Abstract

The problem of combining the temperature control of a space vehicle with the mechanical and chemical stability of the surface is addressed. With the absorption of solar radiation and the emission of thermal radiation considered the static and dominant factors that determine the equilibrium temperature of a spherical object, a simple model is formulated. Realistic variations of the two material-dependent parameters, solar absorptance α and hemispherical emittance ε, permit a large change in the equilibrium temperature, from less than -50 to more than +150 °C. It is pointed out that for a generalized gray surface, i.e., one made from a material whose reflectance–emittance has the same value within the visible and the thermal wavelength regions, the equilibrium temperature is ≈5 °C, independent of the numerical value of the reflectance. With the requirement for electrical conductivity also taken into account, TiN alloys are identified as candidate materials. Measurements and calculations of some of them indicate that this group may contain a material that fulfills all the requirements. The experimental reflectance spectrum is used in estimating the equilibrium temperature for different TiN alloys; one Ti–Al–N-alloy with a gradient content of Al is found to have the lowest equilibrium temperature, 66 °C.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Hemmerdinger, R. J. Hembach, “Spacecraft thermal design,” in Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, W. L. Wolfe, ed., (Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1965), pp. 784–795.
  2. M. K. Wahlström, E. Johansson, E. Veszelei, P. Bennich, M. Olsson, S. Hogmark, “Improved Langmuir probe surface coatings for the Cassini satellite,” Thin Solid Films 220, 315–320 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Holback, Institute of Space and Plasma Physics, Uppsala University, S-75591 Uppsala, Sweden (personal communication, 1998).
  4. M. Veszelei, E. Veszelei, “Optical properties and equilibrium temperatures of titanium-nitride- and graphite-coated Langmuir probes for space application,” Thin Solid Films 236, 46–50 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Duffie, W. A. Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, (Wiley, New York, 1980), pp. 144–170.
  6. C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, 7th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1996), p. 331.
  7. C.-G. Ribbing, Ö. Staaf, S. K. Andersson, “Temperature correction of radiometric emission factors for non-gray objects,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3416–3424 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Palmer, “The measurement of transmission, absorption, emission and reflection,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 2, Chap. 25.
  9. K. S. Zhou, H. Herman, “Cavitation erosion of titanium and Ti-6Al-4V: effects of nitriding,” Wear 80, 101–113 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. G. Maksimovich, I. N. Pogrelyuk, V. N. Fedirko, “Structure formation in nitrided layers of titanium alloys,” Met. Sci. Heat Treat. 28, 393–397 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Georgson, D. McIntyre, J. E. Green, G. Håkansson, J.-E. Sundgren, C.-G. Ribbing, W.-D. Muntz, “Optical properties of polycrystalline metastable Ti1-xAlxN-alloys deposited by magnetron sputter deposition,” presented at the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings, San Diego, Calif., 2–5 April 1988.
  12. B. Karlsson, J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, “Optical constants and spectral selectivity of titanium carbonitrides,” Thin Solid Films 87, 181–187 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. J. Sievers, “The emissivity of metals,” in Solar Materials Science, L. E. Murr, ed. (Academic, London, 1980), pp. 229–254.
  14. F. Geotti-Bianchini, “Total hemispherical emissivity of coated glass,” (Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro, Murano, Italy, 1993).

1997 (1)

C.-G. Ribbing, Ö. Staaf, S. K. Andersson, “Temperature correction of radiometric emission factors for non-gray objects,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3416–3424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Veszelei, E. Veszelei, “Optical properties and equilibrium temperatures of titanium-nitride- and graphite-coated Langmuir probes for space application,” Thin Solid Films 236, 46–50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. K. Wahlström, E. Johansson, E. Veszelei, P. Bennich, M. Olsson, S. Hogmark, “Improved Langmuir probe surface coatings for the Cassini satellite,” Thin Solid Films 220, 315–320 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. G. Maksimovich, I. N. Pogrelyuk, V. N. Fedirko, “Structure formation in nitrided layers of titanium alloys,” Met. Sci. Heat Treat. 28, 393–397 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

B. Karlsson, J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, “Optical constants and spectral selectivity of titanium carbonitrides,” Thin Solid Films 87, 181–187 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Zhou, H. Herman, “Cavitation erosion of titanium and Ti-6Al-4V: effects of nitriding,” Wear 80, 101–113 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, S. K.

C.-G. Ribbing, Ö. Staaf, S. K. Andersson, “Temperature correction of radiometric emission factors for non-gray objects,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3416–3424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beckman, W. A.

J. A. Duffie, W. A. Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, (Wiley, New York, 1980), pp. 144–170.

Bennich, P.

M. K. Wahlström, E. Johansson, E. Veszelei, P. Bennich, M. Olsson, S. Hogmark, “Improved Langmuir probe surface coatings for the Cassini satellite,” Thin Solid Films 220, 315–320 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Duffie, J. A.

J. A. Duffie, W. A. Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, (Wiley, New York, 1980), pp. 144–170.

Fedirko, V. N.

G. G. Maksimovich, I. N. Pogrelyuk, V. N. Fedirko, “Structure formation in nitrided layers of titanium alloys,” Met. Sci. Heat Treat. 28, 393–397 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Georgson, M.

M. Georgson, D. McIntyre, J. E. Green, G. Håkansson, J.-E. Sundgren, C.-G. Ribbing, W.-D. Muntz, “Optical properties of polycrystalline metastable Ti1-xAlxN-alloys deposited by magnetron sputter deposition,” presented at the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings, San Diego, Calif., 2–5 April 1988.

Geotti-Bianchini, F.

F. Geotti-Bianchini, “Total hemispherical emissivity of coated glass,” (Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro, Murano, Italy, 1993).

Green, J. E.

M. Georgson, D. McIntyre, J. E. Green, G. Håkansson, J.-E. Sundgren, C.-G. Ribbing, W.-D. Muntz, “Optical properties of polycrystalline metastable Ti1-xAlxN-alloys deposited by magnetron sputter deposition,” presented at the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings, San Diego, Calif., 2–5 April 1988.

Håkansson, G.

M. Georgson, D. McIntyre, J. E. Green, G. Håkansson, J.-E. Sundgren, C.-G. Ribbing, W.-D. Muntz, “Optical properties of polycrystalline metastable Ti1-xAlxN-alloys deposited by magnetron sputter deposition,” presented at the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings, San Diego, Calif., 2–5 April 1988.

Hembach, R. J.

L. Hemmerdinger, R. J. Hembach, “Spacecraft thermal design,” in Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, W. L. Wolfe, ed., (Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1965), pp. 784–795.

Hemmerdinger, L.

L. Hemmerdinger, R. J. Hembach, “Spacecraft thermal design,” in Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, W. L. Wolfe, ed., (Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1965), pp. 784–795.

Herman, H.

K. S. Zhou, H. Herman, “Cavitation erosion of titanium and Ti-6Al-4V: effects of nitriding,” Wear 80, 101–113 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hogmark, S.

M. K. Wahlström, E. Johansson, E. Veszelei, P. Bennich, M. Olsson, S. Hogmark, “Improved Langmuir probe surface coatings for the Cassini satellite,” Thin Solid Films 220, 315–320 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Holback, B.

B. Holback, Institute of Space and Plasma Physics, Uppsala University, S-75591 Uppsala, Sweden (personal communication, 1998).

Johansson, B.-O.

B. Karlsson, J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, “Optical constants and spectral selectivity of titanium carbonitrides,” Thin Solid Films 87, 181–187 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, E.

M. K. Wahlström, E. Johansson, E. Veszelei, P. Bennich, M. Olsson, S. Hogmark, “Improved Langmuir probe surface coatings for the Cassini satellite,” Thin Solid Films 220, 315–320 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, B.

B. Karlsson, J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, “Optical constants and spectral selectivity of titanium carbonitrides,” Thin Solid Films 87, 181–187 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kittel, C.

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, 7th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1996), p. 331.

Maksimovich, G. G.

G. G. Maksimovich, I. N. Pogrelyuk, V. N. Fedirko, “Structure formation in nitrided layers of titanium alloys,” Met. Sci. Heat Treat. 28, 393–397 (1986).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, D.

M. Georgson, D. McIntyre, J. E. Green, G. Håkansson, J.-E. Sundgren, C.-G. Ribbing, W.-D. Muntz, “Optical properties of polycrystalline metastable Ti1-xAlxN-alloys deposited by magnetron sputter deposition,” presented at the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings, San Diego, Calif., 2–5 April 1988.

Muntz, W.-D.

M. Georgson, D. McIntyre, J. E. Green, G. Håkansson, J.-E. Sundgren, C.-G. Ribbing, W.-D. Muntz, “Optical properties of polycrystalline metastable Ti1-xAlxN-alloys deposited by magnetron sputter deposition,” presented at the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings, San Diego, Calif., 2–5 April 1988.

Olsson, M.

M. K. Wahlström, E. Johansson, E. Veszelei, P. Bennich, M. Olsson, S. Hogmark, “Improved Langmuir probe surface coatings for the Cassini satellite,” Thin Solid Films 220, 315–320 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, J.

J. Palmer, “The measurement of transmission, absorption, emission and reflection,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 2, Chap. 25.

Pogrelyuk, I. N.

G. G. Maksimovich, I. N. Pogrelyuk, V. N. Fedirko, “Structure formation in nitrided layers of titanium alloys,” Met. Sci. Heat Treat. 28, 393–397 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ribbing, C.-G.

C.-G. Ribbing, Ö. Staaf, S. K. Andersson, “Temperature correction of radiometric emission factors for non-gray objects,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3416–3424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Georgson, D. McIntyre, J. E. Green, G. Håkansson, J.-E. Sundgren, C.-G. Ribbing, W.-D. Muntz, “Optical properties of polycrystalline metastable Ti1-xAlxN-alloys deposited by magnetron sputter deposition,” presented at the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings, San Diego, Calif., 2–5 April 1988.

Sievers, A. J.

A. J. Sievers, “The emissivity of metals,” in Solar Materials Science, L. E. Murr, ed. (Academic, London, 1980), pp. 229–254.

Staaf, Ö.

C.-G. Ribbing, Ö. Staaf, S. K. Andersson, “Temperature correction of radiometric emission factors for non-gray objects,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3416–3424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sundgren, J.-E.

B. Karlsson, J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, “Optical constants and spectral selectivity of titanium carbonitrides,” Thin Solid Films 87, 181–187 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Georgson, D. McIntyre, J. E. Green, G. Håkansson, J.-E. Sundgren, C.-G. Ribbing, W.-D. Muntz, “Optical properties of polycrystalline metastable Ti1-xAlxN-alloys deposited by magnetron sputter deposition,” presented at the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings, San Diego, Calif., 2–5 April 1988.

Veszelei, E.

M. Veszelei, E. Veszelei, “Optical properties and equilibrium temperatures of titanium-nitride- and graphite-coated Langmuir probes for space application,” Thin Solid Films 236, 46–50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Wahlström, E. Johansson, E. Veszelei, P. Bennich, M. Olsson, S. Hogmark, “Improved Langmuir probe surface coatings for the Cassini satellite,” Thin Solid Films 220, 315–320 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Veszelei, M.

M. Veszelei, E. Veszelei, “Optical properties and equilibrium temperatures of titanium-nitride- and graphite-coated Langmuir probes for space application,” Thin Solid Films 236, 46–50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wahlström, M. K.

M. K. Wahlström, E. Johansson, E. Veszelei, P. Bennich, M. Olsson, S. Hogmark, “Improved Langmuir probe surface coatings for the Cassini satellite,” Thin Solid Films 220, 315–320 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, W. L.

L. Hemmerdinger, R. J. Hembach, “Spacecraft thermal design,” in Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, W. L. Wolfe, ed., (Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1965), pp. 784–795.

Zhou, K. S.

K. S. Zhou, H. Herman, “Cavitation erosion of titanium and Ti-6Al-4V: effects of nitriding,” Wear 80, 101–113 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Met. Sci. Heat Treat. (1)

G. G. Maksimovich, I. N. Pogrelyuk, V. N. Fedirko, “Structure formation in nitrided layers of titanium alloys,” Met. Sci. Heat Treat. 28, 393–397 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C.-G. Ribbing, Ö. Staaf, S. K. Andersson, “Temperature correction of radiometric emission factors for non-gray objects,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3416–3424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (3)

M. K. Wahlström, E. Johansson, E. Veszelei, P. Bennich, M. Olsson, S. Hogmark, “Improved Langmuir probe surface coatings for the Cassini satellite,” Thin Solid Films 220, 315–320 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Veszelei, E. Veszelei, “Optical properties and equilibrium temperatures of titanium-nitride- and graphite-coated Langmuir probes for space application,” Thin Solid Films 236, 46–50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Karlsson, J.-E. Sundgren, B.-O. Johansson, “Optical constants and spectral selectivity of titanium carbonitrides,” Thin Solid Films 87, 181–187 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wear (1)

K. S. Zhou, H. Herman, “Cavitation erosion of titanium and Ti-6Al-4V: effects of nitriding,” Wear 80, 101–113 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

L. Hemmerdinger, R. J. Hembach, “Spacecraft thermal design,” in Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, W. L. Wolfe, ed., (Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1965), pp. 784–795.

J. Palmer, “The measurement of transmission, absorption, emission and reflection,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 2, Chap. 25.

J. A. Duffie, W. A. Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, (Wiley, New York, 1980), pp. 144–170.

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, 7th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1996), p. 331.

B. Holback, Institute of Space and Plasma Physics, Uppsala University, S-75591 Uppsala, Sweden (personal communication, 1998).

A. J. Sievers, “The emissivity of metals,” in Solar Materials Science, L. E. Murr, ed. (Academic, London, 1980), pp. 229–254.

F. Geotti-Bianchini, “Total hemispherical emissivity of coated glass,” (Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro, Murano, Italy, 1993).

M. Georgson, D. McIntyre, J. E. Green, G. Håkansson, J.-E. Sundgren, C.-G. Ribbing, W.-D. Muntz, “Optical properties of polycrystalline metastable Ti1-xAlxN-alloys deposited by magnetron sputter deposition,” presented at the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings, San Diego, Calif., 2–5 April 1988.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Equilibrium temperature as a function of the material-dependent parameters solar absorptance α and hemispherical emittance ε for a solar-irradiated sphere just outside the Earth’s atmosphere.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral distribution of solar radiation and that of a blackbody at 100 °C, together with the spectral normal-hemispherical reflectance of TiN and of three TiN alloys.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Properties of TiN and the Three TiN Alloys Used in the Calculations

Tables Icon

Table 2 Solar Absorptance α and Emittance at Normal Incidence ε(0) Calculated from Fig. 1 for Samples at Room Temperaturea

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

εAtotσT4=SαAill,
Aill=0π/202π r2 sin θ cos θdθdϕ=πr2.
T=4Sα4εσ.
α=0 αλPλidλ0 Pλidλ=1S0 αλPλidλ,
ε=0 ελPλbbTdλ0 PλbbTdλ=1PbbT0 ελPλbbTdλ,
ελ=αλ=1-ρλ=const
T=4S4σ=278.3K;
α=kε,
T=4Sk4σ.
ελϕ, θ=αλϕ, θ=1-ρλϕ, θ,
α=002π0π/2 αλθ, ϕPλidθdϕdλ0 Pλidλ.

Metrics