Abstract

A new design for an aberration-corrected concave grating for the spectral region near 10 µm is presented. It was designed for use in the ground-based astronomical medium-resolution (λ/Δλ ∼ 100) Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (MICS). It provides a flat focal plane for a wide spectral range (7.5–13.5 µm) with small aberrations, permitting efficient long-slit observations in the mid-infrared region. It permits a simple design of the spectrometer without collimator and camera mirrors, which is quite advantageous for cryogenic instruments. The grating has variable spacing grooves to reduce aberrations. In addition, the grating surface figure is designed to be toroidal and in the direction perpendicular to the grooves, aspherical, to suppress the aberrations further over a wide spectral range. The angle of the grooves is also varied to yield better efficiency near the blaze angle. The grating was fabricated by high-quality ultraprecision machining, which made these features possible. Test observations confirmed that the designed spectral resolution was achieved.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Jayawardhana, S. Fisher, L. Hartmann, C. Telesco, R. Pina, G. Fazio, “A dust disk surrounding the young A star HR 4796A,” Astrophys. J. 503, L79–L82 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. W. Koerner, M. E. Ressler, M. W. Werner, D. E. Backman, “Mid-infrared imaging of a circumstellar disk around HR 4796: mapping the debris of planetary formation,” Astrophys. J. 503, L83–L87 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Miyata, H. Kataza, Y. Okamoto, T. Tanabe, T. Onaka, Y. Yamashita, K. Nakamura, H. Shibai, “MICS: a new mid-infrared camera and spectrometer for ground-based astronomy,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 111, 750–764 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. L. Roellig, T. Onaka, T. J. McMahon, T. Tanabe, “The mid-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 428, 370–376 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Onaka, “Aberration-corrected concave grating for the mid-infrared spectrometer aboard the Infrared Telescope in Space,” Appl. Opt. 34, 659–666 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. T. Welford, “Aberration theory of gratings and grating mountings,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1965), Vol. 4, pp. 241–280.
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Harada, T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled aberration-corrected concave gratings,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3987–3993 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Harada, K. Takahashi, H. Sakuma, A. Osyczka, “Optimum design of a grazing-incidence flat-field spectrograph with a spherical varied-line-space grating,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2743–2748 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. L. Roellig, K. Mochizuki, T. Onaka, T. Tanabe, I. Yamamura, L. Yuen, “Flight performance of the Mid-Infrared Spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space mission,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IV, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2817, 258–266 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

T. Miyata, H. Kataza, Y. Okamoto, T. Tanabe, T. Onaka, Y. Yamashita, K. Nakamura, H. Shibai, “MICS: a new mid-infrared camera and spectrometer for ground-based astronomy,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 111, 750–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Harada, K. Takahashi, H. Sakuma, A. Osyczka, “Optimum design of a grazing-incidence flat-field spectrograph with a spherical varied-line-space grating,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2743–2748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. Jayawardhana, S. Fisher, L. Hartmann, C. Telesco, R. Pina, G. Fazio, “A dust disk surrounding the young A star HR 4796A,” Astrophys. J. 503, L79–L82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Koerner, M. E. Ressler, M. W. Werner, D. E. Backman, “Mid-infrared imaging of a circumstellar disk around HR 4796: mapping the debris of planetary formation,” Astrophys. J. 503, L83–L87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

T. Harada, T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled aberration-corrected concave gratings,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3987–3993 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Roellig, T. Onaka, T. J. McMahon, T. Tanabe, “The mid-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 428, 370–376 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Backman, D. E.

D. W. Koerner, M. E. Ressler, M. W. Werner, D. E. Backman, “Mid-infrared imaging of a circumstellar disk around HR 4796: mapping the debris of planetary formation,” Astrophys. J. 503, L83–L87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fazio, G.

R. Jayawardhana, S. Fisher, L. Hartmann, C. Telesco, R. Pina, G. Fazio, “A dust disk surrounding the young A star HR 4796A,” Astrophys. J. 503, L79–L82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, S.

R. Jayawardhana, S. Fisher, L. Hartmann, C. Telesco, R. Pina, G. Fazio, “A dust disk surrounding the young A star HR 4796A,” Astrophys. J. 503, L79–L82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harada, T.

Hartmann, L.

R. Jayawardhana, S. Fisher, L. Hartmann, C. Telesco, R. Pina, G. Fazio, “A dust disk surrounding the young A star HR 4796A,” Astrophys. J. 503, L79–L82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jayawardhana, R.

R. Jayawardhana, S. Fisher, L. Hartmann, C. Telesco, R. Pina, G. Fazio, “A dust disk surrounding the young A star HR 4796A,” Astrophys. J. 503, L79–L82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kataza, H.

T. Miyata, H. Kataza, Y. Okamoto, T. Tanabe, T. Onaka, Y. Yamashita, K. Nakamura, H. Shibai, “MICS: a new mid-infrared camera and spectrometer for ground-based astronomy,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 111, 750–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kita, T.

Koerner, D. W.

D. W. Koerner, M. E. Ressler, M. W. Werner, D. E. Backman, “Mid-infrared imaging of a circumstellar disk around HR 4796: mapping the debris of planetary formation,” Astrophys. J. 503, L83–L87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, T. J.

T. L. Roellig, T. Onaka, T. J. McMahon, T. Tanabe, “The mid-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 428, 370–376 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, T.

T. Miyata, H. Kataza, Y. Okamoto, T. Tanabe, T. Onaka, Y. Yamashita, K. Nakamura, H. Shibai, “MICS: a new mid-infrared camera and spectrometer for ground-based astronomy,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 111, 750–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, K.

T. L. Roellig, K. Mochizuki, T. Onaka, T. Tanabe, I. Yamamura, L. Yuen, “Flight performance of the Mid-Infrared Spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space mission,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IV, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2817, 258–266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

T. Miyata, H. Kataza, Y. Okamoto, T. Tanabe, T. Onaka, Y. Yamashita, K. Nakamura, H. Shibai, “MICS: a new mid-infrared camera and spectrometer for ground-based astronomy,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 111, 750–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, Y.

T. Miyata, H. Kataza, Y. Okamoto, T. Tanabe, T. Onaka, Y. Yamashita, K. Nakamura, H. Shibai, “MICS: a new mid-infrared camera and spectrometer for ground-based astronomy,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 111, 750–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Onaka, T.

T. Miyata, H. Kataza, Y. Okamoto, T. Tanabe, T. Onaka, Y. Yamashita, K. Nakamura, H. Shibai, “MICS: a new mid-infrared camera and spectrometer for ground-based astronomy,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 111, 750–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, “Aberration-corrected concave grating for the mid-infrared spectrometer aboard the Infrared Telescope in Space,” Appl. Opt. 34, 659–666 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Roellig, T. Onaka, T. J. McMahon, T. Tanabe, “The mid-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 428, 370–376 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Roellig, K. Mochizuki, T. Onaka, T. Tanabe, I. Yamamura, L. Yuen, “Flight performance of the Mid-Infrared Spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space mission,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IV, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2817, 258–266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Osyczka, A.

Pina, R.

R. Jayawardhana, S. Fisher, L. Hartmann, C. Telesco, R. Pina, G. Fazio, “A dust disk surrounding the young A star HR 4796A,” Astrophys. J. 503, L79–L82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ressler, M. E.

D. W. Koerner, M. E. Ressler, M. W. Werner, D. E. Backman, “Mid-infrared imaging of a circumstellar disk around HR 4796: mapping the debris of planetary formation,” Astrophys. J. 503, L83–L87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roellig, T. L.

T. L. Roellig, T. Onaka, T. J. McMahon, T. Tanabe, “The mid-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 428, 370–376 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Roellig, K. Mochizuki, T. Onaka, T. Tanabe, I. Yamamura, L. Yuen, “Flight performance of the Mid-Infrared Spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space mission,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IV, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2817, 258–266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sakuma, H.

Shibai, H.

T. Miyata, H. Kataza, Y. Okamoto, T. Tanabe, T. Onaka, Y. Yamashita, K. Nakamura, H. Shibai, “MICS: a new mid-infrared camera and spectrometer for ground-based astronomy,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 111, 750–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

Tanabe, T.

T. Miyata, H. Kataza, Y. Okamoto, T. Tanabe, T. Onaka, Y. Yamashita, K. Nakamura, H. Shibai, “MICS: a new mid-infrared camera and spectrometer for ground-based astronomy,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 111, 750–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Roellig, T. Onaka, T. J. McMahon, T. Tanabe, “The mid-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 428, 370–376 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Roellig, K. Mochizuki, T. Onaka, T. Tanabe, I. Yamamura, L. Yuen, “Flight performance of the Mid-Infrared Spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space mission,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IV, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2817, 258–266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Telesco, C.

R. Jayawardhana, S. Fisher, L. Hartmann, C. Telesco, R. Pina, G. Fazio, “A dust disk surrounding the young A star HR 4796A,” Astrophys. J. 503, L79–L82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, “Aberration theory of gratings and grating mountings,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1965), Vol. 4, pp. 241–280.
[CrossRef]

Werner, M. W.

D. W. Koerner, M. E. Ressler, M. W. Werner, D. E. Backman, “Mid-infrared imaging of a circumstellar disk around HR 4796: mapping the debris of planetary formation,” Astrophys. J. 503, L83–L87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamamura, I.

T. L. Roellig, K. Mochizuki, T. Onaka, T. Tanabe, I. Yamamura, L. Yuen, “Flight performance of the Mid-Infrared Spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space mission,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IV, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2817, 258–266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, Y.

T. Miyata, H. Kataza, Y. Okamoto, T. Tanabe, T. Onaka, Y. Yamashita, K. Nakamura, H. Shibai, “MICS: a new mid-infrared camera and spectrometer for ground-based astronomy,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 111, 750–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, L.

T. L. Roellig, K. Mochizuki, T. Onaka, T. Tanabe, I. Yamamura, L. Yuen, “Flight performance of the Mid-Infrared Spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space mission,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IV, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2817, 258–266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astrophys. J. (3)

T. L. Roellig, T. Onaka, T. J. McMahon, T. Tanabe, “The mid-infrared spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission,” Astrophys. J. 428, 370–376 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Jayawardhana, S. Fisher, L. Hartmann, C. Telesco, R. Pina, G. Fazio, “A dust disk surrounding the young A star HR 4796A,” Astrophys. J. 503, L79–L82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Koerner, M. E. Ressler, M. W. Werner, D. E. Backman, “Mid-infrared imaging of a circumstellar disk around HR 4796: mapping the debris of planetary formation,” Astrophys. J. 503, L83–L87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific (1)

T. Miyata, H. Kataza, Y. Okamoto, T. Tanabe, T. Onaka, Y. Yamashita, K. Nakamura, H. Shibai, “MICS: a new mid-infrared camera and spectrometer for ground-based astronomy,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 111, 750–764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

W. T. Welford, “Aberration theory of gratings and grating mountings,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1965), Vol. 4, pp. 241–280.
[CrossRef]

T. L. Roellig, K. Mochizuki, T. Onaka, T. Tanabe, I. Yamamura, L. Yuen, “Flight performance of the Mid-Infrared Spectrometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space mission,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IV, M. S. Scholl, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE2817, 258–266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the coordinate system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral line half-width versus wavelength. The solid curve near the bottom indicates the width that results from the total grating aberrations [Δλ g ; Eq. (13)], the long-dashed curve depicts the width for the nontoroidal case (R = R 0), the short-dashed curve, which overlaps the solid curve, indicates the width for K = 1, the short-and-long-dashed line shows the width that is due to the finite slit length [Δλ c ; Eq. (14)], and the thick solid line near the top shows the width that is due to the slit width.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of ray-tracing calculations for 16 wavelengths. Each square expresses a pixel of the MICS detector. The number below the square indicates the wavelength of the incident light. For each wavelength, only three pixels of the detector, both ends and the center, are indicated, and the results of the light rays passing through both ends and the center of the slit are shown. The distance between the end and center pixels is half of the slit length.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Mid-infrared spectrum of a star-forming region, W51, taken by the MICS at the performance verification observations.3 The flux is in arbitrary units. The observed signals (filled circles) are connected by straight lines. The spectrum was coadded over 15 pixels along the slit direction. The slit width corresponded to 2 pixels. The three ionic lines seen are [ArIII], 8.99 µm; [SIV], 10.51 µm; and [NeII], 12.81 µm. (b) Close-up of the observed [ArIII] line (filled circles) together with the Gaussian fit (solid curve). (c) Same as (b) but for the [SIV] line. (d) Same as (b) but for the [NeII] line.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 MICS Grating Parameters

Equations (21)

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F=AP+PB+mnλ,
n=w+b2R w2+b3R2 w3+b4R3 w4+σ0.
r=R/cosα,  r=R/cosβ,
u=l22R+w22R0+l48R3+Kw48R03+l2w24R2R0+.
F=r+r+wF10+w2F20+w3F30++w4F40+.
F10=-sinα-sinβ+mλσ0,
F20=12cos2αr-cosαR0+12cos2βr-cosβR0+b2mλRσ0,
F30=sinα2rcos2αr-cosαR0+sinβ2rcos2βr-cosβR0+b3mλR2σ0,
F40=18R021r-KcosαR0+sin2α2r2cos2αr-cosαR0-18rcos2αr-cosαR02+18R021r-KcosβR0+sin2β2r2cos2βr-cosβR0-18rcos2βr-cosβR02+b4mλR3σ0.
mλσ0=sinα + cosβ.
F20=12cos3αR-cosαR0+12cos3βR-cosβR0+b2Rsinα + sinβ.
K=R0/R,
Δλg=σ0 cosβ2mFwz=0; w=W,
Δλc=σ0dcosα cosβ8mR2|2Wsinα-β-dcosαsinα+sinβ|,
F2012cos3αR-cosαR0+121-β221-β2R-1R0+b2Rsinα+β
=Ry-34R β2+b2R β+12Rcos3α-Ry cosα+12R1-Ry+b2Rsinα.
b2=1/2β03-Ry.
Ry=3β22-2β2β0-β02-4cos3α-12β0 sinα-4β22-2β2β0--β02-4cosα-4β0 sinα-4.
θi=arctanR tanα-wR-0.5w2/R0.
θr=-arctanR tanβb+wR-0.5w2/R0.
θ=θi+θr2.

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