Abstract

Multilayer-coated Zerodur optics are expected to play a pivotal role in an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography tool. Zerodur is a multiphase, multicomponent material that is a much more complicated substrate than commonly used single-crystal Si or fused-silica substrates. We investigate the effect of Zerodur substrates on the performance of high-EUV reflectance Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer thin films. For Mo/Si the EUV reflectance had a nearly linear dependence on substrate roughness for roughness values of 0.06–0.36 nm rms, and the FWHM of the reflectance curves (spectral bandwidth) was essentially constant over this range. For Mo/Be the EUV reflectance was observed to decrease more steeply than Mo/Si for roughness values greater than approximately 0.2–0.3 nm. Little difference was observed in the EUV reflectivity of multilayer thin films deposited on different substrates as long as the substrate roughness values were similar.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. J. Lerner, “Next generation lithography,” Ind. Phys. 5, 18–21 (1999).
  2. C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. W. Sweeney, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, D. R. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  6. D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. LaFontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernicke, R. N. Kestner, “Precision optical aspheres for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706–3708 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Bach, Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1995), p. 113.
  10. B. N. Schott Glaswerke, Zerodur—Precision from Glass Ceramics, Brochure No. 10041 (B. N. Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany, 1991).
  11. D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372–3372 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. G. Stearns, “Stochastic model for thin film growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745–1747 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. G. Stearns, “X-ray scattering from interfacial roughness in multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4286–4298 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, K. W. Delong, S. P. Vernon, S. L. Baker, D. A. Tichenor, R. Kestner, “Surface characteristics of optics for EUV lithography,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. IV of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 103.
  16. E. Gullikson, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif. 1998 (personal communication).
  17. P. B. Mirkarimi, “Stress, reflectance, and temporal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1246–1259 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 151–152.
  19. P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, “Advances in the reduction and compensation of film stress in high-reflectance multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed, Proc. SPIE, 3331, 133–148 (1998).
  20. S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, S. P. Vernon, M. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based reflective multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, A. J. Marker, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Ref. 9, p. 6.
  22. C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed, Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

1999

P. B. Mirkarimi, “Stress, reflectance, and temporal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1246–1259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Lerner, “Next generation lithography,” Ind. Phys. 5, 18–21 (1999).

1998

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. LaFontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernicke, R. N. Kestner, “Precision optical aspheres for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706–3708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372–3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

D. G. Stearns, “Stochastic model for thin film growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745–1747 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

D. G. Stearns, “X-ray scattering from interfacial roughness in multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4286–4298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bach, H.

H. Bach, Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1995), p. 113.

Bajt, S.

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed, Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, S. P. Vernon, M. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based reflective multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, A. J. Marker, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S. L.

D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, K. W. Delong, S. P. Vernon, S. L. Baker, D. A. Tichenor, R. Kestner, “Surface characteristics of optics for EUV lithography,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. IV of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 103.

Batson, P. J.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372–3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Behymer, R. D.

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, S. P. Vernon, M. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based reflective multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, A. J. Marker, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. LaFontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernicke, R. N. Kestner, “Precision optical aspheres for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706–3708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

D. W. Sweeney, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, D. R. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Delong, K. W.

D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, K. W. Delong, S. P. Vernon, S. L. Baker, D. A. Tichenor, R. Kestner, “Surface characteristics of optics for EUV lithography,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. IV of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 103.

Denham, P. E.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372–3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Folta, J. A.

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed, Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, S. P. Vernon, M. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based reflective multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, A. J. Marker, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Franck, K. D.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372–3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gaines, D. P.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. LaFontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernicke, R. N. Kestner, “Precision optical aspheres for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706–3708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, K. W. Delong, S. P. Vernon, S. L. Baker, D. A. Tichenor, R. Kestner, “Surface characteristics of optics for EUV lithography,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. IV of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 103.

Griffith, J. E.

Gullikson, E.

E. Gullikson, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif. 1998 (personal communication).

Gullikson, E. M.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372–3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gwyn, C. W.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hudyma, R. M.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Sweeney, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, D. R. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kania, D. R.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. LaFontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernicke, R. N. Kestner, “Precision optical aspheres for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706–3708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kestner, R.

D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, K. W. Delong, S. P. Vernon, S. L. Baker, D. A. Tichenor, R. Kestner, “Surface characteristics of optics for EUV lithography,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. IV of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 103.

Kestner, R. N.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. LaFontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernicke, R. N. Kestner, “Precision optical aspheres for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706–3708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koike, M.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372–3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krumrey, M.

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

LaFontaine, B.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. LaFontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernicke, R. N. Kestner, “Precision optical aspheres for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706–3708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lerner, E. J.

E. J. Lerner, “Next generation lithography,” Ind. Phys. 5, 18–21 (1999).

Mirkarimi, P. B.

P. B. Mirkarimi, “Stress, reflectance, and temporal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1246–1259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, “Advances in the reduction and compensation of film stress in high-reflectance multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed, Proc. SPIE, 3331, 133–148 (1998).

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed, Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, S. P. Vernon, M. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based reflective multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, A. J. Marker, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Montcalm, C.

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, S. P. Vernon, M. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based reflective multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, A. J. Marker, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed, Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, “Advances in the reduction and compensation of film stress in high-reflectance multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed, Proc. SPIE, 3331, 133–148 (1998).

Rosen, R. S.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schott Glaswerke, B. N.

B. N. Schott Glaswerke, Zerodur—Precision from Glass Ceramics, Brochure No. 10041 (B. N. Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany, 1991).

Shafer, D. R.

D. W. Sweeney, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, D. R. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G. E.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. LaFontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernicke, R. N. Kestner, “Precision optical aspheres for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706–3708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed, Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 151–152.

Stearns, D.

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, “Stochastic model for thin film growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745–1747 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, “X-ray scattering from interfacial roughness in multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4286–4298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Steele, W. F.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372–3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stulen, R.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. S.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. LaFontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernicke, R. N. Kestner, “Precision optical aspheres for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706–3708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Sweeney, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, D. R. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, K. W. Delong, S. P. Vernon, S. L. Baker, D. A. Tichenor, R. Kestner, “Surface characteristics of optics for EUV lithography,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. IV of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 103.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tackaberry, R. E.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372–3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. S.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tichenor, D. A.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. LaFontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernicke, R. N. Kestner, “Precision optical aspheres for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706–3708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, K. W. Delong, S. P. Vernon, S. L. Baker, D. A. Tichenor, R. Kestner, “Surface characteristics of optics for EUV lithography,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. IV of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 103.

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372–3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, S. P.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. LaFontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernicke, R. N. Kestner, “Precision optical aspheres for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706–3708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, K. W. Delong, S. P. Vernon, S. L. Baker, D. A. Tichenor, R. Kestner, “Surface characteristics of optics for EUV lithography,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. IV of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 103.

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, S. P. Vernon, M. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based reflective multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, A. J. Marker, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vladirmirsky, Y.

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed, Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, “Advances in the reduction and compensation of film stress in high-reflectance multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed, Proc. SPIE, 3331, 133–148 (1998).

Wall, M.

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, S. P. Vernon, M. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based reflective multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, A. J. Marker, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Waskiewicz, W. K.

Weber, F. J.

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed, Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

Wedowski, M.

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, S. P. Vernon, M. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based reflective multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, A. J. Marker, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

Zernicke, F.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. LaFontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernicke, R. N. Kestner, “Precision optical aspheres for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706–3708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. G. Stearns, “Stochastic model for thin film growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745–1747 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Phys.

E. J. Lerner, “Next generation lithography,” Ind. Phys. 5, 18–21 (1999).

J. Appl. Phys.

D. G. Stearns, “X-ray scattering from interfacial roughness in multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4286–4298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. LaFontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernicke, R. N. Kestner, “Precision optical aspheres for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706–3708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

P. B. Mirkarimi, “Stress, reflectance, and temporal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1246–1259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372–3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. W. Sweeney, H. N. Chapman, R. M. Hudyma, D. R. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100 nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 151–152.

P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, “Advances in the reduction and compensation of film stress in high-reflectance multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed, Proc. SPIE, 3331, 133–148 (1998).

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, S. P. Vernon, M. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based reflective multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, A. J. Marker, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ref. 9, p. 6.

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed, Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Bach, Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1995), p. 113.

B. N. Schott Glaswerke, Zerodur—Precision from Glass Ceramics, Brochure No. 10041 (B. N. Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany, 1991).

D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, K. W. Delong, S. P. Vernon, S. L. Baker, D. A. Tichenor, R. Kestner, “Surface characteristics of optics for EUV lithography,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. IV of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 103.

E. Gullikson, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif. 1998 (personal communication).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the deposition system used for Mo/Si multilayer film synthesis. The system used for Mo/Be synthesis is similar except that a Be sputter target is used in place of a Si target.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance versus wavelength for a typical Mo/Si multilayer deposited on a Zerodur substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Peak reflectance of Mo/Si multilayer films at 13.4 nm and (b) FWHM of the reflectance curves centered at 13.4 nm, as a function of the Zerodur substrate roughness before coating. The Zerodur roughness was measured with an AFM over a 2 µm × 2 µm field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Roughness of Mo/Si multilayer films after coating as a function of the roughness of the Zerodur substrates before coating. The Zerodur roughness was measured by an AFM over a 2 µm × 2 µm field.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Peak reflectance of Mo/Be multilayer films at approximately 11.4–11.5 nm, and (b) FWHM of the reflectance curves, as a function of the roughness of the Zerodur substrates before coating. The Zerodur roughness was measured with an AFM over a 1 × 1 µm or 2 × 2 µm field size.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mo/Be multilayer films rms roughness after coating as a function of the rms roughness of the Zerodur substrates before coating. The rms Zerodur roughness was measured with an AFM over a 2 µm × 2 µm field.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Low-resolution (a) and high-resulution (b) XTEM images of a Mo/Be multilayer film deposited on a Zerodur substrate with a 0.12-nm rms surface roughness.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Low-resolution (a) and high-resolution (b) XTEM images of a Mo/Be multilayer film deposited on a Zerodur substrate with a 0.36-nm rms surface roughness.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

XTEM (a) diffraction pattern and (b) image of the Zerodur substrate immediately after exposure to the electron beam. Evidence of some crystalline structure is observed, as expected.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

XTEM (a) diffraction pattern and (b) image of the Zerodur substrate after exposure to the electrons from the TEM. Amorphization due to the prolonged electron irradiation is apparent.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Compressive stress of two Mo/Si-coated Zerodur optics as a function of time.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Selected Physical Properties of Zerodur

Equations (3)

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Rmax=0.683-0.142σrms-0.133σrms2
σrmsMo/Si=0.130+0.362σrmszerodur+0.733σrmszerodur2.
Stress in MPa=-470t-0.017

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