Abstract

Image smear caused by frame transfer in CCD detectors is considered in terms of an image restoration problem, and an efficient method of achieving smear removal is described and demonstrated. A frequency analysis of the image smearing process identifies optimal regimes for the operation of the CCD.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. J. Burt, “Extending the performance limits of CCD image sensors,” GEC J. Res. 12, 130–140 (1995).
  2. B. T. Turko, G. J. Yates, “Elimination of artifacts in interline charge-coupled device imagers,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1542–1546 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Hagiwara, “High-density and high-quality frame transfer CCD imager with very low smear, low dark current, and very high blue sensitivity,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 43, 2122–2130 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1992).
  5. J. E. U. Ashton, EEV Ltd., Waterhouse Lane, Chelmsford, Essex, UK (personal communication, 1996).
  6. J. C. Feltz, M. A. Karim, “Modulation transfer function of charge-coupled devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 717–722 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. M. Iftekharuddin, M. A. Karim, “Acquisition by staring focal plane arrays: pixel geometry effects,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2649–2656 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. G. Proakis, D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing, Principles, Algorithms, and Applications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1996).

1996 (1)

Y. Hagiwara, “High-density and high-quality frame transfer CCD imager with very low smear, low dark current, and very high blue sensitivity,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 43, 2122–2130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. J. Burt, “Extending the performance limits of CCD image sensors,” GEC J. Res. 12, 130–140 (1995).

1993 (1)

K. M. Iftekharuddin, M. A. Karim, “Acquisition by staring focal plane arrays: pixel geometry effects,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2649–2656 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

B. T. Turko, G. J. Yates, “Elimination of artifacts in interline charge-coupled device imagers,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1542–1546 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Ashton, J. E. U.

J. E. U. Ashton, EEV Ltd., Waterhouse Lane, Chelmsford, Essex, UK (personal communication, 1996).

Burt, D. J.

D. J. Burt, “Extending the performance limits of CCD image sensors,” GEC J. Res. 12, 130–140 (1995).

Feltz, J. C.

Gonzalez, R. C.

R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1992).

Hagiwara, Y.

Y. Hagiwara, “High-density and high-quality frame transfer CCD imager with very low smear, low dark current, and very high blue sensitivity,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 43, 2122–2130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Iftekharuddin, K. M.

K. M. Iftekharuddin, M. A. Karim, “Acquisition by staring focal plane arrays: pixel geometry effects,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2649–2656 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Karim, M. A.

K. M. Iftekharuddin, M. A. Karim, “Acquisition by staring focal plane arrays: pixel geometry effects,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2649–2656 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Feltz, M. A. Karim, “Modulation transfer function of charge-coupled devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 717–722 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manolakis, D. G.

J. G. Proakis, D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing, Principles, Algorithms, and Applications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1996).

Proakis, J. G.

J. G. Proakis, D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing, Principles, Algorithms, and Applications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1996).

Turko, B. T.

B. T. Turko, G. J. Yates, “Elimination of artifacts in interline charge-coupled device imagers,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1542–1546 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Woods, R. E.

R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1992).

Yates, G. J.

B. T. Turko, G. J. Yates, “Elimination of artifacts in interline charge-coupled device imagers,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1542–1546 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

GEC J. Res. (1)

D. J. Burt, “Extending the performance limits of CCD image sensors,” GEC J. Res. 12, 130–140 (1995).

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

Y. Hagiwara, “High-density and high-quality frame transfer CCD imager with very low smear, low dark current, and very high blue sensitivity,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 43, 2122–2130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

B. T. Turko, G. J. Yates, “Elimination of artifacts in interline charge-coupled device imagers,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1542–1546 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Iftekharuddin, M. A. Karim, “Acquisition by staring focal plane arrays: pixel geometry effects,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2649–2656 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. G. Proakis, D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing, Principles, Algorithms, and Applications (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1996).

R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1992).

J. E. U. Ashton, EEV Ltd., Waterhouse Lane, Chelmsford, Essex, UK (personal communication, 1996).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

CCD operation modes: (a) standard mode operation, (b) reverse clocking mode. An asterisk indicates the charge accumulation section that does not occur for the charge flush mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Standard mode smeared image, (b) charge flush smeared image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Unsmeared image of 2(a), (b) Unsmeared image of 2(b).

Equations (16)

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Ym=Ym+δ j=0jmN-1 Yj,
Y0Y1Y2Yn-1=1δδδδ1δδδδ1δδδδ1Y0Y1Y2Yn-1
Y=MY=1-δI+δOY,
M-1=11-δI+δδ-1-δNO.
Ym=Ym+tδ j=0m-1 Yj,
Y=Y0Y1Y2Yn-1=1000tδ100tδtδ10tδtδtδ1Y0Y1Y2Yn-1 =MY.
Hj=1+N-1δj=01-δj0.
M-1=1-δI+δO-1=11-δI+δ1-δO-1.
M-1=11-δI+i=1δiδ-1iOi,
M-1=11-δI+1NOi=1Nδδ-1i.
M-1=11-δI+δδ-1-δNO.
Ym=Ym+δ j=0jmN-1 Yj,
Ym=i=0N-1 hm-iYi,
hi=1i=0δi0.
Hj=h=i=0N-1 hiwNij=1+δ i=0N-1 wNij,
Hj=1+N-1δj=01-δj0.

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