Abstract

In this paper we present a general-purpose discrete correlation processor (DCP) expected to be the building core block of a digital optical computing system. The DCP-1 is embodied by optoelectronic devices such as a VCSEL and a complementary metal-oxide silicon photodetector. The application targets of the DCP-1 are optical interconnection and various types of digital optical computing. It is expected that digital optical computing techniques coupled with the optoelectronic technology will provide large capability and flexibility in information processing. Introduction of a processing scheme of optical array logic enlarges the applicable field of the DCP-1 as well as its processing capability. With the experimental DCP-1 a bit error rate smaller than 10-9 was obtained for A · operation under a 500-kHz clock rate.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Kurokawa, S. Matso, T. Nakahara, K. Tateno, Y. Ohiso, A. Wwakatsuki, H. Tsuda, “Design approaches for VCSEL’s and VCSEL-based smart pixels toward parallel optoelectronic processing systems,” Appl. Opt. 37, 194–204 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. T. Neilson, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, F. A. P. Tooley, “Optical design of a 1024-channel free-space sorting demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9243–9252 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. V. Plant, “Constructing a free space optical backplane: challenges and choices,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 156–158.
  4. T. Mark Pinkston, M. Raksapatchawarong, Y. Choi, “WARRP core: optoelectronic implementation of network-router deadlock-handling mechanisms,” Appl. Opt. 37, 276–283 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Koyanagi, H. Kurino, K. Sakuma, K. W. Lee, “Future system-on-silicon LSI systems,” IEEE Mirco. 18, 17–22 (1998).
  6. Y. Ichioka, J. Tanida, “Optical parallel logic gates using a shadow-casting system for optical digital computing,” Proc. IEEE 72, 787–801 (1984). J. Tanida, T. Konishi, Y. Ichioka, “P-OPALS: pure optical parallel array logic system,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1668–1677 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Programming of optical array logic. 1. Image data processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2926–2930 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Programming of optical array logic. 2. Image data processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2931–2939 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Kakizaki, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Gray image processing using optical array logic,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1093–1102 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Tanida, M. Fukui, Y. Ichioka, “Programming of optical array logic. 2. Numerical data processing based on pattern logic,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2931–2939 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Iwata, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Database management using optical array logic,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1987–1995 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. H. Brenner, A. Huang, N. Streibl, “Digital optical computing with symbolic substitution,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3054–3060 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Fukui, K. Kitayama, “Applications of image logic algebra: wire routing and numerical data processings,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4645–4656 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Jutamulia, G. Storti, “Noncoded shadow-casting logic array,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4517–4518 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Awatsuji, N. Sakamotom, H. Utsuro, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Optical array logic network computing: design of a prototype system,” Opt. Rev. 4, 199–202 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Awatsuji, N. Sakamotom, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Design and construction of experimental optical array logic network computing system,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 9–11.
  17. Y. Ogura, Y. Ichioka, S. Taniguchi, Y. Mokuno, K. Matsuoka, “Design of phase only optical element for laser beam drawing system with high resolution,” in Extended Abstracts of Optics Japan (Optical Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1998), pp. 47–48 (in Japanese).
  18. R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).
  19. F. Wyrowski, “Diffractive optical elements: iterative calculation of quantized, blazed phase structures,” J. Opt. Soc Am. A 7, 961–969 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1998

1997

D. T. Neilson, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, F. A. P. Tooley, “Optical design of a 1024-channel free-space sorting demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9243–9252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Awatsuji, N. Sakamotom, H. Utsuro, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Optical array logic network computing: design of a prototype system,” Opt. Rev. 4, 199–202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

1990

F. Wyrowski, “Diffractive optical elements: iterative calculation of quantized, blazed phase structures,” J. Opt. Soc Am. A 7, 961–969 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

1986

1984

Y. Ichioka, J. Tanida, “Optical parallel logic gates using a shadow-casting system for optical digital computing,” Proc. IEEE 72, 787–801 (1984). J. Tanida, T. Konishi, Y. Ichioka, “P-OPALS: pure optical parallel array logic system,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1668–1677 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1972

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).

Awatsuji, Y.

Y. Awatsuji, N. Sakamotom, H. Utsuro, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Optical array logic network computing: design of a prototype system,” Opt. Rev. 4, 199–202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Awatsuji, N. Sakamotom, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Design and construction of experimental optical array logic network computing system,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 9–11.

Baillie, D. A.

Brenner, K. H.

Choi, Y.

Fukui, M.

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).

Huang, A.

Ichioka, Y.

Y. Awatsuji, N. Sakamotom, H. Utsuro, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Optical array logic network computing: design of a prototype system,” Opt. Rev. 4, 199–202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Iwata, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Database management using optical array logic,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1987–1995 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kakizaki, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Gray image processing using optical array logic,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1093–1102 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Programming of optical array logic. 2. Image data processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2931–2939 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tanida, M. Fukui, Y. Ichioka, “Programming of optical array logic. 2. Numerical data processing based on pattern logic,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2931–2939 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Programming of optical array logic. 1. Image data processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2926–2930 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ichioka, J. Tanida, “Optical parallel logic gates using a shadow-casting system for optical digital computing,” Proc. IEEE 72, 787–801 (1984). J. Tanida, T. Konishi, Y. Ichioka, “P-OPALS: pure optical parallel array logic system,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1668–1677 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Awatsuji, N. Sakamotom, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Design and construction of experimental optical array logic network computing system,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 9–11.

Y. Ogura, Y. Ichioka, S. Taniguchi, Y. Mokuno, K. Matsuoka, “Design of phase only optical element for laser beam drawing system with high resolution,” in Extended Abstracts of Optics Japan (Optical Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1998), pp. 47–48 (in Japanese).

Iwata, M.

Jutamulia, S.

Kakizaki, S.

Kitayama, K.

Koyanagi, M.

M. Koyanagi, H. Kurino, K. Sakuma, K. W. Lee, “Future system-on-silicon LSI systems,” IEEE Mirco. 18, 17–22 (1998).

Kurino, H.

M. Koyanagi, H. Kurino, K. Sakuma, K. W. Lee, “Future system-on-silicon LSI systems,” IEEE Mirco. 18, 17–22 (1998).

Kurokawa, T.

Lee, K. W.

M. Koyanagi, H. Kurino, K. Sakuma, K. W. Lee, “Future system-on-silicon LSI systems,” IEEE Mirco. 18, 17–22 (1998).

Matso, S.

Matsuoka, K.

Y. Ogura, Y. Ichioka, S. Taniguchi, Y. Mokuno, K. Matsuoka, “Design of phase only optical element for laser beam drawing system with high resolution,” in Extended Abstracts of Optics Japan (Optical Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1998), pp. 47–48 (in Japanese).

Mokuno, Y.

Y. Ogura, Y. Ichioka, S. Taniguchi, Y. Mokuno, K. Matsuoka, “Design of phase only optical element for laser beam drawing system with high resolution,” in Extended Abstracts of Optics Japan (Optical Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1998), pp. 47–48 (in Japanese).

Nakahara, T.

Neilson, D. T.

Ogura, Y.

Y. Ogura, Y. Ichioka, S. Taniguchi, Y. Mokuno, K. Matsuoka, “Design of phase only optical element for laser beam drawing system with high resolution,” in Extended Abstracts of Optics Japan (Optical Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1998), pp. 47–48 (in Japanese).

Ohiso, Y.

Pinkston, T. Mark

Plant, D. V.

D. V. Plant, “Constructing a free space optical backplane: challenges and choices,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 156–158.

Prince, S. M.

Raksapatchawarong, M.

Sakamotom, N.

Y. Awatsuji, N. Sakamotom, H. Utsuro, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Optical array logic network computing: design of a prototype system,” Opt. Rev. 4, 199–202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Awatsuji, N. Sakamotom, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Design and construction of experimental optical array logic network computing system,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 9–11.

Sakuma, K.

M. Koyanagi, H. Kurino, K. Sakuma, K. W. Lee, “Future system-on-silicon LSI systems,” IEEE Mirco. 18, 17–22 (1998).

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).

Storti, G.

Streibl, N.

Tanida, J.

Y. Awatsuji, N. Sakamotom, H. Utsuro, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Optical array logic network computing: design of a prototype system,” Opt. Rev. 4, 199–202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Iwata, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Database management using optical array logic,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1987–1995 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kakizaki, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Gray image processing using optical array logic,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1093–1102 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tanida, M. Fukui, Y. Ichioka, “Programming of optical array logic. 2. Numerical data processing based on pattern logic,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2931–2939 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Programming of optical array logic. 1. Image data processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2926–2930 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Programming of optical array logic. 2. Image data processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2931–2939 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ichioka, J. Tanida, “Optical parallel logic gates using a shadow-casting system for optical digital computing,” Proc. IEEE 72, 787–801 (1984). J. Tanida, T. Konishi, Y. Ichioka, “P-OPALS: pure optical parallel array logic system,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1668–1677 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Awatsuji, N. Sakamotom, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Design and construction of experimental optical array logic network computing system,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 9–11.

Taniguchi, S.

Y. Ogura, Y. Ichioka, S. Taniguchi, Y. Mokuno, K. Matsuoka, “Design of phase only optical element for laser beam drawing system with high resolution,” in Extended Abstracts of Optics Japan (Optical Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1998), pp. 47–48 (in Japanese).

Tateno, K.

Tooley, F. A. P.

Tsuda, H.

Utsuro, H.

Y. Awatsuji, N. Sakamotom, H. Utsuro, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Optical array logic network computing: design of a prototype system,” Opt. Rev. 4, 199–202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wwakatsuki, A.

Wyrowski, F.

F. Wyrowski, “Diffractive optical elements: iterative calculation of quantized, blazed phase structures,” J. Opt. Soc Am. A 7, 961–969 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Programming of optical array logic. 1. Image data processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2926–2930 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Programming of optical array logic. 2. Image data processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2931–2939 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kakizaki, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Gray image processing using optical array logic,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1093–1102 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tanida, M. Fukui, Y. Ichioka, “Programming of optical array logic. 2. Numerical data processing based on pattern logic,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2931–2939 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Iwata, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Database management using optical array logic,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1987–1995 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Brenner, A. Huang, N. Streibl, “Digital optical computing with symbolic substitution,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3054–3060 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fukui, K. Kitayama, “Applications of image logic algebra: wire routing and numerical data processings,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4645–4656 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jutamulia, G. Storti, “Noncoded shadow-casting logic array,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4517–4518 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kurokawa, S. Matso, T. Nakahara, K. Tateno, Y. Ohiso, A. Wwakatsuki, H. Tsuda, “Design approaches for VCSEL’s and VCSEL-based smart pixels toward parallel optoelectronic processing systems,” Appl. Opt. 37, 194–204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Neilson, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, F. A. P. Tooley, “Optical design of a 1024-channel free-space sorting demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9243–9252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Mark Pinkston, M. Raksapatchawarong, Y. Choi, “WARRP core: optoelectronic implementation of network-router deadlock-handling mechanisms,” Appl. Opt. 37, 276–283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Mirco.

M. Koyanagi, H. Kurino, K. Sakuma, K. W. Lee, “Future system-on-silicon LSI systems,” IEEE Mirco. 18, 17–22 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc Am. A

F. Wyrowski, “Diffractive optical elements: iterative calculation of quantized, blazed phase structures,” J. Opt. Soc Am. A 7, 961–969 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev.

Y. Awatsuji, N. Sakamotom, H. Utsuro, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Optical array logic network computing: design of a prototype system,” Opt. Rev. 4, 199–202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Optik (Stuttgart)

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).

Proc. IEEE

Y. Ichioka, J. Tanida, “Optical parallel logic gates using a shadow-casting system for optical digital computing,” Proc. IEEE 72, 787–801 (1984). J. Tanida, T. Konishi, Y. Ichioka, “P-OPALS: pure optical parallel array logic system,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1668–1677 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. V. Plant, “Constructing a free space optical backplane: challenges and choices,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 156–158.

Y. Awatsuji, N. Sakamotom, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, “Design and construction of experimental optical array logic network computing system,” in Optics in Computing, Vol. 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 9–11.

Y. Ogura, Y. Ichioka, S. Taniguchi, Y. Mokuno, K. Matsuoka, “Design of phase only optical element for laser beam drawing system with high resolution,” in Extended Abstracts of Optics Japan (Optical Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1998), pp. 47–48 (in Japanese).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fundamental procedure of discrete correlation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Procedure of OAL scheme.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Architecture of DCP.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical setups for the DCP-1 of (a) type A and (b) type B.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reconstructed image plane mapping for (a) a single light source and (b) a VCSEL array.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) System block diagram for measurement of signals. (b)–(d) Measured waveforms; CH1 and CH2 are output signals of a function generator (Model 33120A, Hewlett Packard) and a VCSEL driver, respectively; CH3 is amplified photocurrent from an avalanche photodiode module (Model S5331–01, Hamamatu Photonics).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Encoded and correlated images of types A and B for a pair of input images.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of Optoelectronic Devices Used in the DCP-1

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical Efficiencies for the Different Setupsa

Equations (1)

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