Abstract

The mid-infrared interferometric instrument is one of three instruments that will equip the focus of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. During the design phase of the instrument we made use of a program of simulations to define the constraints imposed by atmospheric turbulence. We present our results for the estimated fringe motion, during a typical sampling time of 100 ms, and for the estimated fringe visibility with and without tip–tilt correction. Our simulations were run assuming an outer scale of turbulence of 25 m against an infinite value as strictly implied by Kolmogorov statistics. The results show that this has positive consequences for our applications, above all as far as fringe motion is concerned. We also take into consideration the effect of background noise on the accuracy of the fringe visibility measurements and the effect of self-fringe tracking, which has been simulated by a linear fringe-tracker algorithm.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. J.-M. Mariotti, C. Denise, F. Dérie, M. Ferrari, A. Glindemann, B. Köhler, S. A. Lévêque, F. Paresce, M. Schöller, M. Tarenghi, M. Verola, “The VLTI Program: a Status Report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Leinert, U. Graser, “MIDI: a mid-infrared interferometric instrument for VLTI,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 389–393 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Glindemann, R. G. Lane, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of time-evolving speckle patterns using Kolmogorov statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2381–2388 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Glindemann, D. Hamilton, S. Hippler, R.-R. Rohloff, K. Wagner, “ALFA—the laser guide star adaptive-optics system for the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope,” in Laser Technology for Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Astronomy, N. Hubin, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1997), pp. 120–125.
  5. R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), Vol. 19, pp. 283–376.
  7. G. Perrin, “Correction of the ‘piston effect’ in optical astronomical interferometry. I. Modulus and phase gradient of the visibility function restoration,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 553–568 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Davis, P. R. Lawson, A. J. Booth, W. J. Tango, E. D. Thorvaldson, “Atmospheric path variations for baselines up to 80 m measured with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 273, L53–L58 (1995).
  9. V. V. Voitsekhovich, “Outer scale of turbulence: comparison of different models,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 1346–1353 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-M. Mariotti, G. P. Di Benedetto, “Pathlength stability of synthetic aperture telescopes—the case of the 25-cm CERGA interferometer,” in Very Large Telescopes, Their Instrumentation and Programs, M. H. Ulrich, K. Jear, eds., Vol. 79 of the International Astronomical Union Colloquim Proceedings Series (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1984), pp. 257–265.
  11. D. F. Buscher, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, C. S. Denison, M. M. Colavita, M. Shao, “Atmospheric fluctuation measurements with the MKIII interferometer and the power spectra of everything,” in High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. M. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds., Vol. 39 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1992), pp. 1029–1038.
  12. A. Agabi, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Tokovinin, A. Ziad, “G.S.M.: A grating scale monitor for atmospheric turbulence measurements. II,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 109, 557–562 (1995).
  13. A. A. Tokovinin, A. Ziad, F. Martin, R. Avila, “Wave-Front monitoring at La Silla,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 1155–1162 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Leinert, “The mid-infrared interferometric instrument for VLTI,” (Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, 1997).
  15. O. Von der Lühe, D. Bonaccini, F. Derie, B. Koehler, S. Lévêque, E. Manil, A. Michel, M. Verola, “A new plan for the VLTI,” in The ESO Messenger, M.-H. Demoulin, ed. (J. Gotteswinter, Munich, 1997), pp. 8–14.
  16. C. Leinert, “Internal concept review for MIDI, the mid-infrared interferometric instrument for the VLTI,” (Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, 1998).
  17. B. Koehler, “Factors affecting the performance of stellar interferometers,” in High Angular Resolution in Astrophysics, A.-M. Lagrange, D. Mourad, P. Lèna, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 325–335.
  18. W. J. Tango, R. Q. Twiss, “Michelson stellar interferometry,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), Vol. 17, pp. 239–277.
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, F. Paresce, “Adaptive Optics for ESO VLT-interferometer,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 224–232 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Adaptive optics and the outer scale of turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2523–2531 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Robberto, T. M. Herbst, “MAX: the new MPIA thermal infrared imager,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 711–719 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. G. Orlov, V. V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Speckle interferometry, partial adaptive correction for big telescopes and the outer scale of turbulence,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 668–676 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. G. Orlov, V. V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Modal compensation and the atmospheric-turbulence outer scale: computer simulations,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4544–4548 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998

1997

G. Perrin, “Correction of the ‘piston effect’ in optical astronomical interferometry. I. Modulus and phase gradient of the visibility function restoration,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 553–568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Davis, P. R. Lawson, A. J. Booth, W. J. Tango, E. D. Thorvaldson, “Atmospheric path variations for baselines up to 80 m measured with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 273, L53–L58 (1995).

V. V. Voitsekhovich, “Outer scale of turbulence: comparison of different models,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 1346–1353 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Agabi, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Tokovinin, A. Ziad, “G.S.M.: A grating scale monitor for atmospheric turbulence measurements. II,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 109, 557–562 (1995).

V. V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Adaptive optics and the outer scale of turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2523–2531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. Glindemann, R. G. Lane, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of time-evolving speckle patterns using Kolmogorov statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2381–2388 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Agabi, A.

A. Agabi, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Tokovinin, A. Ziad, “G.S.M.: A grating scale monitor for atmospheric turbulence measurements. II,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 109, 557–562 (1995).

Armstrong, J. T.

D. F. Buscher, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, C. S. Denison, M. M. Colavita, M. Shao, “Atmospheric fluctuation measurements with the MKIII interferometer and the power spectra of everything,” in High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. M. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds., Vol. 39 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1992), pp. 1029–1038.

Avila, R.

A. A. Tokovinin, A. Ziad, F. Martin, R. Avila, “Wave-Front monitoring at La Silla,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 1155–1162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccini, D.

D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, F. Paresce, “Adaptive Optics for ESO VLT-interferometer,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 224–232 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Von der Lühe, D. Bonaccini, F. Derie, B. Koehler, S. Lévêque, E. Manil, A. Michel, M. Verola, “A new plan for the VLTI,” in The ESO Messenger, M.-H. Demoulin, ed. (J. Gotteswinter, Munich, 1997), pp. 8–14.

Booth, A. J.

J. Davis, P. R. Lawson, A. J. Booth, W. J. Tango, E. D. Thorvaldson, “Atmospheric path variations for baselines up to 80 m measured with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 273, L53–L58 (1995).

Borgnino, J.

A. Agabi, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Tokovinin, A. Ziad, “G.S.M.: A grating scale monitor for atmospheric turbulence measurements. II,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 109, 557–562 (1995).

Buscher, D. F.

D. F. Buscher, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, C. S. Denison, M. M. Colavita, M. Shao, “Atmospheric fluctuation measurements with the MKIII interferometer and the power spectra of everything,” in High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. M. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds., Vol. 39 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1992), pp. 1029–1038.

Colavita, M. M.

D. F. Buscher, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, C. S. Denison, M. M. Colavita, M. Shao, “Atmospheric fluctuation measurements with the MKIII interferometer and the power spectra of everything,” in High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. M. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds., Vol. 39 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1992), pp. 1029–1038.

Cuevas, S.

V. G. Orlov, V. V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Modal compensation and the atmospheric-turbulence outer scale: computer simulations,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4544–4548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Adaptive optics and the outer scale of turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2523–2531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Orlov, V. V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Speckle interferometry, partial adaptive correction for big telescopes and the outer scale of turbulence,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 668–676 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, J. C.

A. Glindemann, R. G. Lane, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of time-evolving speckle patterns using Kolmogorov statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2381–2388 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J.

J. Davis, P. R. Lawson, A. J. Booth, W. J. Tango, E. D. Thorvaldson, “Atmospheric path variations for baselines up to 80 m measured with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 273, L53–L58 (1995).

Denise, C.

J.-M. Mariotti, C. Denise, F. Dérie, M. Ferrari, A. Glindemann, B. Köhler, S. A. Lévêque, F. Paresce, M. Schöller, M. Tarenghi, M. Verola, “The VLTI Program: a Status Report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Denison, C. S.

D. F. Buscher, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, C. S. Denison, M. M. Colavita, M. Shao, “Atmospheric fluctuation measurements with the MKIII interferometer and the power spectra of everything,” in High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. M. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds., Vol. 39 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1992), pp. 1029–1038.

Derie, F.

O. Von der Lühe, D. Bonaccini, F. Derie, B. Koehler, S. Lévêque, E. Manil, A. Michel, M. Verola, “A new plan for the VLTI,” in The ESO Messenger, M.-H. Demoulin, ed. (J. Gotteswinter, Munich, 1997), pp. 8–14.

Dérie, F.

J.-M. Mariotti, C. Denise, F. Dérie, M. Ferrari, A. Glindemann, B. Köhler, S. A. Lévêque, F. Paresce, M. Schöller, M. Tarenghi, M. Verola, “The VLTI Program: a Status Report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Di Benedetto, G. P.

J.-M. Mariotti, G. P. Di Benedetto, “Pathlength stability of synthetic aperture telescopes—the case of the 25-cm CERGA interferometer,” in Very Large Telescopes, Their Instrumentation and Programs, M. H. Ulrich, K. Jear, eds., Vol. 79 of the International Astronomical Union Colloquim Proceedings Series (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1984), pp. 257–265.

Dudziak, G.

D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, F. Paresce, “Adaptive Optics for ESO VLT-interferometer,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 224–232 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

J.-M. Mariotti, C. Denise, F. Dérie, M. Ferrari, A. Glindemann, B. Köhler, S. A. Lévêque, F. Paresce, M. Schöller, M. Tarenghi, M. Verola, “The VLTI Program: a Status Report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glindemann, A.

A. Glindemann, R. G. Lane, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of time-evolving speckle patterns using Kolmogorov statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2381–2388 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Mariotti, C. Denise, F. Dérie, M. Ferrari, A. Glindemann, B. Köhler, S. A. Lévêque, F. Paresce, M. Schöller, M. Tarenghi, M. Verola, “The VLTI Program: a Status Report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Glindemann, D. Hamilton, S. Hippler, R.-R. Rohloff, K. Wagner, “ALFA—the laser guide star adaptive-optics system for the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope,” in Laser Technology for Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Astronomy, N. Hubin, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1997), pp. 120–125.

D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, F. Paresce, “Adaptive Optics for ESO VLT-interferometer,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 224–232 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Graser, U.

C. Leinert, U. Graser, “MIDI: a mid-infrared interferometric instrument for VLTI,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 389–393 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, D.

A. Glindemann, D. Hamilton, S. Hippler, R.-R. Rohloff, K. Wagner, “ALFA—the laser guide star adaptive-optics system for the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope,” in Laser Technology for Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Astronomy, N. Hubin, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1997), pp. 120–125.

Herbst, T. M.

M. Robberto, T. M. Herbst, “MAX: the new MPIA thermal infrared imager,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 711–719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hippler, S.

A. Glindemann, D. Hamilton, S. Hippler, R.-R. Rohloff, K. Wagner, “ALFA—the laser guide star adaptive-optics system for the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope,” in Laser Technology for Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Astronomy, N. Hubin, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1997), pp. 120–125.

Koehler, B.

O. Von der Lühe, D. Bonaccini, F. Derie, B. Koehler, S. Lévêque, E. Manil, A. Michel, M. Verola, “A new plan for the VLTI,” in The ESO Messenger, M.-H. Demoulin, ed. (J. Gotteswinter, Munich, 1997), pp. 8–14.

B. Koehler, “Factors affecting the performance of stellar interferometers,” in High Angular Resolution in Astrophysics, A.-M. Lagrange, D. Mourad, P. Lèna, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 325–335.

Köhler, B.

J.-M. Mariotti, C. Denise, F. Dérie, M. Ferrari, A. Glindemann, B. Köhler, S. A. Lévêque, F. Paresce, M. Schöller, M. Tarenghi, M. Verola, “The VLTI Program: a Status Report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lane, R. G.

A. Glindemann, R. G. Lane, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of time-evolving speckle patterns using Kolmogorov statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2381–2388 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, P. R.

J. Davis, P. R. Lawson, A. J. Booth, W. J. Tango, E. D. Thorvaldson, “Atmospheric path variations for baselines up to 80 m measured with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 273, L53–L58 (1995).

Leinert, C.

C. Leinert, “The mid-infrared interferometric instrument for VLTI,” (Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, 1997).

C. Leinert, “Internal concept review for MIDI, the mid-infrared interferometric instrument for the VLTI,” (Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, 1998).

C. Leinert, U. Graser, “MIDI: a mid-infrared interferometric instrument for VLTI,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 389–393 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lévêque, S.

O. Von der Lühe, D. Bonaccini, F. Derie, B. Koehler, S. Lévêque, E. Manil, A. Michel, M. Verola, “A new plan for the VLTI,” in The ESO Messenger, M.-H. Demoulin, ed. (J. Gotteswinter, Munich, 1997), pp. 8–14.

Lévêque, S. A.

J.-M. Mariotti, C. Denise, F. Dérie, M. Ferrari, A. Glindemann, B. Köhler, S. A. Lévêque, F. Paresce, M. Schöller, M. Tarenghi, M. Verola, “The VLTI Program: a Status Report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Manil, E.

O. Von der Lühe, D. Bonaccini, F. Derie, B. Koehler, S. Lévêque, E. Manil, A. Michel, M. Verola, “A new plan for the VLTI,” in The ESO Messenger, M.-H. Demoulin, ed. (J. Gotteswinter, Munich, 1997), pp. 8–14.

Mariotti, J.-M.

J.-M. Mariotti, C. Denise, F. Dérie, M. Ferrari, A. Glindemann, B. Köhler, S. A. Lévêque, F. Paresce, M. Schöller, M. Tarenghi, M. Verola, “The VLTI Program: a Status Report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, F. Paresce, “Adaptive Optics for ESO VLT-interferometer,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 224–232 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Mariotti, G. P. Di Benedetto, “Pathlength stability of synthetic aperture telescopes—the case of the 25-cm CERGA interferometer,” in Very Large Telescopes, Their Instrumentation and Programs, M. H. Ulrich, K. Jear, eds., Vol. 79 of the International Astronomical Union Colloquim Proceedings Series (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1984), pp. 257–265.

Martin, F.

A. Agabi, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Tokovinin, A. Ziad, “G.S.M.: A grating scale monitor for atmospheric turbulence measurements. II,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 109, 557–562 (1995).

A. A. Tokovinin, A. Ziad, F. Martin, R. Avila, “Wave-Front monitoring at La Silla,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 1155–1162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michel, A.

O. Von der Lühe, D. Bonaccini, F. Derie, B. Koehler, S. Lévêque, E. Manil, A. Michel, M. Verola, “A new plan for the VLTI,” in The ESO Messenger, M.-H. Demoulin, ed. (J. Gotteswinter, Munich, 1997), pp. 8–14.

Mozurkewich, D.

D. F. Buscher, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, C. S. Denison, M. M. Colavita, M. Shao, “Atmospheric fluctuation measurements with the MKIII interferometer and the power spectra of everything,” in High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. M. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds., Vol. 39 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1992), pp. 1029–1038.

Orlov, V. G.

V. G. Orlov, V. V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Modal compensation and the atmospheric-turbulence outer scale: computer simulations,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4544–4548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Orlov, V. V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Speckle interferometry, partial adaptive correction for big telescopes and the outer scale of turbulence,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 668–676 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paresce, F.

J.-M. Mariotti, C. Denise, F. Dérie, M. Ferrari, A. Glindemann, B. Köhler, S. A. Lévêque, F. Paresce, M. Schöller, M. Tarenghi, M. Verola, “The VLTI Program: a Status Report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, F. Paresce, “Adaptive Optics for ESO VLT-interferometer,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 224–232 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, G.

G. Perrin, “Correction of the ‘piston effect’ in optical astronomical interferometry. I. Modulus and phase gradient of the visibility function restoration,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 553–568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, F. Paresce, “Adaptive Optics for ESO VLT-interferometer,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 224–232 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robberto, M.

M. Robberto, T. M. Herbst, “MAX: the new MPIA thermal infrared imager,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 711–719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), Vol. 19, pp. 283–376.

Rohloff, R.-R.

A. Glindemann, D. Hamilton, S. Hippler, R.-R. Rohloff, K. Wagner, “ALFA—the laser guide star adaptive-optics system for the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope,” in Laser Technology for Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Astronomy, N. Hubin, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1997), pp. 120–125.

Schöller, M.

J.-M. Mariotti, C. Denise, F. Dérie, M. Ferrari, A. Glindemann, B. Köhler, S. A. Lévêque, F. Paresce, M. Schöller, M. Tarenghi, M. Verola, “The VLTI Program: a Status Report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shao, M.

D. F. Buscher, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, C. S. Denison, M. M. Colavita, M. Shao, “Atmospheric fluctuation measurements with the MKIII interferometer and the power spectra of everything,” in High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. M. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds., Vol. 39 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1992), pp. 1029–1038.

Tango, W. J.

J. Davis, P. R. Lawson, A. J. Booth, W. J. Tango, E. D. Thorvaldson, “Atmospheric path variations for baselines up to 80 m measured with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 273, L53–L58 (1995).

W. J. Tango, R. Q. Twiss, “Michelson stellar interferometry,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), Vol. 17, pp. 239–277.
[CrossRef]

Tarenghi, M.

J.-M. Mariotti, C. Denise, F. Dérie, M. Ferrari, A. Glindemann, B. Köhler, S. A. Lévêque, F. Paresce, M. Schöller, M. Tarenghi, M. Verola, “The VLTI Program: a Status Report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thorvaldson, E. D.

J. Davis, P. R. Lawson, A. J. Booth, W. J. Tango, E. D. Thorvaldson, “Atmospheric path variations for baselines up to 80 m measured with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 273, L53–L58 (1995).

Tokovinin, A.

A. Agabi, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Tokovinin, A. Ziad, “G.S.M.: A grating scale monitor for atmospheric turbulence measurements. II,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 109, 557–562 (1995).

Tokovinin, A. A.

A. A. Tokovinin, A. Ziad, F. Martin, R. Avila, “Wave-Front monitoring at La Silla,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 1155–1162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Twiss, R. Q.

W. J. Tango, R. Q. Twiss, “Michelson stellar interferometry,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), Vol. 17, pp. 239–277.
[CrossRef]

Verola, M.

O. Von der Lühe, D. Bonaccini, F. Derie, B. Koehler, S. Lévêque, E. Manil, A. Michel, M. Verola, “A new plan for the VLTI,” in The ESO Messenger, M.-H. Demoulin, ed. (J. Gotteswinter, Munich, 1997), pp. 8–14.

J.-M. Mariotti, C. Denise, F. Dérie, M. Ferrari, A. Glindemann, B. Köhler, S. A. Lévêque, F. Paresce, M. Schöller, M. Tarenghi, M. Verola, “The VLTI Program: a Status Report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
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Voitsekhovich, V. V.

V. G. Orlov, V. V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Modal compensation and the atmospheric-turbulence outer scale: computer simulations,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4544–4548 (1998).
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V. V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Adaptive optics and the outer scale of turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2523–2531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Voitsekhovich, “Outer scale of turbulence: comparison of different models,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 1346–1353 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Orlov, V. V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Speckle interferometry, partial adaptive correction for big telescopes and the outer scale of turbulence,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 668–676 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Von der Lühe, O.

O. Von der Lühe, D. Bonaccini, F. Derie, B. Koehler, S. Lévêque, E. Manil, A. Michel, M. Verola, “A new plan for the VLTI,” in The ESO Messenger, M.-H. Demoulin, ed. (J. Gotteswinter, Munich, 1997), pp. 8–14.

Wagner, K.

A. Glindemann, D. Hamilton, S. Hippler, R.-R. Rohloff, K. Wagner, “ALFA—the laser guide star adaptive-optics system for the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope,” in Laser Technology for Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Astronomy, N. Hubin, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1997), pp. 120–125.

Ziad, A.

A. Agabi, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Tokovinin, A. Ziad, “G.S.M.: A grating scale monitor for atmospheric turbulence measurements. II,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 109, 557–562 (1995).

A. A. Tokovinin, A. Ziad, F. Martin, R. Avila, “Wave-Front monitoring at La Silla,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 1155–1162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser.

G. Perrin, “Correction of the ‘piston effect’ in optical astronomical interferometry. I. Modulus and phase gradient of the visibility function restoration,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 553–568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Agabi, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Tokovinin, A. Ziad, “G.S.M.: A grating scale monitor for atmospheric turbulence measurements. II,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 109, 557–562 (1995).

J. Mod. Opt.

A. Glindemann, R. G. Lane, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of time-evolving speckle patterns using Kolmogorov statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2381–2388 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

V. V. Voitsekhovich, “Outer scale of turbulence: comparison of different models,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 1346–1353 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.

J. Davis, P. R. Lawson, A. J. Booth, W. J. Tango, E. D. Thorvaldson, “Atmospheric path variations for baselines up to 80 m measured with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 273, L53–L58 (1995).

Waves Random Media

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), Vol. 19, pp. 283–376.

A. Glindemann, D. Hamilton, S. Hippler, R.-R. Rohloff, K. Wagner, “ALFA—the laser guide star adaptive-optics system for the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope,” in Laser Technology for Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Astronomy, N. Hubin, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1997), pp. 120–125.

J.-M. Mariotti, C. Denise, F. Dérie, M. Ferrari, A. Glindemann, B. Köhler, S. A. Lévêque, F. Paresce, M. Schöller, M. Tarenghi, M. Verola, “The VLTI Program: a Status Report,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 800–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Leinert, U. Graser, “MIDI: a mid-infrared interferometric instrument for VLTI,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 389–393 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Tokovinin, A. Ziad, F. Martin, R. Avila, “Wave-Front monitoring at La Silla,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 1155–1162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Leinert, “The mid-infrared interferometric instrument for VLTI,” (Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, 1997).

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C. Leinert, “Internal concept review for MIDI, the mid-infrared interferometric instrument for the VLTI,” (Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, 1998).

B. Koehler, “Factors affecting the performance of stellar interferometers,” in High Angular Resolution in Astrophysics, A.-M. Lagrange, D. Mourad, P. Lèna, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 325–335.

W. J. Tango, R. Q. Twiss, “Michelson stellar interferometry,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), Vol. 17, pp. 239–277.
[CrossRef]

D. Bonaccini, F. Rigaut, A. Glindemann, G. Dudziak, J.-M. Mariotti, F. Paresce, “Adaptive Optics for ESO VLT-interferometer,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 224–232 (1998).
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M. Robberto, T. M. Herbst, “MAX: the new MPIA thermal infrared imager,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 711–719 (1998).
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V. G. Orlov, V. V. Voitsekhovich, S. Cuevas, “Speckle interferometry, partial adaptive correction for big telescopes and the outer scale of turbulence,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies, D. Bonaccini, R. K. Tyson, eds., Proc. SPIE3353, 668–676 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Mariotti, G. P. Di Benedetto, “Pathlength stability of synthetic aperture telescopes—the case of the 25-cm CERGA interferometer,” in Very Large Telescopes, Their Instrumentation and Programs, M. H. Ulrich, K. Jear, eds., Vol. 79 of the International Astronomical Union Colloquim Proceedings Series (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1984), pp. 257–265.

D. F. Buscher, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, C. S. Denison, M. M. Colavita, M. Shao, “Atmospheric fluctuation measurements with the MKIII interferometer and the power spectra of everything,” in High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. M. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds., Vol. 39 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, 1992), pp. 1029–1038.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Minimum size of the phase screen depending on baseline B and its projection on wind direction, the number of time steps n, the shift per time step v, and the number of border pixels b.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of a phase screen ϕ(x). Size: 560 × 560 pixels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Differential piston rms versus baseline length for the UT’s: △, median seeing (r 0 = 5.7 m); □, best 10% of seeing (r 0 = 8.15 m); ◇, worst 10% of seeing (r 0 = 3.6 m).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Differential piston (top) and variation of differential piston (bottom) for a sample of 100 fringe acquisition periods of 100 ms each: r 0 = 5.7 m; baseline, 56 m.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Visibility (a) and (b) before and (c) and (d) after tip–tilt correction over (left) a one-Airy-disk area and over (right) a two-Airy-disk area.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Linear fringe tracking: a, actual, and b, predicted phases calculated over one Airy disk and with a SNR of 100: c, variation of the actual phase from one step to the next; d, residual phase error due to the difference in the predicted and the actual phase values.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Distributions of the quantities plotted in Fig. 6.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Visibility Values with Simulated Background Noise for Several Values of the SNR

Tables Icon

Table 2 Self-Fringe Tracking: Residual Fringe Motion rms as a Function of the SNR

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

|ϕˆx|=Wϕˆk1/2
|ϕˆk, l|=0.0231/2DNpix/Dpixr05/6k2+l21/2-11/6.
Npix=maxn-1v+Dpix+B cos θ+2b, L0,pix.
ϕˆwindk, l=ϕˆoldk, lexpi2πkNWk+lNWl/Npix.
ϕˆtotalk, l=ϕˆwindk, l+αk, lϕˆnewk, l/1+α2k, l1/2.
αk, l=tk2+l21/2C/Npix,
Φx, y=nβ+i=1,2 ϕix, y.
|V|2=4IA-IC2+IB-ID2/IA+IB+IC+ID2,
ϕ= tan-1IB-ID/IA-IC.
σOPD=0.42λ0B/r05/6.
Spist=exp-σϕ2t/2,
ϕi+1=ϕi+ϕi-ϕi-1.

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