Abstract

A multichannel diffractive optic rotary joint was designed, fabricated by electron-beam lithography, and evaluated with regard to cross talk and to output signal power variations. High cross-talk margin (>25 dB) and low output signal power variations (<2 dB) were achieved. The sensitivity to input-light-beam wavelength uncertainty was investigated. Two design examples are presented. The first design eliminates cross talk due to unwanted diffraction orders and shows that for a ten-channel joint the wavelength uncertainty of an 850-nm emitting laser must be less than 8 nm. In the second design cross talk due to the second diffraction order is permitted, which results in a tolerance level that is three times better for wavelength uncertainty.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. A. Speer, W. W. Koch, “The diversity of fiber optic rotary connectors (slip rings),” in Components for Fiber Optic Applications II, V. J. Tekippe, eds., Proc. SPIE, 839, 122–129 (1987).
  2. K. Moriya, “Multichannel optical slip ring,” Japanese patent62-28704 (31July1985).
  3. J. W. Corcoran, “A multiple parallel channel rotary optical coupler,” European patent419 029 (10August1990).
  4. G. Spinner, M. Lang, A. Pautz, “Light-rotation coupling for a plurality of channels,” U.S. patent4,519,670 (28May1985).
  5. M. T. Gale, “Replication,” in Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems and Applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).
  6. M. Larsson, M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, S. Hård, “Successive development optimization of resist kinoforms manufactured with direct-writing, electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1176–1179 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

Corcoran, J. W.

J. W. Corcoran, “A multiple parallel channel rotary optical coupler,” European patent419 029 (10August1990).

Ekberg, M.

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, “Replication,” in Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems and Applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).

Hård, S.

Koch, W. W.

J. A. Speer, W. W. Koch, “The diversity of fiber optic rotary connectors (slip rings),” in Components for Fiber Optic Applications II, V. J. Tekippe, eds., Proc. SPIE, 839, 122–129 (1987).

Lang, M.

G. Spinner, M. Lang, A. Pautz, “Light-rotation coupling for a plurality of channels,” U.S. patent4,519,670 (28May1985).

Larsson, M.

Moriya, K.

K. Moriya, “Multichannel optical slip ring,” Japanese patent62-28704 (31July1985).

Nikolajeff, F.

Pautz, A.

G. Spinner, M. Lang, A. Pautz, “Light-rotation coupling for a plurality of channels,” U.S. patent4,519,670 (28May1985).

Speer, J. A.

J. A. Speer, W. W. Koch, “The diversity of fiber optic rotary connectors (slip rings),” in Components for Fiber Optic Applications II, V. J. Tekippe, eds., Proc. SPIE, 839, 122–129 (1987).

Spinner, G.

G. Spinner, M. Lang, A. Pautz, “Light-rotation coupling for a plurality of channels,” U.S. patent4,519,670 (28May1985).

Appl. Opt.

Other

J. A. Speer, W. W. Koch, “The diversity of fiber optic rotary connectors (slip rings),” in Components for Fiber Optic Applications II, V. J. Tekippe, eds., Proc. SPIE, 839, 122–129 (1987).

K. Moriya, “Multichannel optical slip ring,” Japanese patent62-28704 (31July1985).

J. W. Corcoran, “A multiple parallel channel rotary optical coupler,” European patent419 029 (10August1990).

G. Spinner, M. Lang, A. Pautz, “Light-rotation coupling for a plurality of channels,” U.S. patent4,519,670 (28May1985).

M. T. Gale, “Replication,” in Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems and Applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of a refractive optic rotary joint. The various input channels have their respective foci on the axis of rotation (and symmetry).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Design freedom of DOE.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of a mounted MCDORJ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fabricated two-channel DOE.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM picture of part of the fabricated DOE showing the border area between the two lenses. Relief depth, ∼1.0 µm; lateral period, ∼5 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

AFM trace across the border between the two lens areas showing the phase shift at the border.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fundamental output plane diffraction pattern.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Closeup CCD picture of the diffraction pattern near the +1 diffraction order.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Intensity scan of the beam profile in the focus spot (+1 order), with a detector aperture of diameter 10 µm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Power variations in the focus spots during continuous rotation (∼1.7 cycles are shown): (a) focus 1, (b) focus 2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Wavelength sensitivity of the MCDORJ.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Positioning of a fiber array to obtain the smallest possible deflection angles and to avoid disturbance from unwanted diffraction spots.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Spot Radii Used in the Irradiance Calculations

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Table 2 Measured Normalized Irradiance (dB): Area 1 on the DOE Illuminated

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Table 3 Measured Normalized Irradiance (dB): Area 2 on the DOE Illuminated

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Table 4 Normalized Power (dB) Inside an Aperture of Diameter 100 µm: Area 1 on the DOE Illuminated

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Table 5 Normalized Power (dB) Inside an Aperture of Diameter 100 µm: Area 2 on the DOE Illuminated

Equations (25)

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I=P/πr2,
z0=2ω02/λ,
Δf=-f0Δλ/λ,
rmax=f0Δλ/Λmin,
Δλ<ϕΛmin/2f0.
k1ϕN-1<d3,
d2+12 k1ϕN-1=λf0Λ1,
Λ1f0<λ2k1ϕN-1.
d2+k2DN-1=λf0ΛN,
ΛNf0<2λN-13k1ϕ+2k2D.
k2D>k1ϕ/2,
D>λf0/ϕ.
Λminf0<2λϕN-13k1ϕ2+2k2λf0.
λ/Λmin<N.A.
f0>32k1ϕ2N-1ϕN.A.-k2λN-1.
Δλ<λ1-k2λϕN.A.N-13k1N-1.
N<λϕN.A.3k1ΔλϕN.A.+k2λ2+1.
k1ϕN-1<d,
d=λf0/Λ1.
Λ1f0<λk1ϕN-1.
Λminf0<2λN-1k1ϕ+2k2D.
Λminf0<2λϕN-1k1ϕ2+2k2λf0.
f0>12k1ϕ2N-1ϕN.A.-k2λN-1.
Δλ<λ1-k2λϕN.A.N-1k1N-1.
N<λϕN.A.k1ΔλϕN.A.+k2λ2+1.

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