Abstract

High-resolution double-modulation Fourier-transform (FT) spectroscopy (FTS) is demonstrated for what is, to our knowledge, the first time. Two high-resolution FT interferograms are simultaneously recorded. The first one is nonselective and contains all the spectral information from the observed source, and the other one is made of the samples that are sensitive to only a specific source modulation. General formulations and practical recording procedures are given for phase- and intensity-modulated spectra. The advantage of selectivity is illustrated by velocity-modulated emission spectra of the Δv = 1 sequence of the Doppler-shifted ArH+ ion. It is also shown that for a source perturbation of small amplitude, only the product of intensity × shift can be retrieved from the selective line shapes obtained in a phase-modulated laser or FT spectra. Thanks to the multimodulation FTS approach, the intensity and the shift of the transitions are measured in a single experiment.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Modulation and selective detection of transient species in high resolution FTS,” Spectrosc. Acta A 51, 1117–1125 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Benidar, G. Guelachvili, P. A. Martin, “Selective detection of OH radical in emission by concentration-modulation infrared FTS,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 177, 563–567 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Elhanine, R. Farrenq, G. Guelachvili, “Polarization modulation high resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4024–4029 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Guelachvili, “Selective detection of paramagnetic species by high-information Fourier-transform spectrometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1718–1721 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. A. Nafie, D. W. Vidrine, “Double modulation Fourier transform spectroscopy,” in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, J. R. Ferraro, L. J. Basile, eds. (Academic, New York, 1982), Vol. 3, pp. 83–123.
  6. C. J. Manning, P. R. Griffiths, “Multiple-modulation double-Fourier transform IR spectrometry,” in Ninth International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, J. E. Bertie, H. Wieser, eds., Proc. SPIE2089, 248–249 (1993).
  7. F. Long, T. B. Freedman, T. J. Tague, L. A. Nafie, “Step-scan Fourier transform vibrational circular dichroism measurements in the vibrational region above 2000 cm-1,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 504–507 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. S. Gudeman, M. H. Begeman, J. Pfaff, R. J. Saykally, “Velocity modulated infrared laser spectroscopy of molecular ions: the ν1 band of HCO+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 727–731 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Velocity-modulation Fourier transform spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2535–2538 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. X. Hong, T. A. Miller, “Velocity modulated Fourier transform emission as a plasma diagnostic and a spectroscopic tool,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 4572–4577 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Hong, T. A. Miller, “Observation of characteristic, polarity-dependent, Doppler shifts from neutral species in the positive column of a discharge plasma,” J. Chem. Phys. 103, 8821–8827 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Hong, T. A. Miller, “An investigation of the mechanisms of production of Ar+ emission using Doppler shifted Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 298–302 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Tasumi, H. Toriumi, W. G. Fateley, eds., “Contributions from the International Symposium on Advanced Infrared Spectroscopy (AIRS),” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, (1993).
  14. J. A. de Haseth, ed., Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, Eleventh International Conference, AIP Conf. Proc.430, (1998).
  15. D. L. Drapcho, R. Curbelo, E. Y. Jiang, R. A. Crocombe, W. J. McCarthy, “Digital signal processing for step-scan Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 453–460 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Civis̆, “Infrared diode laser study of ArH+ and ArD+ ions in the positive column of an ac glow discharge,” Chem. Phys. 186, 63–76 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Picqué, G. Guelachvili, “ArH+ near 5 µm with high resolution double demodulation FTS,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. (to be published).
  18. N. Picqué, S. Civis̆, P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Rovibrational intensities for the Δv = 1 bands of 1Σ+ ArH+,” submitted to J. Mol. Spectrosc.
  19. N. Picqué, “Spectroscopic investigation of the state-to-state dependence of ArH+ ion mobility in a He plasma,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.
  20. J. W. Farley, “Theory of the resonance line shape in velocity-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 5590–5602 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Solka, W. Zimmermann, D. Reinert, A. Stahn, A. Dax, W. Urban, “A simple model for the velocity modulation detection technique of molecular ions,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 235–242 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Picqué, “Espèces moleculaires. Approches nouvelles par spectroscopie de Fourier,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Paris-Sud, Centre d’Orsay, 1998), order No. 5594.

1997 (2)

1995 (3)

X. Hong, T. A. Miller, “Observation of characteristic, polarity-dependent, Doppler shifts from neutral species in the positive column of a discharge plasma,” J. Chem. Phys. 103, 8821–8827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Hong, T. A. Miller, “An investigation of the mechanisms of production of Ar+ emission using Doppler shifted Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 298–302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Modulation and selective detection of transient species in high resolution FTS,” Spectrosc. Acta A 51, 1117–1125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

X. Hong, T. A. Miller, “Velocity modulated Fourier transform emission as a plasma diagnostic and a spectroscopic tool,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 4572–4577 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Civis̆, “Infrared diode laser study of ArH+ and ArD+ ions in the positive column of an ac glow discharge,” Chem. Phys. 186, 63–76 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Tasumi, H. Toriumi, W. G. Fateley, eds., “Contributions from the International Symposium on Advanced Infrared Spectroscopy (AIRS),” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, (1993).

1991 (2)

J. W. Farley, “Theory of the resonance line shape in velocity-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 5590–5602 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Benidar, G. Guelachvili, P. A. Martin, “Selective detection of OH radical in emission by concentration-modulation infrared FTS,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 177, 563–567 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Velocity-modulation Fourier transform spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2535–2538 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

M. Elhanine, R. Farrenq, G. Guelachvili, “Polarization modulation high resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4024–4029 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Solka, W. Zimmermann, D. Reinert, A. Stahn, A. Dax, W. Urban, “A simple model for the velocity modulation detection technique of molecular ions,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 235–242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

C. S. Gudeman, M. H. Begeman, J. Pfaff, R. J. Saykally, “Velocity modulated infrared laser spectroscopy of molecular ions: the ν1 band of HCO+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 727–731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Begeman, M. H.

C. S. Gudeman, M. H. Begeman, J. Pfaff, R. J. Saykally, “Velocity modulated infrared laser spectroscopy of molecular ions: the ν1 band of HCO+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 727–731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Benidar, A.

A. Benidar, G. Guelachvili, P. A. Martin, “Selective detection of OH radical in emission by concentration-modulation infrared FTS,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 177, 563–567 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Civis?, S.

S. Civis̆, “Infrared diode laser study of ArH+ and ArD+ ions in the positive column of an ac glow discharge,” Chem. Phys. 186, 63–76 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Picqué, S. Civis̆, P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Rovibrational intensities for the Δv = 1 bands of 1Σ+ ArH+,” submitted to J. Mol. Spectrosc.

Crocombe, R. A.

Curbelo, R.

Dax, A.

H. Solka, W. Zimmermann, D. Reinert, A. Stahn, A. Dax, W. Urban, “A simple model for the velocity modulation detection technique of molecular ions,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 235–242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Drapcho, D. L.

Elhanine, M.

Farley, J. W.

J. W. Farley, “Theory of the resonance line shape in velocity-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 5590–5602 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Farrenq, R.

Freedman, T. B.

Griffiths, P. R.

C. J. Manning, P. R. Griffiths, “Multiple-modulation double-Fourier transform IR spectrometry,” in Ninth International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, J. E. Bertie, H. Wieser, eds., Proc. SPIE2089, 248–249 (1993).

Gudeman, C. S.

C. S. Gudeman, M. H. Begeman, J. Pfaff, R. J. Saykally, “Velocity modulated infrared laser spectroscopy of molecular ions: the ν1 band of HCO+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 727–731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Guelachvili, G.

P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Modulation and selective detection of transient species in high resolution FTS,” Spectrosc. Acta A 51, 1117–1125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Benidar, G. Guelachvili, P. A. Martin, “Selective detection of OH radical in emission by concentration-modulation infrared FTS,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 177, 563–567 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Velocity-modulation Fourier transform spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2535–2538 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Elhanine, R. Farrenq, G. Guelachvili, “Polarization modulation high resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4024–4029 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Guelachvili, “Selective detection of paramagnetic species by high-information Fourier-transform spectrometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1718–1721 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. Picqué, G. Guelachvili, “ArH+ near 5 µm with high resolution double demodulation FTS,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. (to be published).

N. Picqué, S. Civis̆, P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Rovibrational intensities for the Δv = 1 bands of 1Σ+ ArH+,” submitted to J. Mol. Spectrosc.

Hong, X.

X. Hong, T. A. Miller, “Observation of characteristic, polarity-dependent, Doppler shifts from neutral species in the positive column of a discharge plasma,” J. Chem. Phys. 103, 8821–8827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Hong, T. A. Miller, “An investigation of the mechanisms of production of Ar+ emission using Doppler shifted Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 298–302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Hong, T. A. Miller, “Velocity modulated Fourier transform emission as a plasma diagnostic and a spectroscopic tool,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 4572–4577 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, E. Y.

Long, F.

Manning, C. J.

C. J. Manning, P. R. Griffiths, “Multiple-modulation double-Fourier transform IR spectrometry,” in Ninth International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, J. E. Bertie, H. Wieser, eds., Proc. SPIE2089, 248–249 (1993).

Martin, P. A.

P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Modulation and selective detection of transient species in high resolution FTS,” Spectrosc. Acta A 51, 1117–1125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Benidar, G. Guelachvili, P. A. Martin, “Selective detection of OH radical in emission by concentration-modulation infrared FTS,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 177, 563–567 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Velocity-modulation Fourier transform spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2535–2538 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Picqué, S. Civis̆, P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Rovibrational intensities for the Δv = 1 bands of 1Σ+ ArH+,” submitted to J. Mol. Spectrosc.

McCarthy, W. J.

Miller, T. A.

X. Hong, T. A. Miller, “An investigation of the mechanisms of production of Ar+ emission using Doppler shifted Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 298–302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Hong, T. A. Miller, “Observation of characteristic, polarity-dependent, Doppler shifts from neutral species in the positive column of a discharge plasma,” J. Chem. Phys. 103, 8821–8827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Hong, T. A. Miller, “Velocity modulated Fourier transform emission as a plasma diagnostic and a spectroscopic tool,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 4572–4577 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nafie, L. A.

F. Long, T. B. Freedman, T. J. Tague, L. A. Nafie, “Step-scan Fourier transform vibrational circular dichroism measurements in the vibrational region above 2000 cm-1,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 504–507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Nafie, D. W. Vidrine, “Double modulation Fourier transform spectroscopy,” in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, J. R. Ferraro, L. J. Basile, eds. (Academic, New York, 1982), Vol. 3, pp. 83–123.

Pfaff, J.

C. S. Gudeman, M. H. Begeman, J. Pfaff, R. J. Saykally, “Velocity modulated infrared laser spectroscopy of molecular ions: the ν1 band of HCO+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 727–731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Picqué, N.

N. Picqué, S. Civis̆, P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Rovibrational intensities for the Δv = 1 bands of 1Σ+ ArH+,” submitted to J. Mol. Spectrosc.

N. Picqué, G. Guelachvili, “ArH+ near 5 µm with high resolution double demodulation FTS,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. (to be published).

N. Picqué, “Spectroscopic investigation of the state-to-state dependence of ArH+ ion mobility in a He plasma,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Picqué, “Espèces moleculaires. Approches nouvelles par spectroscopie de Fourier,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Paris-Sud, Centre d’Orsay, 1998), order No. 5594.

Reinert, D.

H. Solka, W. Zimmermann, D. Reinert, A. Stahn, A. Dax, W. Urban, “A simple model for the velocity modulation detection technique of molecular ions,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 235–242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

C. S. Gudeman, M. H. Begeman, J. Pfaff, R. J. Saykally, “Velocity modulated infrared laser spectroscopy of molecular ions: the ν1 band of HCO+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 727–731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Solka, H.

H. Solka, W. Zimmermann, D. Reinert, A. Stahn, A. Dax, W. Urban, “A simple model for the velocity modulation detection technique of molecular ions,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 235–242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stahn, A.

H. Solka, W. Zimmermann, D. Reinert, A. Stahn, A. Dax, W. Urban, “A simple model for the velocity modulation detection technique of molecular ions,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 235–242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tague, T. J.

Urban, W.

H. Solka, W. Zimmermann, D. Reinert, A. Stahn, A. Dax, W. Urban, “A simple model for the velocity modulation detection technique of molecular ions,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 235–242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vidrine, D. W.

L. A. Nafie, D. W. Vidrine, “Double modulation Fourier transform spectroscopy,” in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, J. R. Ferraro, L. J. Basile, eds. (Academic, New York, 1982), Vol. 3, pp. 83–123.

Zimmermann, W.

H. Solka, W. Zimmermann, D. Reinert, A. Stahn, A. Dax, W. Urban, “A simple model for the velocity modulation detection technique of molecular ions,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 235–242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Solka, W. Zimmermann, D. Reinert, A. Stahn, A. Dax, W. Urban, “A simple model for the velocity modulation detection technique of molecular ions,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 235–242 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (3)

Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Civis̆, “Infrared diode laser study of ArH+ and ArD+ ions in the positive column of an ac glow discharge,” Chem. Phys. 186, 63–76 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Benidar, G. Guelachvili, P. A. Martin, “Selective detection of OH radical in emission by concentration-modulation infrared FTS,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 177, 563–567 (1991).
[CrossRef]

X. Hong, T. A. Miller, “An investigation of the mechanisms of production of Ar+ emission using Doppler shifted Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 298–302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

J. W. Farley, “Theory of the resonance line shape in velocity-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 5590–5602 (1991).
[CrossRef]

X. Hong, T. A. Miller, “Velocity modulated Fourier transform emission as a plasma diagnostic and a spectroscopic tool,” J. Chem. Phys. 101, 4572–4577 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Hong, T. A. Miller, “Observation of characteristic, polarity-dependent, Doppler shifts from neutral species in the positive column of a discharge plasma,” J. Chem. Phys. 103, 8821–8827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. S. Gudeman, M. H. Begeman, J. Pfaff, R. J. Saykally, “Velocity modulated infrared laser spectroscopy of molecular ions: the ν1 band of HCO+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 727–731 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Velocity-modulation Fourier transform spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2535–2538 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectrosc. Acta A (1)

P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Modulation and selective detection of transient species in high resolution FTS,” Spectrosc. Acta A 51, 1117–1125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

L. A. Nafie, D. W. Vidrine, “Double modulation Fourier transform spectroscopy,” in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, J. R. Ferraro, L. J. Basile, eds. (Academic, New York, 1982), Vol. 3, pp. 83–123.

C. J. Manning, P. R. Griffiths, “Multiple-modulation double-Fourier transform IR spectrometry,” in Ninth International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, J. E. Bertie, H. Wieser, eds., Proc. SPIE2089, 248–249 (1993).

J. A. de Haseth, ed., Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, Eleventh International Conference, AIP Conf. Proc.430, (1998).

N. Picqué, G. Guelachvili, “ArH+ near 5 µm with high resolution double demodulation FTS,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. (to be published).

N. Picqué, S. Civis̆, P. A. Martin, G. Guelachvili, “Rovibrational intensities for the Δv = 1 bands of 1Σ+ ArH+,” submitted to J. Mol. Spectrosc.

N. Picqué, “Spectroscopic investigation of the state-to-state dependence of ArH+ ion mobility in a He plasma,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Picqué, “Espèces moleculaires. Approches nouvelles par spectroscopie de Fourier,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Paris-Sud, Centre d’Orsay, 1998), order No. 5594.

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