Abstract

Fiber-optic sensors were installed on fatigue-critical components in the superstructure of a railroad bridge to monitor dynamic strains induced by trains crossing the bridge as well as to detect the onset of cracks. Each fiber Fabry–Perot interferometer (FFPI) strain gage was adhesively bonded to a stainless-steel strip to facilitate all-weather installation on the steel bridge members by spot welding. FFPI strain sensors were also installed on a rail at an approach to the bridge. Electrical resistive strain gages were colocated with the fiber-optic sensors on the bridge for the purpose of performance verification. In addition to the strain gages, fiber-optic continuity sensors for crack detection were bonded to the structure at critical locations. A telemetry system for transmitting the data over telephone lines was also installed at the bridge site. Dynamic response of the fiber-optic strain sensors is comparable with that of the electrical gages, and their performance has not degraded in the year since the initial installation.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. Sharma, J. Choros, A. J. Reinschmidt, “Static and dynamic testing of a through-truss bridge,” (American Association of Railroads, Chicago, Ill., 1992).
  2. D. H. Tobias, D. A. Foutsch, J. Choros, “Investigation of an open deck through-truss railway bridge: work train tests,” (American Association of Railroads, Chicago, Ill., 1993).
  3. D. H. Tobias, D. A. Foutsch, J. Choros, “Investigation of an open deck through-truss railway bridge: revenue traffic tests,” (American Association of Railroads, Chicago, Ill., 1993).
  4. T. Valis, D. Hogg, R. M. Measures, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain gauge,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 227–229 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. E. Lee, H. F. Taylor, “Sensors for smart structures based upon the Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures, Eric Udd, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 249–269.
  6. C. E. Lee, H. F. Taylor, “Interferometric optical fibre sensors using internal mirrors,” Electron. Lett. 24, 193–195 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. D. Butter, G. D. Hocker, “Fiber optics strain gage,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4319–4323 (1978).
  8. R. Sadkowski, C. E. Lee, H. F. Taylor, “Multiplexed interferometric fiber-optic sensors with digital signal processing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5861–5866 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. R. Habel, B. Hillemeier, “Results in monitoring and assessment of damages in large steel and concrete structures by means of fiber optic sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1995: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures, and Highways, L. K. Matthews, N. Stubbs, eds., Proc. SPIE2446, 25–36 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

T. Valis, D. Hogg, R. M. Measures, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain gauge,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 227–229 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

C. E. Lee, H. F. Taylor, “Interferometric optical fibre sensors using internal mirrors,” Electron. Lett. 24, 193–195 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Butter, C. D.

Choros, J.

V. Sharma, J. Choros, A. J. Reinschmidt, “Static and dynamic testing of a through-truss bridge,” (American Association of Railroads, Chicago, Ill., 1992).

D. H. Tobias, D. A. Foutsch, J. Choros, “Investigation of an open deck through-truss railway bridge: work train tests,” (American Association of Railroads, Chicago, Ill., 1993).

D. H. Tobias, D. A. Foutsch, J. Choros, “Investigation of an open deck through-truss railway bridge: revenue traffic tests,” (American Association of Railroads, Chicago, Ill., 1993).

Foutsch, D. A.

D. H. Tobias, D. A. Foutsch, J. Choros, “Investigation of an open deck through-truss railway bridge: work train tests,” (American Association of Railroads, Chicago, Ill., 1993).

D. H. Tobias, D. A. Foutsch, J. Choros, “Investigation of an open deck through-truss railway bridge: revenue traffic tests,” (American Association of Railroads, Chicago, Ill., 1993).

Habel, W. R.

W. R. Habel, B. Hillemeier, “Results in monitoring and assessment of damages in large steel and concrete structures by means of fiber optic sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1995: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures, and Highways, L. K. Matthews, N. Stubbs, eds., Proc. SPIE2446, 25–36 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hillemeier, B.

W. R. Habel, B. Hillemeier, “Results in monitoring and assessment of damages in large steel and concrete structures by means of fiber optic sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1995: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures, and Highways, L. K. Matthews, N. Stubbs, eds., Proc. SPIE2446, 25–36 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hocker, G. D.

Hogg, D.

T. Valis, D. Hogg, R. M. Measures, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain gauge,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 227–229 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

R. Sadkowski, C. E. Lee, H. F. Taylor, “Multiplexed interferometric fiber-optic sensors with digital signal processing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5861–5866 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Lee, H. F. Taylor, “Interferometric optical fibre sensors using internal mirrors,” Electron. Lett. 24, 193–195 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Lee, H. F. Taylor, “Sensors for smart structures based upon the Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures, Eric Udd, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 249–269.

Measures, R. M.

T. Valis, D. Hogg, R. M. Measures, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain gauge,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 227–229 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reinschmidt, A. J.

V. Sharma, J. Choros, A. J. Reinschmidt, “Static and dynamic testing of a through-truss bridge,” (American Association of Railroads, Chicago, Ill., 1992).

Sadkowski, R.

Sharma, V.

V. Sharma, J. Choros, A. J. Reinschmidt, “Static and dynamic testing of a through-truss bridge,” (American Association of Railroads, Chicago, Ill., 1992).

Taylor, H. F.

R. Sadkowski, C. E. Lee, H. F. Taylor, “Multiplexed interferometric fiber-optic sensors with digital signal processing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5861–5866 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Lee, H. F. Taylor, “Interferometric optical fibre sensors using internal mirrors,” Electron. Lett. 24, 193–195 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Lee, H. F. Taylor, “Sensors for smart structures based upon the Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures, Eric Udd, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 249–269.

Tobias, D. H.

D. H. Tobias, D. A. Foutsch, J. Choros, “Investigation of an open deck through-truss railway bridge: work train tests,” (American Association of Railroads, Chicago, Ill., 1993).

D. H. Tobias, D. A. Foutsch, J. Choros, “Investigation of an open deck through-truss railway bridge: revenue traffic tests,” (American Association of Railroads, Chicago, Ill., 1993).

Valis, T.

T. Valis, D. Hogg, R. M. Measures, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain gauge,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 227–229 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. E. Lee, H. F. Taylor, “Interferometric optical fibre sensors using internal mirrors,” Electron. Lett. 24, 193–195 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Valis, D. Hogg, R. M. Measures, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain gauge,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 227–229 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

C. E. Lee, H. F. Taylor, “Sensors for smart structures based upon the Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures, Eric Udd, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1995), pp. 249–269.

V. Sharma, J. Choros, A. J. Reinschmidt, “Static and dynamic testing of a through-truss bridge,” (American Association of Railroads, Chicago, Ill., 1992).

D. H. Tobias, D. A. Foutsch, J. Choros, “Investigation of an open deck through-truss railway bridge: work train tests,” (American Association of Railroads, Chicago, Ill., 1993).

D. H. Tobias, D. A. Foutsch, J. Choros, “Investigation of an open deck through-truss railway bridge: revenue traffic tests,” (American Association of Railroads, Chicago, Ill., 1993).

W. R. Habel, B. Hillemeier, “Results in monitoring and assessment of damages in large steel and concrete structures by means of fiber optic sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1995: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures, and Highways, L. K. Matthews, N. Stubbs, eds., Proc. SPIE2446, 25–36 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fiber Fabry–Perot interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FFPI strain sensor bonded to metal sheet for installation on bridge.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Union Pacific bridge 844.7, spanning the Brazos River in Waco, Texas.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic arrangement for monitoring, data collection, and telemetry for sensors on bridge.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Locations of sensors on bridge superstructure (side view).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Detailed sketch of sensor mounting on hanger and on rail.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the response to a train crossing the bridge of fiber optical and electrical strain sensors mounted on a hanger: (a) rat data, (b) two traces in (a) superimposed.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Response of rail-mounted strain sensors to passage of a train.

Equations (2)

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Δϕ=4πnLελ1-.5n2P12-νP11+P12,
ε=λΔϕ14.3L.

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