Abstract

SiO2 thin films (≈100 nm thick) with transmittivity and a laser damage threshold nearly equal to those of bulk material are deposited on silica substrates by the technique of ion-assisted electron-beam evaporation. The influence of film packing density on the laser damage threshold is investigated by the technique of photoacoustic probe beam deflection. It is shown that films with lower packing density may have a higher laser damage threshold and as a consequence better heat dissipation.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Hacker, H. Lauth, P. Weissbrodt, “Review of structural influences on the laser damage thresholds of oxide coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennet, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 316–330 (1996).
  2. C. Giuri, M. R. Perrone, V. Piccinno, “Output coupler design of unstable cavities for excimer lasers,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1143–1148 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Influence of the assisting-ion-beam-parameters on the laser-damage threshold of SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 338, 269–275 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. C. Ferrara, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Effects of substrate temperature on the laser-damage threshold of sputtered SiO2 films,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 16, 3408–3413 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Rosencwaig, J. B. Willis, “Photoacoustic study of laser damage in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 667–669 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Petzoldt, A. P. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage threshold determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Bender, T. Gerber, H. Albrecht, B. Himmel, “X-ray reflectivity study of r.f.-sputtered thin SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 229, 29–32 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Grosse, B. Harbecke, B. Heinz, R. Meyer, M. Offenberg, “Infrared spectroscopy of oxide layers on technical Si wafers,” Appl. Phys. A 39, 257–268 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. A. Pliskin, “Comparison of properties of dielectric films deposited by various methods,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 1064–1079 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. P. Lisovskii, V. G. Litovchenko, V. G. Lozinskii, G. I. Steblovskii, “IR spectroscopic investigation of SiO2 film structure,” Thin Solid Films 213, 164–169 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Nakamura, R. Kanzawa, K. Sakai, “Stress and density effects on infrared absorption spectra of silicate glass films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 133, 1167–1171 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. G. Pai, S. S. Chao, Y. Takagi, G. Lucovsky, “Infrared spectroscopic study of SiOx films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 689–694 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Reichling, J. Siegel, E. Matthias, H. Lauth, E. Hacker, “Photoacoustic studies of laser damage in oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 253, 333–338 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Gu, X. Liu, J. Tang, “Damage threshold of (ZrO2-Y2O3)/SiO2 reflectors used for XeCl lasers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1528–1530 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Influence of the assisting-ion-beam-parameters on the laser-damage threshold of SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 338, 269–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. C. Ferrara, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Effects of substrate temperature on the laser-damage threshold of sputtered SiO2 films,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 16, 3408–3413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

M. Reichling, J. Siegel, E. Matthias, H. Lauth, E. Hacker, “Photoacoustic studies of laser damage in oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 253, 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

P. Gu, X. Liu, J. Tang, “Damage threshold of (ZrO2-Y2O3)/SiO2 reflectors used for XeCl lasers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1528–1530 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bender, T. Gerber, H. Albrecht, B. Himmel, “X-ray reflectivity study of r.f.-sputtered thin SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 229, 29–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

I. P. Lisovskii, V. G. Litovchenko, V. G. Lozinskii, G. I. Steblovskii, “IR spectroscopic investigation of SiO2 film structure,” Thin Solid Films 213, 164–169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Petzoldt, A. P. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage threshold determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

M. Nakamura, R. Kanzawa, K. Sakai, “Stress and density effects on infrared absorption spectra of silicate glass films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 133, 1167–1171 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Pai, S. S. Chao, Y. Takagi, G. Lucovsky, “Infrared spectroscopic study of SiOx films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 689–694 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Grosse, B. Harbecke, B. Heinz, R. Meyer, M. Offenberg, “Infrared spectroscopy of oxide layers on technical Si wafers,” Appl. Phys. A 39, 257–268 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Rosencwaig, J. B. Willis, “Photoacoustic study of laser damage in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 667–669 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

W. A. Pliskin, “Comparison of properties of dielectric films deposited by various methods,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 1064–1079 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, H.

A. Bender, T. Gerber, H. Albrecht, B. Himmel, “X-ray reflectivity study of r.f.-sputtered thin SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 229, 29–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alvisi, M.

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Influence of the assisting-ion-beam-parameters on the laser-damage threshold of SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 338, 269–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. C. Ferrara, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Effects of substrate temperature on the laser-damage threshold of sputtered SiO2 films,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 16, 3408–3413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bender, A.

A. Bender, T. Gerber, H. Albrecht, B. Himmel, “X-ray reflectivity study of r.f.-sputtered thin SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 229, 29–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chao, S. S.

P. G. Pai, S. S. Chao, Y. Takagi, G. Lucovsky, “Infrared spectroscopic study of SiOx films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 689–694 (1986).
[CrossRef]

De Nunzio, G.

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Influence of the assisting-ion-beam-parameters on the laser-damage threshold of SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 338, 269–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. C. Ferrara, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Effects of substrate temperature on the laser-damage threshold of sputtered SiO2 films,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 16, 3408–3413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elg, A. P.

S. Petzoldt, A. P. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage threshold determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, M. C.

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. C. Ferrara, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Effects of substrate temperature on the laser-damage threshold of sputtered SiO2 films,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 16, 3408–3413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, T.

A. Bender, T. Gerber, H. Albrecht, B. Himmel, “X-ray reflectivity study of r.f.-sputtered thin SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 229, 29–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Giuri, C.

Grosse, P.

P. Grosse, B. Harbecke, B. Heinz, R. Meyer, M. Offenberg, “Infrared spectroscopy of oxide layers on technical Si wafers,” Appl. Phys. A 39, 257–268 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gu, P.

Hacker, E.

M. Reichling, J. Siegel, E. Matthias, H. Lauth, E. Hacker, “Photoacoustic studies of laser damage in oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 253, 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Hacker, H. Lauth, P. Weissbrodt, “Review of structural influences on the laser damage thresholds of oxide coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennet, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 316–330 (1996).

Harbecke, B.

P. Grosse, B. Harbecke, B. Heinz, R. Meyer, M. Offenberg, “Infrared spectroscopy of oxide layers on technical Si wafers,” Appl. Phys. A 39, 257–268 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, B.

P. Grosse, B. Harbecke, B. Heinz, R. Meyer, M. Offenberg, “Infrared spectroscopy of oxide layers on technical Si wafers,” Appl. Phys. A 39, 257–268 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Himmel, B.

A. Bender, T. Gerber, H. Albrecht, B. Himmel, “X-ray reflectivity study of r.f.-sputtered thin SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 229, 29–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kanzawa, R.

M. Nakamura, R. Kanzawa, K. Sakai, “Stress and density effects on infrared absorption spectra of silicate glass films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 133, 1167–1171 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lauth, H.

M. Reichling, J. Siegel, E. Matthias, H. Lauth, E. Hacker, “Photoacoustic studies of laser damage in oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 253, 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Hacker, H. Lauth, P. Weissbrodt, “Review of structural influences on the laser damage thresholds of oxide coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennet, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 316–330 (1996).

Lisovskii, I. P.

I. P. Lisovskii, V. G. Litovchenko, V. G. Lozinskii, G. I. Steblovskii, “IR spectroscopic investigation of SiO2 film structure,” Thin Solid Films 213, 164–169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Litovchenko, V. G.

I. P. Lisovskii, V. G. Litovchenko, V. G. Lozinskii, G. I. Steblovskii, “IR spectroscopic investigation of SiO2 film structure,” Thin Solid Films 213, 164–169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lozinskii, V. G.

I. P. Lisovskii, V. G. Litovchenko, V. G. Lozinskii, G. I. Steblovskii, “IR spectroscopic investigation of SiO2 film structure,” Thin Solid Films 213, 164–169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lucovsky, G.

P. G. Pai, S. S. Chao, Y. Takagi, G. Lucovsky, “Infrared spectroscopic study of SiOx films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 689–694 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, E.

M. Reichling, J. Siegel, E. Matthias, H. Lauth, E. Hacker, “Photoacoustic studies of laser damage in oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 253, 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Petzoldt, A. P. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage threshold determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, R.

P. Grosse, B. Harbecke, B. Heinz, R. Meyer, M. Offenberg, “Infrared spectroscopy of oxide layers on technical Si wafers,” Appl. Phys. A 39, 257–268 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

M. Nakamura, R. Kanzawa, K. Sakai, “Stress and density effects on infrared absorption spectra of silicate glass films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 133, 1167–1171 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Offenberg, M.

P. Grosse, B. Harbecke, B. Heinz, R. Meyer, M. Offenberg, “Infrared spectroscopy of oxide layers on technical Si wafers,” Appl. Phys. A 39, 257–268 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pai, P. G.

P. G. Pai, S. S. Chao, Y. Takagi, G. Lucovsky, “Infrared spectroscopic study of SiOx films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 689–694 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Perrone, M. R.

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Influence of the assisting-ion-beam-parameters on the laser-damage threshold of SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 338, 269–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. C. Ferrara, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Effects of substrate temperature on the laser-damage threshold of sputtered SiO2 films,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 16, 3408–3413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Giuri, M. R. Perrone, V. Piccinno, “Output coupler design of unstable cavities for excimer lasers,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1143–1148 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petzoldt, S.

S. Petzoldt, A. P. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage threshold determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Piccinno, V.

Pliskin, W. A.

W. A. Pliskin, “Comparison of properties of dielectric films deposited by various methods,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 1064–1079 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Reichling, M.

M. Reichling, J. Siegel, E. Matthias, H. Lauth, E. Hacker, “Photoacoustic studies of laser damage in oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 253, 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Petzoldt, A. P. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage threshold determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Reif, J.

S. Petzoldt, A. P. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage threshold determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rizzo, A.

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Influence of the assisting-ion-beam-parameters on the laser-damage threshold of SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 338, 269–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. C. Ferrara, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Effects of substrate temperature on the laser-damage threshold of sputtered SiO2 films,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 16, 3408–3413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rosencwaig, A.

A. Rosencwaig, J. B. Willis, “Photoacoustic study of laser damage in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 667–669 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

M. Nakamura, R. Kanzawa, K. Sakai, “Stress and density effects on infrared absorption spectra of silicate glass films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 133, 1167–1171 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Scaglione, S.

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Influence of the assisting-ion-beam-parameters on the laser-damage threshold of SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 338, 269–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. C. Ferrara, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Effects of substrate temperature on the laser-damage threshold of sputtered SiO2 films,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 16, 3408–3413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, J.

M. Reichling, J. Siegel, E. Matthias, H. Lauth, E. Hacker, “Photoacoustic studies of laser damage in oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 253, 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Steblovskii, G. I.

I. P. Lisovskii, V. G. Litovchenko, V. G. Lozinskii, G. I. Steblovskii, “IR spectroscopic investigation of SiO2 film structure,” Thin Solid Films 213, 164–169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, Y.

P. G. Pai, S. S. Chao, Y. Takagi, G. Lucovsky, “Infrared spectroscopic study of SiOx films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 689–694 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J.

Vasanelli, L.

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Influence of the assisting-ion-beam-parameters on the laser-damage threshold of SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 338, 269–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. C. Ferrara, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Effects of substrate temperature on the laser-damage threshold of sputtered SiO2 films,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 16, 3408–3413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weissbrodt, P.

E. Hacker, H. Lauth, P. Weissbrodt, “Review of structural influences on the laser damage thresholds of oxide coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennet, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 316–330 (1996).

Willis, J. B.

A. Rosencwaig, J. B. Willis, “Photoacoustic study of laser damage in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 667–669 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

P. Grosse, B. Harbecke, B. Heinz, R. Meyer, M. Offenberg, “Infrared spectroscopy of oxide layers on technical Si wafers,” Appl. Phys. A 39, 257–268 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Rosencwaig, J. B. Willis, “Photoacoustic study of laser damage in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 667–669 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. Petzoldt, A. P. Elg, M. Reichling, J. Reif, E. Matthias, “Surface laser damage threshold determined by photoacoustic deflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2005–2007 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

M. Nakamura, R. Kanzawa, K. Sakai, “Stress and density effects on infrared absorption spectra of silicate glass films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 133, 1167–1171 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

W. A. Pliskin, “Comparison of properties of dielectric films deposited by various methods,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 1064–1079 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

P. G. Pai, S. S. Chao, Y. Takagi, G. Lucovsky, “Infrared spectroscopic study of SiOx films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 689–694 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A (1)

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. C. Ferrara, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Effects of substrate temperature on the laser-damage threshold of sputtered SiO2 films,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 16, 3408–3413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (4)

M. Alvisi, G. De Nunzio, M. R. Perrone, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, L. Vasanelli, “Influence of the assisting-ion-beam-parameters on the laser-damage threshold of SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 338, 269–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Bender, T. Gerber, H. Albrecht, B. Himmel, “X-ray reflectivity study of r.f.-sputtered thin SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 229, 29–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Reichling, J. Siegel, E. Matthias, H. Lauth, E. Hacker, “Photoacoustic studies of laser damage in oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 253, 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Lisovskii, V. G. Litovchenko, V. G. Lozinskii, G. I. Steblovskii, “IR spectroscopic investigation of SiO2 film structure,” Thin Solid Films 213, 164–169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. Hacker, H. Lauth, P. Weissbrodt, “Review of structural influences on the laser damage thresholds of oxide coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennet, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 316–330 (1996).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittivity versus wavelength of the deposited SiO2 films. The solid curve represents the transmittivity curve that refers to the substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray reflectivity curves versus θ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FTIR spectra of the deposited SiO2 films in the spectral range of 4000–700 cm-1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for determining laser-induced damage thresholds by the photoacoustic mirage technique.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the photoacoustic signal (open dots) and transit time (solid dots) of the photoacoustic wave front from the sample surface to the probe beam as a function of the incident-laser fluence F of sample A.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the photoacoustic signal (open dots) and transit time (solid dots) of the photoacoustic wave front from the sample surface to the probe beam as a function of the incident-laser fluence F of sample B.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the photoacoustic signal (open dots) and transit time (solid dots) of the photoacoustic wave front from the sample surface to the probe beam as a function of the incident-laser fluence F of sample C.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Peak-to-peak amplitude of the photoacoustic signal (open dots) and transit time (solid dots) of the photoacoustic wave front from the sample surface to the probe beam as a function of the incident-laser fluence F of sample D.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Profile of a film A area irradiated by a laser pulse of 22 J/cm2 taken by an AlphaStep 200 stylus profilometer.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Deposition Conditions, Optical and Structural Characterization, and Damage Threshold Fluences of SiO2 Thin Films

Tables Icon

Table 2 Main Data from the FTIR Spectra of the SiO2 Films

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

nr=1-θc2/2.
nr=1-e2ρeλ2/2πmec2,
SF=aFe for  F<Fth,
SF=a*Fe* for  F>Fth,

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