Abstract

A previously unreported air-density-related detuning effect for active cavity aerosol optical particle counters is described, and a simple device for correcting the problem is presented. Airborne field tests with and without the correction device illustrate the effect and the good degree to which the deficiency can be overcome. The effect is shown to have an important impact on instrument calibration.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, L. L. Stowe, “Aerosol properties and radiative effects in the United States east coast haze plume: an overview of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX),” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2213–2222 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. B. Russell, L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, “The tropical experiment of the stratosphere-troposphere exchange project (STEP): science objectives, operations, and summary findings,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 8563–8589 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. R. Cutten, J. D. Spinhirne, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Bowdle, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, A. D. Clark, J. Rothermel, “Intercomparison of pulsed lidar data with flight level CW lidar data and modeled backscatter from measured aerosol microphysics near Japan and Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,649–19,661 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. S. Bates, B. J. Huebert, J. L. Gras, F. B. Griffiths, P. A. Durkee, “International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project’s Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE1): overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,297–16,318 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. J. Huebert, A. Pszenny, B. Blomquist, “The ASTEX/MAGE experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4319–4329 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The airborne arctic stratospheric expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 313–316 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, J. Chan, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, “Response of Knollenberg light-scattering counters to non-spherical doublet polystyrene latex aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 10, 533–538 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Rosen, “The vertical distribution of dust to 30 kilometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 69, 4673–4676 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Hofmann, “Twenty years of balloon-borne tropospheric aerosol measurements at Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12,753–12,766 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1999

P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, L. L. Stowe, “Aerosol properties and radiative effects in the United States east coast haze plume: an overview of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX),” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2213–2222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. R. Cutten, J. D. Spinhirne, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Bowdle, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, A. D. Clark, J. Rothermel, “Intercomparison of pulsed lidar data with flight level CW lidar data and modeled backscatter from measured aerosol microphysics near Japan and Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,649–19,661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Bates, B. J. Huebert, J. L. Gras, F. B. Griffiths, P. A. Durkee, “International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project’s Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE1): overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,297–16,318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. J. Huebert, A. Pszenny, B. Blomquist, “The ASTEX/MAGE experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4319–4329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. B. Russell, L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, “The tropical experiment of the stratosphere-troposphere exchange project (STEP): science objectives, operations, and summary findings,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 8563–8589 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, “Twenty years of balloon-borne tropospheric aerosol measurements at Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12,753–12,766 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The airborne arctic stratospheric expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 313–316 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, J. Chan, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1979

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, “Response of Knollenberg light-scattering counters to non-spherical doublet polystyrene latex aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 10, 533–538 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1964

J. M. Rosen, “The vertical distribution of dust to 30 kilometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 69, 4673–4676 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Bates, T. S.

T. S. Bates, B. J. Huebert, J. L. Gras, F. B. Griffiths, P. A. Durkee, “International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project’s Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE1): overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,297–16,318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blomquist, B.

B. J. Huebert, A. Pszenny, B. Blomquist, “The ASTEX/MAGE experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4319–4329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bowdle, D. A.

D. R. Cutten, J. D. Spinhirne, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Bowdle, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, A. D. Clark, J. Rothermel, “Intercomparison of pulsed lidar data with flight level CW lidar data and modeled backscatter from measured aerosol microphysics near Japan and Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,649–19,661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, J. Chan, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Clark, A. D.

D. R. Cutten, J. D. Spinhirne, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Bowdle, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, A. D. Clark, J. Rothermel, “Intercomparison of pulsed lidar data with flight level CW lidar data and modeled backscatter from measured aerosol microphysics near Japan and Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,649–19,661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Condon, E.

R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The airborne arctic stratospheric expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 313–316 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Condon, E. P.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, J. Chan, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cutten, D. R.

D. R. Cutten, J. D. Spinhirne, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Bowdle, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, A. D. Clark, J. Rothermel, “Intercomparison of pulsed lidar data with flight level CW lidar data and modeled backscatter from measured aerosol microphysics near Japan and Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,649–19,661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Durkee, P. A.

T. S. Bates, B. J. Huebert, J. L. Gras, F. B. Griffiths, P. A. Durkee, “International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project’s Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE1): overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,297–16,318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gras, J. L.

T. S. Bates, B. J. Huebert, J. L. Gras, F. B. Griffiths, P. A. Durkee, “International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project’s Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE1): overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,297–16,318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, F. B.

T. S. Bates, B. J. Huebert, J. L. Gras, F. B. Griffiths, P. A. Durkee, “International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project’s Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE1): overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,297–16,318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. V.

P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, L. L. Stowe, “Aerosol properties and radiative effects in the United States east coast haze plume: an overview of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX),” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2213–2222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

D. J. Hofmann, “Twenty years of balloon-borne tropospheric aerosol measurements at Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12,753–12,766 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huebert, B. J.

T. S. Bates, B. J. Huebert, J. L. Gras, F. B. Griffiths, P. A. Durkee, “International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project’s Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE1): overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,297–16,318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Huebert, A. Pszenny, B. Blomquist, “The ASTEX/MAGE experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4319–4329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Margitan, J. J.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, J. Chan, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

D. R. Cutten, J. D. Spinhirne, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Bowdle, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, A. D. Clark, J. Rothermel, “Intercomparison of pulsed lidar data with flight level CW lidar data and modeled backscatter from measured aerosol microphysics near Japan and Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,649–19,661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pfister, L.

P. B. Russell, L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, “The tropical experiment of the stratosphere-troposphere exchange project (STEP): science objectives, operations, and summary findings,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 8563–8589 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, “Response of Knollenberg light-scattering counters to non-spherical doublet polystyrene latex aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 10, 533–538 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Plumb, A.

R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The airborne arctic stratospheric expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 313–316 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pszenny, A.

B. J. Huebert, A. Pszenny, B. Blomquist, “The ASTEX/MAGE experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4319–4329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pueschel, R. F.

D. R. Cutten, J. D. Spinhirne, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Bowdle, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, A. D. Clark, J. Rothermel, “Intercomparison of pulsed lidar data with flight level CW lidar data and modeled backscatter from measured aerosol microphysics near Japan and Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,649–19,661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, J. M.

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, “Response of Knollenberg light-scattering counters to non-spherical doublet polystyrene latex aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 10, 533–538 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rosen, “The vertical distribution of dust to 30 kilometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 69, 4673–4676 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Rothermel, J.

D. R. Cutten, J. D. Spinhirne, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Bowdle, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, A. D. Clark, J. Rothermel, “Intercomparison of pulsed lidar data with flight level CW lidar data and modeled backscatter from measured aerosol microphysics near Japan and Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,649–19,661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, L. L. Stowe, “Aerosol properties and radiative effects in the United States east coast haze plume: an overview of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX),” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2213–2222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, “The tropical experiment of the stratosphere-troposphere exchange project (STEP): science objectives, operations, and summary findings,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 8563–8589 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Selkirk, H. B.

P. B. Russell, L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, “The tropical experiment of the stratosphere-troposphere exchange project (STEP): science objectives, operations, and summary findings,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 8563–8589 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J. D.

D. R. Cutten, J. D. Spinhirne, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Bowdle, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, A. D. Clark, J. Rothermel, “Intercomparison of pulsed lidar data with flight level CW lidar data and modeled backscatter from measured aerosol microphysics near Japan and Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,649–19,661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, V.

D. R. Cutten, J. D. Spinhirne, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Bowdle, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, A. D. Clark, J. Rothermel, “Intercomparison of pulsed lidar data with flight level CW lidar data and modeled backscatter from measured aerosol microphysics near Japan and Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,649–19,661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L. L.

P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, L. L. Stowe, “Aerosol properties and radiative effects in the United States east coast haze plume: an overview of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX),” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2213–2222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, J. Chan, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tuck, A. F.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, J. Chan, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Turco, R.

R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The airborne arctic stratospheric expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 313–316 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Watson, R. T.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, J. Chan, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, J. Chan, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987,” Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The airborne arctic stratospheric expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 313–316 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci.

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, “Response of Knollenberg light-scattering counters to non-spherical doublet polystyrene latex aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 10, 533–538 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. M. Rosen, “The vertical distribution of dust to 30 kilometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 69, 4673–4676 (1964).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, “Twenty years of balloon-borne tropospheric aerosol measurements at Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12,753–12,766 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, L. L. Stowe, “Aerosol properties and radiative effects in the United States east coast haze plume: an overview of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX),” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2213–2222 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, L. Pfister, H. B. Selkirk, “The tropical experiment of the stratosphere-troposphere exchange project (STEP): science objectives, operations, and summary findings,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 8563–8589 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Cutten, J. D. Spinhirne, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Bowdle, V. Srivastava, R. F. Pueschel, A. D. Clark, J. Rothermel, “Intercomparison of pulsed lidar data with flight level CW lidar data and modeled backscatter from measured aerosol microphysics near Japan and Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,649–19,661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Bates, B. J. Huebert, J. L. Gras, F. B. Griffiths, P. A. Durkee, “International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project’s Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE1): overview,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 16,297–16,318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Huebert, A. Pszenny, B. Blomquist, “The ASTEX/MAGE experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4319–4329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustrating an active laser cavity for an OPC. The air-refracted laser beam for high and low pressure is also shown, but the effect is greatly exaggerated as indicated by the deflection angle θ d .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation in the calibration as a function of laser alignment. See text for interpretation of the bottom scale. The laser reference was varied by making slight adjustments in the alignment mirror to emulate effects of misalignment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic similar to Fig. 1 but illustrating an automatic adjustment scheme to keep the laser in alignment during ambient pressure changes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of laser reference during flight (with the automatic alignment) and in a laboratory pressure chamber (without the alignment servo).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Aerosol profiles obtained over Laramie, Wyoming, in a combined sounding using the modified ASASP-X and a standard dustsonde.

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