentric-circle-grating waveguide cavity using the volume-current method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2298–2307 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Andersson, M. J. Rooks, “Circularly symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O. King, T. Erdogan, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, D. Costello, M. J. Rooks, “Curved grating fabrication techniques for surface emitting distributed feedback lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2974–2977 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2096–2105 (1989).

Hardy, A.

A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, W. Streifer, “Analysis of second-order gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1773–1775 (1992).

Hirata, T.

T. Suhara, T. Taniguchi, M. Uemukai, H. Nishihara, T. Hirata, S. Iio, M. Suehiro, “Monolithic integrated-optic position/displacement sensor using waveguide gratings and QW-DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1195–1197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Iio, S.

T. Suhara, T. Taniguchi, M. Uemukai, H. Nishihara, T. Hirata, S. Iio, M. Suehiro, “Monolithic integrated-optic position/displacement sensor using waveguide gratings and QW-DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1195–1197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Killius, K.-J.

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

King, O.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Andersson, M. J. Rooks, “Circularly symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O. King, T. Erdogan, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, D. Costello, M. J. Rooks, “Curved grating fabrication techniques for surface emitting distributed feedback lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2974–2977 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2096–2105 (1989).

Kjellberg, T.

T. Kjellberg, M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, “Low-threshold grating coupled surface-emitting laser with etch-stop for precise grating positioning,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1149–1152 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Knight, D. K.

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. M. Tempelton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, D. K. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Knight, G.

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kristjánsson, S.

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, S. J. Sheard, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled surface-emitter with high-quality focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 497–499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, M. Li, A. Larsson, “Optical field analysis of a circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 834–840 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, S. J. Sheard, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled surface-emitter with high-quality focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 497–499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, M. Li, A. Larsson, “Optical field analysis of a circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 834–840 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Kjellberg, M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, “Low-threshold grating coupled surface-emitting laser with etch-stop for precise grating positioning,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1149–1152 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, M. Li, A. Larsson, “Optical field analysis of a circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 834–840 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maciejko, R.

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, I. Najafi, R. Maciejko, M. Svilans, J. Glinski, M. Fallahi, “Threshold gain and threshold current analysis of circular grating DFB and DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2596–2606 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. M. Tempelton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, D. K. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Makino, T.

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, I. Najafi, R. Maciejko, M. Svilans, J. Glinski, M. Fallahi, “Threshold gain and threshold current analysis of circular grating DFB and DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2596–2606 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. M. Tempelton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, D. K. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Maritan, C.

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. M. Tempelton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, D. K. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McGreer, K. A.

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Tempelton, K. A. McGreer, G. Champion, R. Barber, “Low divergence electrically pumped circular-grating surface-emitting DBR laser on an InGaAs/GaAs structure,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, I.

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, I. Najafi, R. Maciejko, M. Svilans, J. Glinski, M. Fallahi, “Threshold gain and threshold current analysis of circular grating DFB and DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2596–2606 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. M. Tempelton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, D. K. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

T. Suhara, T. Taniguchi, M. Uemukai, H. Nishihara, T. Hirata, S. Iio, M. Suehiro, “Monolithic integrated-optic position/displacement sensor using waveguide gratings and QW-DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1195–1197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Olson, C.

C. Olson, D. G. Hall, “Radiation patterns of higher azimuthal order spatial modes from a concentric-circle-grating waveguide cavity using the volume-current method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2298–2307 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Olson, P. L. Green, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, S. Rishton, “Higher-order azimuthal spatial modes of concentric-circle-grating surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1284–1286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rishton, S.

C. Olson, P. L. Green, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, S. Rishton, “Higher-order azimuthal spatial modes of concentric-circle-grating surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1284–1286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Andersson, M. J. Rooks, “Circularly symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O. King, T. Erdogan, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, D. Costello, M. J. Rooks, “Curved grating fabrication techniques for surface emitting distributed feedback lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2974–2977 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2096–2105 (1989).

Sheard, S. J.

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, S. J. Sheard, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled surface-emitter with high-quality focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 497–499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, W. Streifer, “Analysis of second-order gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1773–1775 (1992).

Suehiro, M.

T. Suhara, T. Taniguchi, M. Uemukai, H. Nishihara, T. Hirata, S. Iio, M. Suehiro, “Monolithic integrated-optic position/displacement sensor using waveguide gratings and QW-DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1195–1197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

T. Suhara, T. Taniguchi, M. Uemukai, H. Nishihara, T. Hirata, S. Iio, M. Suehiro, “Monolithic integrated-optic position/displacement sensor using waveguide gratings and QW-DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1195–1197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Svilans, M.

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, I. Najafi, R. Maciejko, M. Svilans, J. Glinski, M. Fallahi, “Threshold gain and threshold current analysis of circular grating DFB and DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2596–2606 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. M. Tempelton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, D. K. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, T.

T. Suhara, T. Taniguchi, M. Uemukai, H. Nishihara, T. Hirata, S. Iio, M. Suehiro, “Monolithic integrated-optic position/displacement sensor using waveguide gratings and QW-DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1195–1197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. F.

X. M. Gong, A. K. Chan, H. F. Taylor, “Lateral mode discrimination in surface emitting DBR lasers with circular symmetry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1212–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tempelton, I. M.

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Tempelton, K. A. McGreer, G. Champion, R. Barber, “Low divergence electrically pumped circular-grating surface-emitting DBR laser on an InGaAs/GaAs structure,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. M. Tempelton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, D. K. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Templeton, I.

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Templeton, I. M.

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Templeton, R. Barber, “High power emission from a strained DQW circular-grating surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Uemukai, M.

T. Suhara, T. Taniguchi, M. Uemukai, H. Nishihara, T. Hirata, S. Iio, M. Suehiro, “Monolithic integrated-optic position/displacement sensor using waveguide gratings and QW-DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1195–1197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Welch, D. F.

A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, W. Streifer, “Analysis of second-order gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1773–1775 (1992).

Wicks, G. W.

C. Olson, P. L. Green, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, S. Rishton, “Higher-order azimuthal spatial modes of concentric-circle-grating surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1284–1286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Andersson, M. J. Rooks, “Circularly symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O. King, T. Erdogan, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, D. Costello, M. J. Rooks, “Curved grating fabrication techniques for surface emitting distributed feedback lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2974–2977 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2096–2105 (1989).

Wu, C.

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. M.

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, I. Najafi, R. Maciejko, M. Svilans, J. Glinski, M. Fallahi, “Threshold gain and threshold current analysis of circular grating DFB and DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2596–2606 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. M. Tempelton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, D. K. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Andersson, M. J. Rooks, “Circularly symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating, surface emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Olson, P. L. Green, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, S. Rishton, “Higher-order azimuthal spatial modes of concentric-circle-grating surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1284–1286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, W. Streifer, “Analysis of second-order gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1773–1775 (1992).

Electron. Lett.

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Tempelton, K. A. McGreer, G. Champion, R. Barber, “Low divergence electrically pumped circular-grating surface-emitting DBR laser on an InGaAs/GaAs structure,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1412–1414 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. M. Templeton, R. Barber, “High power emission from a strained DQW circular-grating surface-emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. Olson, D. G. Hall, “Radiation patterns of higher azimuthal order spatial modes from a concentric-circle-grating waveguide cavity using the volume-current method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2298–2307 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2096–2105 (1989).

X. M. Gong, A. K. Chan, H. F. Taylor, “Lateral mode discrimination in surface emitting DBR lasers with circular symmetry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1212–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, I. Najafi, R. Maciejko, M. Svilans, J. Glinski, M. Fallahi, “Threshold gain and threshold current analysis of circular grating DFB and DBR lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2596–2606 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, M. Li, A. Larsson, “Optical field analysis of a circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 834–840 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Kristjánsson, N. Eriksson, S. J. Sheard, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled surface-emitter with high-quality focused output beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 497–499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kristjánsson, M. Li, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, K.-J. Killius, A. Larsson, “Circular grating coupled DBR laser with integrated focusing outcoupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 416–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Kjellberg, M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, A. Larsson, “Low-threshold grating coupled surface-emitting laser with etch-stop for precise grating positioning,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1149–1152 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. M. Tempelton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, D. K. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara, T. Taniguchi, M. Uemukai, H. Nishihara, T. Hirata, S. Iio, M. Suehiro, “Monolithic integrated-optic position/displacement sensor using waveguide gratings and QW-DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1195–1197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

O. King, T. Erdogan, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, D. Costello, M. J. Rooks, “Curved grating fabrication techniques for surface emitting distributed feedback lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2974–2977 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2

C. M. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the two types of laser under investigation here: (a) a laser with a uniform central contact, (b) a laser with a passive central indentation within the contact. D = 180 µm, d = 44 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two schemes for compensating for the Cartesian reference system of the e-beam lithography machine: (a) the JEOL built-in compensation scheme, (b) our scheme using 16 different doses for each 45° interval. The ideal compensation is indicated by the dashed curve in each figure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nomarski-microscope image of one of the lasers. The sectors of each e-beam writing field can be seen, as well as the passive central indentation. The sectors are placed uniquely in one 90° interval, and the same pattern is repeated for the other three quadrants. The apparent difference in pattern and shade between the upper right and lower left quadrants on one hand and the upper left and lower right on the other is an artifact of the Nomarski microscope and can be changed by rotation of the plates of the microscope.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Threshold current (filled circles) and differential quantum efficiency (open circles) for five lasers with different normalized tooth widths (w/Λ). All lasers are without a passive central indentation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light-current characteristic for a laser with and without a passive central indentation. Both lasers have a normalized tooth width of 0.61.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Intensity in the near field (left) and in the far field (right) and (b) spectra for a C-GCSEL without a passive central indentation as a function of drive current. The shadowing in the lower right corner of the near field is produced by the current probe.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Near-field intensity showing a line scan about the circumference, (b) the plotted intensity of that line scan for a laser without a passive central indentation. The drive current is I = 1.17I th.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Intensity in the near field (left) and in the far field (right) and (b) spectra for a C-GCSEL with a passive central indentation as a function of drive current.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Intensity in the near field (left) and in the far field (right) and (b) spectra for a C-GCSEL with a passive central indentation as a function of drive current.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Near-field intensity, showing a line scan at constant radius; (b) the plotted intensity of that line scan for a laser with a passive central indentation. The drive current is I = 1.02I th. Dashed curve, the cos2(ϕ) dependence.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Material Compositions and Layer Thicknesses of the Epitaxial Laser Material

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Eϕm=jωμ0βm ΦmϕZmzdRmrdr,
Erm=-jωμ0βm1rdΦϕdϕdZmzdz Rmr,
Φmϕ=cosmϕ,  m=0, 1, 2, 3  ,
Rmr=CbmHm1βmr+CfmHm2βmr,

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