Abstract

In a recent paper a new technique was proposed for remote ranging and topographical mapping by using a system with a single-photon-counting detector and a low-power pulsed laser [Appl. Opt. 35, 441 (1996)]. We report on the results from the laboratory and the field demonstration of this literal three-dimensional imaging technique. Using a detector system developed at Los Alamos with a commercial pulsed laser and observing from a single remote vantage point, we demonstrate use of this technique in the literal mapping of three-dimensional topography and the probing of a complex scene. With a reasonably short exposure this system can resolve features with height variations as small as 5 cm.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. C. Priedhorsky, R. C. Smith, C. Ho, “Laser ranging and mapping with a photon-counting detector,” Appl. Opt. 35, 441–452 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. B. Davis, C. Ho, S. P. Love, “Off-beam (multiply-scattered) lidar returns from stratus. 2: Space–time measurements in a laboratory simulation,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, U. Singh, S. Ismail, G. Schwemmer, eds. (NASA Center for Aero-Space Information, Annapolis, Md., 1998) pp. 55–58.
  3. M. B. Williams, S. E. Sobottka, J. A. Shepherd, “Delay line readout of MicroChannel Plates in a prototype position-sensitive photomultiplier tube,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A302, 105–112 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. H. Baron, W. C. Priedhorsky, “Crossed delay line detector for ground and space based applications,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE2006, 188–197 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1996

1991

M. B. Williams, S. E. Sobottka, J. A. Shepherd, “Delay line readout of MicroChannel Plates in a prototype position-sensitive photomultiplier tube,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A302, 105–112 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baron, M. H.

M. H. Baron, W. C. Priedhorsky, “Crossed delay line detector for ground and space based applications,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE2006, 188–197 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davis, A. B.

A. B. Davis, C. Ho, S. P. Love, “Off-beam (multiply-scattered) lidar returns from stratus. 2: Space–time measurements in a laboratory simulation,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, U. Singh, S. Ismail, G. Schwemmer, eds. (NASA Center for Aero-Space Information, Annapolis, Md., 1998) pp. 55–58.

Ho, C.

W. C. Priedhorsky, R. C. Smith, C. Ho, “Laser ranging and mapping with a photon-counting detector,” Appl. Opt. 35, 441–452 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Davis, C. Ho, S. P. Love, “Off-beam (multiply-scattered) lidar returns from stratus. 2: Space–time measurements in a laboratory simulation,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, U. Singh, S. Ismail, G. Schwemmer, eds. (NASA Center for Aero-Space Information, Annapolis, Md., 1998) pp. 55–58.

Love, S. P.

A. B. Davis, C. Ho, S. P. Love, “Off-beam (multiply-scattered) lidar returns from stratus. 2: Space–time measurements in a laboratory simulation,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, U. Singh, S. Ismail, G. Schwemmer, eds. (NASA Center for Aero-Space Information, Annapolis, Md., 1998) pp. 55–58.

Priedhorsky, W. C.

W. C. Priedhorsky, R. C. Smith, C. Ho, “Laser ranging and mapping with a photon-counting detector,” Appl. Opt. 35, 441–452 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Baron, W. C. Priedhorsky, “Crossed delay line detector for ground and space based applications,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE2006, 188–197 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, J. A.

M. B. Williams, S. E. Sobottka, J. A. Shepherd, “Delay line readout of MicroChannel Plates in a prototype position-sensitive photomultiplier tube,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A302, 105–112 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

Sobottka, S. E.

M. B. Williams, S. E. Sobottka, J. A. Shepherd, “Delay line readout of MicroChannel Plates in a prototype position-sensitive photomultiplier tube,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A302, 105–112 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Williams, M. B.

M. B. Williams, S. E. Sobottka, J. A. Shepherd, “Delay line readout of MicroChannel Plates in a prototype position-sensitive photomultiplier tube,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A302, 105–112 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res.

M. B. Williams, S. E. Sobottka, J. A. Shepherd, “Delay line readout of MicroChannel Plates in a prototype position-sensitive photomultiplier tube,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A302, 105–112 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. H. Baron, W. C. Priedhorsky, “Crossed delay line detector for ground and space based applications,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IV, O. H. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE2006, 188–197 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Davis, C. Ho, S. P. Love, “Off-beam (multiply-scattered) lidar returns from stratus. 2: Space–time measurements in a laboratory simulation,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, U. Singh, S. Ismail, G. Schwemmer, eds. (NASA Center for Aero-Space Information, Annapolis, Md., 1998) pp. 55–58.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the laboratory experimental setup. The entire experiment is contained in a 24-ft (7.3-m)-long dark laboratory.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Styrofoam target used in the laboratory experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of the target scene from the laboratory experiment. The intensity map is shown as the negative, i.e., darker pixels contain more counts. (a) Image constructed from the total data set. The features are described in the text. (b) Image constructed from the phase-culled data set that contains approximately half of the number of photons of the image in (a). In addition to being dimmer than (a), (b) also lacks the spots at the center and the upper right corner of the FOV. The spots are randomly distributed in time and suppressed by phase culling.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase distribution of the photon list: (a) Overall distribution of the calculated phase from 0 to 640 ns. (b) Dominant feature at 438 ns in greater detail.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Calculated topographical map of the target as a positive intensity map. Brighter pixels have greater height or are closer to the observer. (b) Contour map of the calculated topography. To reduce confusion, only one contour level at 27.5 cm (see Fig. 6) is imposed. (c) Calculated topography shown as a surface plot viewed from a slightly oblique angle. In this visualization a lighting effect is used to form a shadow.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distribution of the calculated height, which is clearly multimodal. The features at 20, 25, and 30 cm are the wall, the solid Styrofoam block, and the letters LANL, respectively. The sharp feature at 17 cm is the assigned height of the pixels with less than two counts. These are the dark pixels shown in Fig. 5(a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wooden-box target [3-ft (0.9-m) cube] that was used for the field experiment. A solid-yellow carpet covered the entire box during the experiment. Note the slope of the ground and the forward lean of the box.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Phase distribution of the field experiment data set: (a) the full 640-ns range in which complex structures can easily be seen and (b) the range between 220 and 245 ns.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Three-dimensional data box as negative images project from different viewing angles. The 3D box is labeled as follows: +T axis is up, +Y axis is to the left as viewed from the front, and +X is along the line of sight away from the observer. See text for a more detailed discussion.

Equations (7)

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x=x1-x2,
y=y1-y2,
t=x1+x2+y1+y2/4,
d=|x1+x2-y1+y2|<δ.
t=-t+dtF+dtImodulo P,
dtF=TFsecθ-1,
dtI=TIsecκθ-1.

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