Abstract

Vacuum temperature-dependent ellipsometric studies on WO3 thin films are reported at a single wavelength, λ = 0.633 µm, and across a temperature range of 100 < T ≤ 453 K. All the measurements were made in an optical cryostat fixed in the sample compartment of the ellipsometer. Experimental results involving reduction and oxidation of WO3 are discussed in terms of electrochromic characteristics and structural changes, which can be helpful for many and various technological applications. Temperature-dependent drifts in the real part of the refractive index n and extinction coefficient k have been explained by use of a variety of chemical relations and have also been utilized to evaluate their temperature coefficients. Moreover, polaronic excitations between localized states around the Fermi level are put forward to explain the ellipsometric results at or above room temperature, and both polaronic and bipolaronic transitions are proposed for interpreting low-temperature ellipsometric measurements.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1998 (1)

M. Rubin, K. Von Rottkay, S.-J. Wen, N. Ozer, J. Slack, “Optical indices of lithiated electrochromic oxides,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 49–57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Ji-Guang Zhang, D. K. Benson, C. E. Tracy, S. K. Deb, A. W. Czanderna, C. Bechinger, “Chromic mechanism in amorphous WO3 films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 2022–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Di. Giulio, D. Manno, G. Micocci, A. Serra, A. Tepore, “Gas-sensing properties of sputtered thin films of tungsten oxide,” J. Phys. D 30, 3211–3215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Hashimoto, S. Watanuki, N. Koshida, M. Komuro, N. Atoda, “Dual function of thin MoO3 and WO3 films as negative and positive resists for focused ion beam lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3665–3669 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Hjelm, C. G. Granqvist, J. M. Wills, “Electronic structure and optical properties of WO3, LiWO3, NaWO3, and HWO3,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 2436–2445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. J. De Smet, “Ellipsometry of anisotropic substrates: reexamination of a special case,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2571–2575 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

G. E. Jellison, “Data analysis for spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 234, 416–422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Green, Z. Hussain, “Optical properties of lithium tungsten bronze thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3451–3458 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Iguchi, H. Miyagi, “A study on the stability of polarons in monoclinic WO3,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 54, 403–409 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alexandrov, A. M. Bratkovsky, N. F. Mott, E. K. H. Salje, “Near-infrared absorption of YBa2Cu3O7-δ: evidence for Bose–Einstein condensation of small bipolarons,” Phys. C 215, 359–370 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

E. Iguchi, K. Akashi, “Dielectric relaxations and electrical transport due to nonadiabatic small polarons in p-type NiO doped with Li,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 61, 3385–3393 (1992); also see E. Iguchi, E. Salje, R. J. D. Tilley, “Polaron interaction energies in reduced tungsten trioxide,” J. Solid State Chem. 38, 342–359 (1981).

S. K. Deb, “Opportunities and challenges of electrochromic phenomena in transition metal oxides,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 25, 327–338 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhong, J. R. Dahn, K. Colbow, “Lithium intercalation into WO3 and the phase diagram of LixWO3,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 2554–2560 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhong, J. R. Dahn, K. Colbow, “Lithium intercalation into WO3 and the phase diagram of LixWO3,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 2554–2560 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (5)

M. Ahsan Habib, S. P. Maheswari, “In situ infrared spectroscopic study of the electrochromic reactions of tungsten trioxide films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 138, 2029–2031 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shigesato, Y. Hayashi, A. Masui, T. Haranou, “The structural changes of indium-tin oxide and a-WO3 films by introducing water to the deposition processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 814–819 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Baba, K. Ohta, T. Ikeda, “Preparation of metallic W film by H2 reduction of WO3 electron-resist film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 2581–2584 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alexandrov, D. K. Ray, “Theory of high-Tc superconductors: back to small bipolarons,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 63, 295–302 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Green, Z. Hussain, “Optical properties of dilute hydrogen tungsten bronze thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 7788–7796 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (4)

D. Green, “Optical constants of sputtered WO3,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4547–4549 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Machida, M. Enyo, “Structural and electrochromic properties of tungsten and molybdenum trioxide electrodes in acidic media,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 1169–1175 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Bange, T. Gambke, “Electrochromic materials for optical switching devices,” Adv. Mater. 2, 10–16 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Julien, “Technological applications of solid state ionics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 6, 9–28 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

A. Agrawal, H. Habibi, “Effect of heat treatment on the structure, composition and electrochromic properties of evaporated tungsten oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 169, 257–270 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Nanba, I. Yasui, “X-ray diffraction study of microstructure of amorphous tungsten trioxide films prepared by electron beam vacuum evaporation,” J. Solid State Chem. 83, 304–315 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, J. R. Stevens, “Electrochromic LixWO3/polymer laminate/LiyV2O5 device: toward an all-solid-state smart window,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3295–3308 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (5)

V. S. Grunin, V. L. Makarov, I. B. Patrina, M. V. Razumeenko, “EPR of electron and hole centers in WO3 single crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 30, 1421–1424 (1988).

M. Ladouceur, J. P. Bodelet, L. Parent, S. Dallaire, “Plasma spraying of WO3: structural characterization of the coatings,” Thin Solid Films 166, 249–254 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Bohnke, O. Bohnke, “Heat treatment of amorphous electrochromic WO3 thin films deposited onto indium–tin oxide substrates,” J. Appl. Electrochem. 18, 715–723 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shigesato, A. Murayama, T. Kamimori, K. Matsuhiro, “Characterization of evaporated amorphous WO3 films by Raman and FTIR spectroscopies,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 33/34, 804–811 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Green, K. Kang, “Electrochromic displays,” Disp. Technol. Appl. 9, 166–173 (1988).

1987 (5)

T. Kamimori, J. Nagai, M. Mizuhashi, “Electrochromic devices for transmissive and reflective light control,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 27–38 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishimura, Y. Inoue, K. Sugahara, S. Kusunoki, T. Kumamoto, S. Nakagawa, M. Nakaya, Y. Horiba, Y. Akasaka, “Three-dimensional IC for high performance image signal processor,” IEEE IEDM Tech. Digest, 111–112 (1987).

D. Davazoglou, A. Donnadieu, “Structure and optical properties of WO3 thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 147, 131–142 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Marszalek, E. Leja, T. Stapinski, “Direct current sputtered electrochromic coatings,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 47–53 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Ramans, J. V. Gabrusenoks, A. R. Lusis, A. A. Patmalnieks, “Structure of amorphous thin films of WO3 and MoO3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 637–640 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (4)

K. Furukawa, T. Hirose, “Anomalous thermal hysteresis of dielectric constant of tungsten trioxide WO3,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 55, 4137–4138 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Agnihotry, K. K. Saini, T. K. Saxena, S. Chandra, “Electrical properties and morphology of obliquely deposited electrochromic WO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 141, 183–192 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Nagai, T. Kamimori, M. Mizuhashi, “Electrochromism in amorphous lithium tungsten oxide films,” Sol. Energy Mater. 13, 279–295 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Evans, L. A. Bursill, D. J. Smith, “Electron optical study of tungsten trioxide,” Optik. 72, 137–142 (1986).

1985 (4)

B. Domenges, N. K. McGuire, M. O’Keeffe, “Bond lengths and valences in tungsten oxides,” J. Solid State Chem. 56, 94–100 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. Koshida, O. Tomita, “Ion-beam modification of amorphous WO3 film and its properties as a high-contrast inorganic ion resist,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 92–94 (1985); also see N. Koshida, O. Tomita, “Mechanism of a high-contrast inorganic ion resist using amorphous WO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1932–1935 (1986).

M. Green, A. Travlos, “Sodium tungsten bronze thin films: optical properties of dilute bronzes,” Philos. Mag. B 51, 501–520 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshimura, “Oscillator strength of small-polaron absorption in WOx (x ≤ 3) electrochromic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 911–919 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (4)

H. Morita, H. Washida, “Electrochromism of atmospheric evaporated tungsten oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 754–759 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Sharon, M. K. Sharan, S. R. Jawalekar, “Preparation and characterization of oxygen deficient WO3 film,” Sol. Energy Mater. 10, 329–334 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kleperis, P. D. Cikmach, A. R. Lusis, “Colour centers in amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 83, 291–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Gabrusenoks, P. D. Cikmach, A. R. Lusis, J. J. Kleperis, G. M. Ramans, “Electrochromic color centers in amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films,” Solid State Ionics 14, 25–30 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (4)

J. Nagai, T. Kamimori, “Kinetic study of LixWOx electrochromism,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 681–687 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Gehlig, E. Salje, “Dielectric properties and polaronic conductivity of WO3 and WxMo1-xO3,” Philos. Mag. B 47, 229–245 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Goldner, D. H. Mendelsohn, J. Alexander, W. R. Henderson, D. Fitzpatrick, T. E. Haas, H. H. Sample, “High near-infrared reflectivity modulation with polycrystalline electrochromic WO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 1093–1095 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Bursill, “Structure of small defects in nonstoichiometric WO3-x,” J. Solid State Chem. 48, 256–271 (1983);M. Kawaminami, T. Hirose, “Condensed phonon modes in successive phases of WO3,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 46, 864–870 (1979);M. Kawaminami, T. Hirose, “Condensed modes in the triclinic WO3,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 47, 1733 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

H. Kaneko, K. Miyake, Y. Teramoto, “Preparation and properties of reactively sputtered tungsten oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 3070–3075 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Hochst, R. D. Bringans, “Electronic structure of evaporated and annealed tungsten oxide films studied with UPS,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 11/12, 768–773 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Booth, T. Ekstrom, E. Iguchi, R. J. D. Tilley, “Notes on phases occurring in the binary tungsten–oxygen system,” J. Solid State Chem. 41, 293–307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

E. Salje, G. Hoppmann, “Small-polaron absorption in WxMo1-xO3,” Philos. Mag. B 43, 105–114 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakamura, S. Yamada, “Fundamental absorption edge of evaporated amorphous WO3 films,” Appl. Phys. 24, 55–59 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (5)

T. Hirose, “Structural phase transitions and semiconductor–metal transition in WO3,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 49, 562–567 (1980).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Schirmer, E. Salje, “The W5+ polaron in crystalline low temperature WO3 ESR and optical absorption,” Solid State Commun. 33, 333–336 (1980).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Schirmer, E. Salje, “Conduction bipolarons in low-temperature crystalline WO3-x,” J. Phys. C 13, L1067–L1072 (1980); see also O. F. Schirmer, V. Wittwer, G. Baur, G. Brandt, “Dependence of WO3 electrochromic absorption on crystallinity,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 124, 749–753 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. Hollinger, P. Pertosa, “Direct observation of the Anderson transition in HxWO3 bronzes by high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 74, 341–344 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. Matsuhiro, Y. Masuda, “Transmissive electrochromic display using a porous crystalline WO3 counter electrode,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21/22, 101–105 (1980).

1979 (5)

M. Green, K. Kang, “Variation in the chemical potential of sodium in NaxWO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 62, 385–387 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Shiojiri, T. Miyano, C. Kaito, “Electron microscopic studies of structure and crystallization of amorphous metal oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1937–1945 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Shojiri, T. Miyano, C. Kaito, “Electron microscopic studies of structure and crystallization of amorphous metal oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1937–1945 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. Hoppmann, E. Salje, “Absorption spectra and optical gap energies of WxMo1-xO3,” Opt. Commun. 30, 199–202 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Kamitakahara, K. Scharnberg, H. R. Shanks, “Special phonons and superconductivity in the hexagonal tungsten bronzes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1607–1611 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

J. F. Owen, K. J. Teegarden, H. R. Shanks, “Optical properties of the sodium-tungsten bronzes and tungsten trioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 3827–3837 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Shiojiri, T. Miyano, C. Kaito, “Structure and crystallization of very thin amorphous WO3 films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 567–568 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (5)

P. Gerard, A. Deneuville, “Color in tungsten trioxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4252–4255 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Zeller, H. U. Beyeler, “Electrochromism and local order in amorphous WO3,” Appl. Phys. 13, 231–237 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. Salje, “The electrochromic effect in polar WO3,” Opt. Commun. 24, 231–232 (1977).

S. K. Deb, “Electron spin resonance of defects in single crystal and thin films of tungsten trioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 1020–1024 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. Gazzinelli, O. F. Schirmer, “Light induced W5+ ESR in WO3,” J. Phys. C 10, L145–L148 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

K. L. Ngai, R. Silberglitt, “Effect of lattice instability on superconductivity in sodium tungsten bronze,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 1032–1039 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

E. Salje, K. Viswanathan, “Physical properties and phase transitions in WO3,” Acta Crystallogr. A 31, 356–359 (1975).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Faughnan, R. S. Crandall, P. M. Heyman, “Electrochromism in WO3 amorphous films,” RCA Rev. 36, 177–200 (1975).

1974 (1)

E. Salje, “A new type of electro-optic effect in semiconducting WO3,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 7, 615–617 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

S. K. Deb, “Optical and photoelectric properties and color centers in thin films of tungsten oxide,” Philos. Mag. 27, 801–821 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

S. Tanisaki, “On the phase transition of tungsten trioxide below room temperature,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 15, 566–581 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

S. Sawada, G. C. Danielson, “Domain structure of WO3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 113, 1005–1013 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

G. Hagg, A. Magneli, “Recent structure investigations of oxygen compounds of molybdenum and tungsten,” Rev. Pure Appl. Chem. 4, 235–249 (1954).

Agnihotry, S. A.

S. A. Agnihotry, K. K. Saini, T. K. Saxena, S. Chandra, “Electrical properties and morphology of obliquely deposited electrochromic WO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 141, 183–192 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

A. Agrawal, H. Habibi, “Effect of heat treatment on the structure, composition and electrochromic properties of evaporated tungsten oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 169, 257–270 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ahsan Habib, M.

M. Ahsan Habib, S. P. Maheswari, “In situ infrared spectroscopic study of the electrochromic reactions of tungsten trioxide films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 138, 2029–2031 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Akasaka, Y.

T. Nishimura, Y. Inoue, K. Sugahara, S. Kusunoki, T. Kumamoto, S. Nakagawa, M. Nakaya, Y. Horiba, Y. Akasaka, “Three-dimensional IC for high performance image signal processor,” IEEE IEDM Tech. Digest, 111–112 (1987).

Akashi, K.

E. Iguchi, K. Akashi, “Dielectric relaxations and electrical transport due to nonadiabatic small polarons in p-type NiO doped with Li,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 61, 3385–3393 (1992); also see E. Iguchi, E. Salje, R. J. D. Tilley, “Polaron interaction energies in reduced tungsten trioxide,” J. Solid State Chem. 38, 342–359 (1981).

Alexander, J.

R. B. Goldner, D. H. Mendelsohn, J. Alexander, W. R. Henderson, D. Fitzpatrick, T. E. Haas, H. H. Sample, “High near-infrared reflectivity modulation with polycrystalline electrochromic WO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 1093–1095 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrov, A. S.

A. S. Alexandrov, A. M. Bratkovsky, N. F. Mott, E. K. H. Salje, “Near-infrared absorption of YBa2Cu3O7-δ: evidence for Bose–Einstein condensation of small bipolarons,” Phys. C 215, 359–370 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Alexandrov, D. K. Ray, “Theory of high-Tc superconductors: back to small bipolarons,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 63, 295–302 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, A. M.

Atoda, N.

M. Hashimoto, S. Watanuki, N. Koshida, M. Komuro, N. Atoda, “Dual function of thin MoO3 and WO3 films as negative and positive resists for focused ion beam lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3665–3669 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), p. 186.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988); see also H. Berning, “Theory and calculations of optical thin films,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Haas, ed. (Academic, New York, 1963), Vol. 1, p. 63.

Baba, M.

M. Baba, K. Ohta, T. Ikeda, “Preparation of metallic W film by H2 reduction of WO3 electron-resist film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 2581–2584 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bange, K.

K. Bange, T. Gambke, “Electrochromic materials for optical switching devices,” Adv. Mater. 2, 10–16 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Ottermann, A. Temmink, K. Bange, “Correlation of injected charge to optical constants (n, k) of electrochromic films,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion IX, C. Granqvist, C. M. Lampert, eds., Proc. SPIE1272, 111–121 (1990).

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), p. 186.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988); see also H. Berning, “Theory and calculations of optical thin films,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Haas, ed. (Academic, New York, 1963), Vol. 1, p. 63.

Bechinger, C.

Ji-Guang Zhang, D. K. Benson, C. E. Tracy, S. K. Deb, A. W. Czanderna, C. Bechinger, “Chromic mechanism in amorphous WO3 films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 2022–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benson, D. K.

Ji-Guang Zhang, D. K. Benson, C. E. Tracy, S. K. Deb, A. W. Czanderna, C. Bechinger, “Chromic mechanism in amorphous WO3 films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 2022–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beyeler, H. U.

H. R. Zeller, H. U. Beyeler, “Electrochromism and local order in amorphous WO3,” Appl. Phys. 13, 231–237 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bodelet, J. P.

M. Ladouceur, J. P. Bodelet, L. Parent, S. Dallaire, “Plasma spraying of WO3: structural characterization of the coatings,” Thin Solid Films 166, 249–254 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bohnke, C.

C. Bohnke, O. Bohnke, “Heat treatment of amorphous electrochromic WO3 thin films deposited onto indium–tin oxide substrates,” J. Appl. Electrochem. 18, 715–723 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bohnke, O.

C. Bohnke, O. Bohnke, “Heat treatment of amorphous electrochromic WO3 thin films deposited onto indium–tin oxide substrates,” J. Appl. Electrochem. 18, 715–723 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Booth, J.

J. Booth, T. Ekstrom, E. Iguchi, R. J. D. Tilley, “Notes on phases occurring in the binary tungsten–oxygen system,” J. Solid State Chem. 41, 293–307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bratkovsky, A. M.

A. S. Alexandrov, A. M. Bratkovsky, N. F. Mott, E. K. H. Salje, “Near-infrared absorption of YBa2Cu3O7-δ: evidence for Bose–Einstein condensation of small bipolarons,” Phys. C 215, 359–370 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bringans, R. D.

H. Hochst, R. D. Bringans, “Electronic structure of evaporated and annealed tungsten oxide films studied with UPS,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 11/12, 768–773 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bursill, L. A.

R. G. Evans, L. A. Bursill, D. J. Smith, “Electron optical study of tungsten trioxide,” Optik. 72, 137–142 (1986).

L. A. Bursill, “Structure of small defects in nonstoichiometric WO3-x,” J. Solid State Chem. 48, 256–271 (1983);M. Kawaminami, T. Hirose, “Condensed phonon modes in successive phases of WO3,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 46, 864–870 (1979);M. Kawaminami, T. Hirose, “Condensed modes in the triclinic WO3,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 47, 1733 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, S.

S. A. Agnihotry, K. K. Saini, T. K. Saxena, S. Chandra, “Electrical properties and morphology of obliquely deposited electrochromic WO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 141, 183–192 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cikmach, P. D.

J. V. Gabrusenoks, P. D. Cikmach, A. R. Lusis, J. J. Kleperis, G. M. Ramans, “Electrochromic color centers in amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films,” Solid State Ionics 14, 25–30 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kleperis, P. D. Cikmach, A. R. Lusis, “Colour centers in amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 83, 291–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Colbow, K.

Q. Zhong, J. R. Dahn, K. Colbow, “Lithium intercalation into WO3 and the phase diagram of LixWO3,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 2554–2560 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhong, J. R. Dahn, K. Colbow, “Lithium intercalation into WO3 and the phase diagram of LixWO3,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 2554–2560 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Colson, J. P.

F. L. McCrackin, J. P. Colson, “Computational techniques for the use of the exact Drude equations in reflection problems,” in Ellipsometry in the Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, Symposium Proceedings, Washington, D.C., 1963, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, J. Kruger, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. Misc. Publ.256 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1964), pp. 61–82.

Crandall, R. S.

B. W. Faughnan, R. S. Crandall, P. M. Heyman, “Electrochromism in WO3 amorphous films,” RCA Rev. 36, 177–200 (1975).

Czanderna, A. W.

Ji-Guang Zhang, D. K. Benson, C. E. Tracy, S. K. Deb, A. W. Czanderna, C. Bechinger, “Chromic mechanism in amorphous WO3 films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 2022–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dahn, J. R.

Q. Zhong, J. R. Dahn, K. Colbow, “Lithium intercalation into WO3 and the phase diagram of LixWO3,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 2554–2560 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhong, J. R. Dahn, K. Colbow, “Lithium intercalation into WO3 and the phase diagram of LixWO3,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 2554–2560 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dallaire, S.

M. Ladouceur, J. P. Bodelet, L. Parent, S. Dallaire, “Plasma spraying of WO3: structural characterization of the coatings,” Thin Solid Films 166, 249–254 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, G. C.

S. Sawada, G. C. Danielson, “Domain structure of WO3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 113, 1005–1013 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Davazoglou, D.

D. Davazoglou, A. Donnadieu, “Structure and optical properties of WO3 thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 147, 131–142 (1987).
[CrossRef]

De Smet, D. J.

D. J. De Smet, “Ellipsometry of anisotropic substrates: reexamination of a special case,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2571–2575 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deb, S. K.

Ji-Guang Zhang, D. K. Benson, C. E. Tracy, S. K. Deb, A. W. Czanderna, C. Bechinger, “Chromic mechanism in amorphous WO3 films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 2022–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Deb, “Opportunities and challenges of electrochromic phenomena in transition metal oxides,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 25, 327–338 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Deb, “Electron spin resonance of defects in single crystal and thin films of tungsten trioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 1020–1024 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Deb, “Optical and photoelectric properties and color centers in thin films of tungsten oxide,” Philos. Mag. 27, 801–821 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Demiryont, H.

H. Demiryont, S. C. Schulz, “Stoichiometry considerations on optical and electrochromic properties of sputtered tungsten oxide films,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion VIII, C. Granqvist, C. M. Lampert, eds., Proc. SPIE1149, 28–39 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Deneuville, A.

P. Gerard, A. Deneuville, “Color in tungsten trioxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4252–4255 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Domenges, B.

B. Domenges, N. K. McGuire, M. O’Keeffe, “Bond lengths and valences in tungsten oxides,” J. Solid State Chem. 56, 94–100 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Donnadieu, A.

D. Davazoglou, A. Donnadieu, “Structure and optical properties of WO3 thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 147, 131–142 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ekstrom, T.

J. Booth, T. Ekstrom, E. Iguchi, R. J. D. Tilley, “Notes on phases occurring in the binary tungsten–oxygen system,” J. Solid State Chem. 41, 293–307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Enyo, M.

K. Machida, M. Enyo, “Structural and electrochromic properties of tungsten and molybdenum trioxide electrodes in acidic media,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 1169–1175 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. G.

R. G. Evans, L. A. Bursill, D. J. Smith, “Electron optical study of tungsten trioxide,” Optik. 72, 137–142 (1986).

Faughnan, B. W.

B. W. Faughnan, R. S. Crandall, P. M. Heyman, “Electrochromism in WO3 amorphous films,” RCA Rev. 36, 177–200 (1975).

Fitzpatrick, D.

R. B. Goldner, D. H. Mendelsohn, J. Alexander, W. R. Henderson, D. Fitzpatrick, T. E. Haas, H. H. Sample, “High near-infrared reflectivity modulation with polycrystalline electrochromic WO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 1093–1095 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, K.

K. Furukawa, T. Hirose, “Anomalous thermal hysteresis of dielectric constant of tungsten trioxide WO3,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 55, 4137–4138 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gabrusenoks, J. V.

G. M. Ramans, J. V. Gabrusenoks, A. R. Lusis, A. A. Patmalnieks, “Structure of amorphous thin films of WO3 and MoO3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 637–640 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Gabrusenoks, P. D. Cikmach, A. R. Lusis, J. J. Kleperis, G. M. Ramans, “Electrochromic color centers in amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films,” Solid State Ionics 14, 25–30 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gambke, T.

K. Bange, T. Gambke, “Electrochromic materials for optical switching devices,” Adv. Mater. 2, 10–16 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gazzinelli, R.

R. Gazzinelli, O. F. Schirmer, “Light induced W5+ ESR in WO3,” J. Phys. C 10, L145–L148 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gehlig, R.

R. Gehlig, E. Salje, “Dielectric properties and polaronic conductivity of WO3 and WxMo1-xO3,” Philos. Mag. B 47, 229–245 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gerard, P.

P. Gerard, A. Deneuville, “Color in tungsten trioxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4252–4255 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Giulio, M. Di.

M. Di. Giulio, D. Manno, G. Micocci, A. Serra, A. Tepore, “Gas-sensing properties of sputtered thin films of tungsten oxide,” J. Phys. D 30, 3211–3215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goldner, R. B.

R. B. Goldner, D. H. Mendelsohn, J. Alexander, W. R. Henderson, D. Fitzpatrick, T. E. Haas, H. H. Sample, “High near-infrared reflectivity modulation with polycrystalline electrochromic WO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 1093–1095 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

A. Hjelm, C. G. Granqvist, J. M. Wills, “Electronic structure and optical properties of WO3, LiWO3, NaWO3, and HWO3,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 2436–2445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, J. R. Stevens, “Electrochromic LixWO3/polymer laminate/LiyV2O5 device: toward an all-solid-state smart window,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3295–3308 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Granqvist, “Energy-efficient windows: options with present and forthcoming technology,” in Electricity: Efficient End-Use and New Generation Technologies, and Their Planning Implications, T. B. Johansson, B. Bodlund, R. H. Williams, eds. (Lund University Press, Sweden, 1989), pp. 89–123.

Green, D.

Green, M.

M. Green, Z. Hussain, “Optical properties of lithium tungsten bronze thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3451–3458 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Green, Z. Hussain, “Optical properties of dilute hydrogen tungsten bronze thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 7788–7796 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Green, K. Kang, “Electrochromic displays,” Disp. Technol. Appl. 9, 166–173 (1988).

M. Green, A. Travlos, “Sodium tungsten bronze thin films: optical properties of dilute bronzes,” Philos. Mag. B 51, 501–520 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Green, K. Kang, “Variation in the chemical potential of sodium in NaxWO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 62, 385–387 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Grunin, V. S.

V. S. Grunin, V. L. Makarov, I. B. Patrina, M. V. Razumeenko, “EPR of electron and hole centers in WO3 single crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 30, 1421–1424 (1988).

Haas, T. E.

R. B. Goldner, D. H. Mendelsohn, J. Alexander, W. R. Henderson, D. Fitzpatrick, T. E. Haas, H. H. Sample, “High near-infrared reflectivity modulation with polycrystalline electrochromic WO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 1093–1095 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Habibi, H.

A. Agrawal, H. Habibi, “Effect of heat treatment on the structure, composition and electrochromic properties of evaporated tungsten oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 169, 257–270 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hagg, G.

G. Hagg, A. Magneli, “Recent structure investigations of oxygen compounds of molybdenum and tungsten,” Rev. Pure Appl. Chem. 4, 235–249 (1954).

Hanamura, E.

M. Ueta, H. Kanzaki, K. Kobayashi, Y. Toyozowa, E. Hanamura, Excitonic Processes in Solids (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Haranou, T.

Y. Shigesato, Y. Hayashi, A. Masui, T. Haranou, “The structural changes of indium-tin oxide and a-WO3 films by introducing water to the deposition processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 814–819 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, M.

M. Hashimoto, S. Watanuki, N. Koshida, M. Komuro, N. Atoda, “Dual function of thin MoO3 and WO3 films as negative and positive resists for focused ion beam lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3665–3669 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, Y.

Y. Shigesato, Y. Hayashi, A. Masui, T. Haranou, “The structural changes of indium-tin oxide and a-WO3 films by introducing water to the deposition processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 814–819 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, W. R.

R. B. Goldner, D. H. Mendelsohn, J. Alexander, W. R. Henderson, D. Fitzpatrick, T. E. Haas, H. H. Sample, “High near-infrared reflectivity modulation with polycrystalline electrochromic WO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 1093–1095 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Heyman, P. M.

B. W. Faughnan, R. S. Crandall, P. M. Heyman, “Electrochromism in WO3 amorphous films,” RCA Rev. 36, 177–200 (1975).

Hirose, T.

K. Furukawa, T. Hirose, “Anomalous thermal hysteresis of dielectric constant of tungsten trioxide WO3,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 55, 4137–4138 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Hirose, “Structural phase transitions and semiconductor–metal transition in WO3,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 49, 562–567 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hjelm, A.

A. Hjelm, C. G. Granqvist, J. M. Wills, “Electronic structure and optical properties of WO3, LiWO3, NaWO3, and HWO3,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 2436–2445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hochst, H.

H. Hochst, R. D. Bringans, “Electronic structure of evaporated and annealed tungsten oxide films studied with UPS,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 11/12, 768–773 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hollinger, G.

G. Hollinger, P. Pertosa, “Direct observation of the Anderson transition in HxWO3 bronzes by high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 74, 341–344 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hoppmann, G.

E. Salje, G. Hoppmann, “Small-polaron absorption in WxMo1-xO3,” Philos. Mag. B 43, 105–114 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Hoppmann, E. Salje, “Absorption spectra and optical gap energies of WxMo1-xO3,” Opt. Commun. 30, 199–202 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Horiba, Y.

T. Nishimura, Y. Inoue, K. Sugahara, S. Kusunoki, T. Kumamoto, S. Nakagawa, M. Nakaya, Y. Horiba, Y. Akasaka, “Three-dimensional IC for high performance image signal processor,” IEEE IEDM Tech. Digest, 111–112 (1987).

Hussain, Z.

M. Green, Z. Hussain, “Optical properties of lithium tungsten bronze thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3451–3458 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Green, Z. Hussain, “Optical properties of dilute hydrogen tungsten bronze thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 7788–7796 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Iguchi, E.

E. Iguchi, H. Miyagi, “A study on the stability of polarons in monoclinic WO3,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 54, 403–409 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Iguchi, K. Akashi, “Dielectric relaxations and electrical transport due to nonadiabatic small polarons in p-type NiO doped with Li,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 61, 3385–3393 (1992); also see E. Iguchi, E. Salje, R. J. D. Tilley, “Polaron interaction energies in reduced tungsten trioxide,” J. Solid State Chem. 38, 342–359 (1981).

J. Booth, T. Ekstrom, E. Iguchi, R. J. D. Tilley, “Notes on phases occurring in the binary tungsten–oxygen system,” J. Solid State Chem. 41, 293–307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

M. Baba, K. Ohta, T. Ikeda, “Preparation of metallic W film by H2 reduction of WO3 electron-resist film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 2581–2584 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

T. Nishimura, Y. Inoue, K. Sugahara, S. Kusunoki, T. Kumamoto, S. Nakagawa, M. Nakaya, Y. Horiba, Y. Akasaka, “Three-dimensional IC for high performance image signal processor,” IEEE IEDM Tech. Digest, 111–112 (1987).

Jawalekar, S. R.

M. Sharon, M. K. Sharan, S. R. Jawalekar, “Preparation and characterization of oxygen deficient WO3 film,” Sol. Energy Mater. 10, 329–334 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison, “Data analysis for spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 234, 416–422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Julien, C.

C. Julien, “Technological applications of solid state ionics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 6, 9–28 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaito, C.

M. Shiojiri, T. Miyano, C. Kaito, “Electron microscopic studies of structure and crystallization of amorphous metal oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1937–1945 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Shojiri, T. Miyano, C. Kaito, “Electron microscopic studies of structure and crystallization of amorphous metal oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1937–1945 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Shiojiri, T. Miyano, C. Kaito, “Structure and crystallization of very thin amorphous WO3 films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 567–568 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kamimori, T.

Y. Shigesato, A. Murayama, T. Kamimori, K. Matsuhiro, “Characterization of evaporated amorphous WO3 films by Raman and FTIR spectroscopies,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 33/34, 804–811 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Kamimori, J. Nagai, M. Mizuhashi, “Electrochromic devices for transmissive and reflective light control,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 27–38 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Nagai, T. Kamimori, M. Mizuhashi, “Electrochromism in amorphous lithium tungsten oxide films,” Sol. Energy Mater. 13, 279–295 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Nagai, T. Kamimori, “Kinetic study of LixWOx electrochromism,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 681–687 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kamitakahara, W. A.

W. A. Kamitakahara, K. Scharnberg, H. R. Shanks, “Special phonons and superconductivity in the hexagonal tungsten bronzes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1607–1611 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, H.

H. Kaneko, K. Miyake, Y. Teramoto, “Preparation and properties of reactively sputtered tungsten oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 3070–3075 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kang, K.

M. Green, K. Kang, “Electrochromic displays,” Disp. Technol. Appl. 9, 166–173 (1988).

M. Green, K. Kang, “Variation in the chemical potential of sodium in NaxWO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 62, 385–387 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kanzaki, H.

M. Ueta, H. Kanzaki, K. Kobayashi, Y. Toyozowa, E. Hanamura, Excitonic Processes in Solids (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Kleperis, J. J.

J. J. Kleperis, P. D. Cikmach, A. R. Lusis, “Colour centers in amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 83, 291–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Gabrusenoks, P. D. Cikmach, A. R. Lusis, J. J. Kleperis, G. M. Ramans, “Electrochromic color centers in amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films,” Solid State Ionics 14, 25–30 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

M. Ueta, H. Kanzaki, K. Kobayashi, Y. Toyozowa, E. Hanamura, Excitonic Processes in Solids (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Komuro, M.

M. Hashimoto, S. Watanuki, N. Koshida, M. Komuro, N. Atoda, “Dual function of thin MoO3 and WO3 films as negative and positive resists for focused ion beam lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3665–3669 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koshida, N.

M. Hashimoto, S. Watanuki, N. Koshida, M. Komuro, N. Atoda, “Dual function of thin MoO3 and WO3 films as negative and positive resists for focused ion beam lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3665–3669 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Koshida, O. Tomita, “Ion-beam modification of amorphous WO3 film and its properties as a high-contrast inorganic ion resist,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 92–94 (1985); also see N. Koshida, O. Tomita, “Mechanism of a high-contrast inorganic ion resist using amorphous WO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1932–1935 (1986).

Kumamoto, T.

T. Nishimura, Y. Inoue, K. Sugahara, S. Kusunoki, T. Kumamoto, S. Nakagawa, M. Nakaya, Y. Horiba, Y. Akasaka, “Three-dimensional IC for high performance image signal processor,” IEEE IEDM Tech. Digest, 111–112 (1987).

Kusunoki, S.

T. Nishimura, Y. Inoue, K. Sugahara, S. Kusunoki, T. Kumamoto, S. Nakagawa, M. Nakaya, Y. Horiba, Y. Akasaka, “Three-dimensional IC for high performance image signal processor,” IEEE IEDM Tech. Digest, 111–112 (1987).

Ladouceur, M.

M. Ladouceur, J. P. Bodelet, L. Parent, S. Dallaire, “Plasma spraying of WO3: structural characterization of the coatings,” Thin Solid Films 166, 249–254 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Leja, E.

K. Marszalek, E. Leja, T. Stapinski, “Direct current sputtered electrochromic coatings,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 47–53 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lusis, A. R.

G. M. Ramans, J. V. Gabrusenoks, A. R. Lusis, A. A. Patmalnieks, “Structure of amorphous thin films of WO3 and MoO3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 637–640 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Gabrusenoks, P. D. Cikmach, A. R. Lusis, J. J. Kleperis, G. M. Ramans, “Electrochromic color centers in amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films,” Solid State Ionics 14, 25–30 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kleperis, P. D. Cikmach, A. R. Lusis, “Colour centers in amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 83, 291–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Machida, K.

K. Machida, M. Enyo, “Structural and electrochromic properties of tungsten and molybdenum trioxide electrodes in acidic media,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 1169–1175 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Madou, M. J.

M. J. Madou, S. R. Morrison, Chemical Sensing with Solid State Devices (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989).

Magneli, A.

G. Hagg, A. Magneli, “Recent structure investigations of oxygen compounds of molybdenum and tungsten,” Rev. Pure Appl. Chem. 4, 235–249 (1954).

Maheswari, S. P.

M. Ahsan Habib, S. P. Maheswari, “In situ infrared spectroscopic study of the electrochromic reactions of tungsten trioxide films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 138, 2029–2031 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Makarov, V. L.

V. S. Grunin, V. L. Makarov, I. B. Patrina, M. V. Razumeenko, “EPR of electron and hole centers in WO3 single crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 30, 1421–1424 (1988).

Manno, D.

M. Di. Giulio, D. Manno, G. Micocci, A. Serra, A. Tepore, “Gas-sensing properties of sputtered thin films of tungsten oxide,” J. Phys. D 30, 3211–3215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marszalek, K.

K. Marszalek, E. Leja, T. Stapinski, “Direct current sputtered electrochromic coatings,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 47–53 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, Y.

K. Matsuhiro, Y. Masuda, “Transmissive electrochromic display using a porous crystalline WO3 counter electrode,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21/22, 101–105 (1980).

Masui, A.

Y. Shigesato, Y. Hayashi, A. Masui, T. Haranou, “The structural changes of indium-tin oxide and a-WO3 films by introducing water to the deposition processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 814–819 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matsuhiro, K.

Y. Shigesato, A. Murayama, T. Kamimori, K. Matsuhiro, “Characterization of evaporated amorphous WO3 films by Raman and FTIR spectroscopies,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 33/34, 804–811 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Matsuhiro, Y. Masuda, “Transmissive electrochromic display using a porous crystalline WO3 counter electrode,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21/22, 101–105 (1980).

McCrackin, F. L.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
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F. L. McCrackin, J. P. Colson, “Computational techniques for the use of the exact Drude equations in reflection problems,” in Ellipsometry in the Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, Symposium Proceedings, Washington, D.C., 1963, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, J. Kruger, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. Misc. Publ.256 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1964), pp. 61–82.

F. L. McCrackin, “A Fortran program for analysis of ellipsometer measurements,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Tech. Note 479 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969).

McGuire, N. K.

B. Domenges, N. K. McGuire, M. O’Keeffe, “Bond lengths and valences in tungsten oxides,” J. Solid State Chem. 56, 94–100 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mendelsohn, D. H.

R. B. Goldner, D. H. Mendelsohn, J. Alexander, W. R. Henderson, D. Fitzpatrick, T. E. Haas, H. H. Sample, “High near-infrared reflectivity modulation with polycrystalline electrochromic WO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 1093–1095 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Micocci, G.

M. Di. Giulio, D. Manno, G. Micocci, A. Serra, A. Tepore, “Gas-sensing properties of sputtered thin films of tungsten oxide,” J. Phys. D 30, 3211–3215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miyagi, H.

E. Iguchi, H. Miyagi, “A study on the stability of polarons in monoclinic WO3,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 54, 403–409 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, K.

H. Kaneko, K. Miyake, Y. Teramoto, “Preparation and properties of reactively sputtered tungsten oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 3070–3075 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Miyano, T.

M. Shiojiri, T. Miyano, C. Kaito, “Electron microscopic studies of structure and crystallization of amorphous metal oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1937–1945 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Shojiri, T. Miyano, C. Kaito, “Electron microscopic studies of structure and crystallization of amorphous metal oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1937–1945 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Shiojiri, T. Miyano, C. Kaito, “Structure and crystallization of very thin amorphous WO3 films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 567–568 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mizuhashi, M.

T. Kamimori, J. Nagai, M. Mizuhashi, “Electrochromic devices for transmissive and reflective light control,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 27–38 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Nagai, T. Kamimori, M. Mizuhashi, “Electrochromism in amorphous lithium tungsten oxide films,” Sol. Energy Mater. 13, 279–295 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

H. Morita, H. Washida, “Electrochromism of atmospheric evaporated tungsten oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 754–759 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, S. R.

M. J. Madou, S. R. Morrison, Chemical Sensing with Solid State Devices (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989).

Mott, N. F.

A. S. Alexandrov, A. M. Bratkovsky, N. F. Mott, E. K. H. Salje, “Near-infrared absorption of YBa2Cu3O7-δ: evidence for Bose–Einstein condensation of small bipolarons,” Phys. C 215, 359–370 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Murayama, A.

Y. Shigesato, A. Murayama, T. Kamimori, K. Matsuhiro, “Characterization of evaporated amorphous WO3 films by Raman and FTIR spectroscopies,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 33/34, 804–811 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, J.

T. Kamimori, J. Nagai, M. Mizuhashi, “Electrochromic devices for transmissive and reflective light control,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 27–38 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Nagai, T. Kamimori, M. Mizuhashi, “Electrochromism in amorphous lithium tungsten oxide films,” Sol. Energy Mater. 13, 279–295 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Nagai, T. Kamimori, “Kinetic study of LixWOx electrochromism,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 681–687 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, S.

T. Nishimura, Y. Inoue, K. Sugahara, S. Kusunoki, T. Kumamoto, S. Nakagawa, M. Nakaya, Y. Horiba, Y. Akasaka, “Three-dimensional IC for high performance image signal processor,” IEEE IEDM Tech. Digest, 111–112 (1987).

Nakamura, A.

A. Nakamura, S. Yamada, “Fundamental absorption edge of evaporated amorphous WO3 films,” Appl. Phys. 24, 55–59 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nakaya, M.

T. Nishimura, Y. Inoue, K. Sugahara, S. Kusunoki, T. Kumamoto, S. Nakagawa, M. Nakaya, Y. Horiba, Y. Akasaka, “Three-dimensional IC for high performance image signal processor,” IEEE IEDM Tech. Digest, 111–112 (1987).

Nanba, T.

T. Nanba, I. Yasui, “X-ray diffraction study of microstructure of amorphous tungsten trioxide films prepared by electron beam vacuum evaporation,” J. Solid State Chem. 83, 304–315 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ngai, K. L.

K. L. Ngai, R. Silberglitt, “Effect of lattice instability on superconductivity in sodium tungsten bronze,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 1032–1039 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, T.

T. Nishimura, Y. Inoue, K. Sugahara, S. Kusunoki, T. Kumamoto, S. Nakagawa, M. Nakaya, Y. Horiba, Y. Akasaka, “Three-dimensional IC for high performance image signal processor,” IEEE IEDM Tech. Digest, 111–112 (1987).

O’Keeffe, M.

B. Domenges, N. K. McGuire, M. O’Keeffe, “Bond lengths and valences in tungsten oxides,” J. Solid State Chem. 56, 94–100 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, K.

M. Baba, K. Ohta, T. Ikeda, “Preparation of metallic W film by H2 reduction of WO3 electron-resist film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 2581–2584 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ottermann, C.

C. Ottermann, A. Temmink, K. Bange, “Correlation of injected charge to optical constants (n, k) of electrochromic films,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion IX, C. Granqvist, C. M. Lampert, eds., Proc. SPIE1272, 111–121 (1990).

Owen, J. F.

J. F. Owen, K. J. Teegarden, H. R. Shanks, “Optical properties of the sodium-tungsten bronzes and tungsten trioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 3827–3837 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ozer, N.

M. Rubin, K. Von Rottkay, S.-J. Wen, N. Ozer, J. Slack, “Optical indices of lithiated electrochromic oxides,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 49–57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parent, L.

M. Ladouceur, J. P. Bodelet, L. Parent, S. Dallaire, “Plasma spraying of WO3: structural characterization of the coatings,” Thin Solid Films 166, 249–254 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Passaglia, E.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Patmalnieks, A. A.

G. M. Ramans, J. V. Gabrusenoks, A. R. Lusis, A. A. Patmalnieks, “Structure of amorphous thin films of WO3 and MoO3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 637–640 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Patrina, I. B.

V. S. Grunin, V. L. Makarov, I. B. Patrina, M. V. Razumeenko, “EPR of electron and hole centers in WO3 single crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 30, 1421–1424 (1988).

Pertosa, P.

G. Hollinger, P. Pertosa, “Direct observation of the Anderson transition in HxWO3 bronzes by high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 74, 341–344 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ramans, G. M.

G. M. Ramans, J. V. Gabrusenoks, A. R. Lusis, A. A. Patmalnieks, “Structure of amorphous thin films of WO3 and MoO3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 637–640 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Gabrusenoks, P. D. Cikmach, A. R. Lusis, J. J. Kleperis, G. M. Ramans, “Electrochromic color centers in amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films,” Solid State Ionics 14, 25–30 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ray, D. K.

A. S. Alexandrov, D. K. Ray, “Theory of high-Tc superconductors: back to small bipolarons,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 63, 295–302 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Razumeenko, M. V.

V. S. Grunin, V. L. Makarov, I. B. Patrina, M. V. Razumeenko, “EPR of electron and hole centers in WO3 single crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 30, 1421–1424 (1988).

Rubin, M.

M. Rubin, K. Von Rottkay, S.-J. Wen, N. Ozer, J. Slack, “Optical indices of lithiated electrochromic oxides,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 49–57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saini, K. K.

S. A. Agnihotry, K. K. Saini, T. K. Saxena, S. Chandra, “Electrical properties and morphology of obliquely deposited electrochromic WO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 141, 183–192 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Salje, E.

R. Gehlig, E. Salje, “Dielectric properties and polaronic conductivity of WO3 and WxMo1-xO3,” Philos. Mag. B 47, 229–245 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Salje, G. Hoppmann, “Small-polaron absorption in WxMo1-xO3,” Philos. Mag. B 43, 105–114 (1981).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Schirmer, E. Salje, “Conduction bipolarons in low-temperature crystalline WO3-x,” J. Phys. C 13, L1067–L1072 (1980); see also O. F. Schirmer, V. Wittwer, G. Baur, G. Brandt, “Dependence of WO3 electrochromic absorption on crystallinity,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 124, 749–753 (1977).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Schirmer, E. Salje, “The W5+ polaron in crystalline low temperature WO3 ESR and optical absorption,” Solid State Commun. 33, 333–336 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. Hoppmann, E. Salje, “Absorption spectra and optical gap energies of WxMo1-xO3,” Opt. Commun. 30, 199–202 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. Salje, “The electrochromic effect in polar WO3,” Opt. Commun. 24, 231–232 (1977).

E. Salje, K. Viswanathan, “Physical properties and phase transitions in WO3,” Acta Crystallogr. A 31, 356–359 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. Salje, “A new type of electro-optic effect in semiconducting WO3,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 7, 615–617 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Salje, E. K. H.

A. S. Alexandrov, A. M. Bratkovsky, N. F. Mott, E. K. H. Salje, “Near-infrared absorption of YBa2Cu3O7-δ: evidence for Bose–Einstein condensation of small bipolarons,” Phys. C 215, 359–370 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sample, H. H.

R. B. Goldner, D. H. Mendelsohn, J. Alexander, W. R. Henderson, D. Fitzpatrick, T. E. Haas, H. H. Sample, “High near-infrared reflectivity modulation with polycrystalline electrochromic WO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 1093–1095 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sawada, S.

S. Sawada, G. C. Danielson, “Domain structure of WO3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 113, 1005–1013 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, T. K.

S. A. Agnihotry, K. K. Saini, T. K. Saxena, S. Chandra, “Electrical properties and morphology of obliquely deposited electrochromic WO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 141, 183–192 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Scharnberg, K.

W. A. Kamitakahara, K. Scharnberg, H. R. Shanks, “Special phonons and superconductivity in the hexagonal tungsten bronzes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1607–1611 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, O. F.

O. F. Schirmer, E. Salje, “Conduction bipolarons in low-temperature crystalline WO3-x,” J. Phys. C 13, L1067–L1072 (1980); see also O. F. Schirmer, V. Wittwer, G. Baur, G. Brandt, “Dependence of WO3 electrochromic absorption on crystallinity,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 124, 749–753 (1977).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Schirmer, E. Salje, “The W5+ polaron in crystalline low temperature WO3 ESR and optical absorption,” Solid State Commun. 33, 333–336 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Gazzinelli, O. F. Schirmer, “Light induced W5+ ESR in WO3,” J. Phys. C 10, L145–L148 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, S. C.

H. Demiryont, S. C. Schulz, “Stoichiometry considerations on optical and electrochromic properties of sputtered tungsten oxide films,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion VIII, C. Granqvist, C. M. Lampert, eds., Proc. SPIE1149, 28–39 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Serra, A.

M. Di. Giulio, D. Manno, G. Micocci, A. Serra, A. Tepore, “Gas-sensing properties of sputtered thin films of tungsten oxide,” J. Phys. D 30, 3211–3215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shanks, H. R.

W. A. Kamitakahara, K. Scharnberg, H. R. Shanks, “Special phonons and superconductivity in the hexagonal tungsten bronzes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1607–1611 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Owen, K. J. Teegarden, H. R. Shanks, “Optical properties of the sodium-tungsten bronzes and tungsten trioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 3827–3837 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sharan, M. K.

M. Sharon, M. K. Sharan, S. R. Jawalekar, “Preparation and characterization of oxygen deficient WO3 film,” Sol. Energy Mater. 10, 329–334 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sharon, M.

M. Sharon, M. K. Sharan, S. R. Jawalekar, “Preparation and characterization of oxygen deficient WO3 film,” Sol. Energy Mater. 10, 329–334 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shigesato, Y.

Y. Shigesato, Y. Hayashi, A. Masui, T. Haranou, “The structural changes of indium-tin oxide and a-WO3 films by introducing water to the deposition processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 814–819 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shigesato, A. Murayama, T. Kamimori, K. Matsuhiro, “Characterization of evaporated amorphous WO3 films by Raman and FTIR spectroscopies,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 33/34, 804–811 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shiojiri, M.

M. Shiojiri, T. Miyano, C. Kaito, “Electron microscopic studies of structure and crystallization of amorphous metal oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1937–1945 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Shiojiri, T. Miyano, C. Kaito, “Structure and crystallization of very thin amorphous WO3 films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 567–568 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shojiri, M.

M. Shojiri, T. Miyano, C. Kaito, “Electron microscopic studies of structure and crystallization of amorphous metal oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1937–1945 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Silberglitt, R.

K. L. Ngai, R. Silberglitt, “Effect of lattice instability on superconductivity in sodium tungsten bronze,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 1032–1039 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Slack, J.

M. Rubin, K. Von Rottkay, S.-J. Wen, N. Ozer, J. Slack, “Optical indices of lithiated electrochromic oxides,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 49–57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

R. G. Evans, L. A. Bursill, D. J. Smith, “Electron optical study of tungsten trioxide,” Optik. 72, 137–142 (1986).

Stapinski, T.

K. Marszalek, E. Leja, T. Stapinski, “Direct current sputtered electrochromic coatings,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 47–53 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, H. L.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, J. R.

Stromberg, R. R.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Sugahara, K.

T. Nishimura, Y. Inoue, K. Sugahara, S. Kusunoki, T. Kumamoto, S. Nakagawa, M. Nakaya, Y. Horiba, Y. Akasaka, “Three-dimensional IC for high performance image signal processor,” IEEE IEDM Tech. Digest, 111–112 (1987).

Tanisaki, S.

S. Tanisaki, “On the phase transition of tungsten trioxide below room temperature,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 15, 566–581 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Teegarden, K. J.

J. F. Owen, K. J. Teegarden, H. R. Shanks, “Optical properties of the sodium-tungsten bronzes and tungsten trioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 3827–3837 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Temmink, A.

C. Ottermann, A. Temmink, K. Bange, “Correlation of injected charge to optical constants (n, k) of electrochromic films,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion IX, C. Granqvist, C. M. Lampert, eds., Proc. SPIE1272, 111–121 (1990).

Tepore, A.

M. Di. Giulio, D. Manno, G. Micocci, A. Serra, A. Tepore, “Gas-sensing properties of sputtered thin films of tungsten oxide,” J. Phys. D 30, 3211–3215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Teramoto, Y.

H. Kaneko, K. Miyake, Y. Teramoto, “Preparation and properties of reactively sputtered tungsten oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 3070–3075 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tilley, R. J. D.

J. Booth, T. Ekstrom, E. Iguchi, R. J. D. Tilley, “Notes on phases occurring in the binary tungsten–oxygen system,” J. Solid State Chem. 41, 293–307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, O.

N. Koshida, O. Tomita, “Ion-beam modification of amorphous WO3 film and its properties as a high-contrast inorganic ion resist,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 92–94 (1985); also see N. Koshida, O. Tomita, “Mechanism of a high-contrast inorganic ion resist using amorphous WO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1932–1935 (1986).

Toyozowa, Y.

M. Ueta, H. Kanzaki, K. Kobayashi, Y. Toyozowa, E. Hanamura, Excitonic Processes in Solids (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Tracy, C. E.

Ji-Guang Zhang, D. K. Benson, C. E. Tracy, S. K. Deb, A. W. Czanderna, C. Bechinger, “Chromic mechanism in amorphous WO3 films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 2022–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Travlos, A.

M. Green, A. Travlos, “Sodium tungsten bronze thin films: optical properties of dilute bronzes,” Philos. Mag. B 51, 501–520 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Travlos, “Physical properties of thin films of sodium tungsten bronzes,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of London, London, 1984).

Ueta, M.

M. Ueta, H. Kanzaki, K. Kobayashi, Y. Toyozowa, E. Hanamura, Excitonic Processes in Solids (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Viswanathan, K.

E. Salje, K. Viswanathan, “Physical properties and phase transitions in WO3,” Acta Crystallogr. A 31, 356–359 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Von Rottkay, K.

M. Rubin, K. Von Rottkay, S.-J. Wen, N. Ozer, J. Slack, “Optical indices of lithiated electrochromic oxides,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 49–57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Washida, H.

H. Morita, H. Washida, “Electrochromism of atmospheric evaporated tungsten oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 754–759 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Watanuki, S.

M. Hashimoto, S. Watanuki, N. Koshida, M. Komuro, N. Atoda, “Dual function of thin MoO3 and WO3 films as negative and positive resists for focused ion beam lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3665–3669 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wen, S.-J.

M. Rubin, K. Von Rottkay, S.-J. Wen, N. Ozer, J. Slack, “Optical indices of lithiated electrochromic oxides,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 49–57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wills, J. M.

A. Hjelm, C. G. Granqvist, J. M. Wills, “Electronic structure and optical properties of WO3, LiWO3, NaWO3, and HWO3,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 2436–2445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, S.

A. Nakamura, S. Yamada, “Fundamental absorption edge of evaporated amorphous WO3 films,” Appl. Phys. 24, 55–59 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yasui, I.

T. Nanba, I. Yasui, “X-ray diffraction study of microstructure of amorphous tungsten trioxide films prepared by electron beam vacuum evaporation,” J. Solid State Chem. 83, 304–315 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, T.

T. Yoshimura, “Oscillator strength of small-polaron absorption in WOx (x ≤ 3) electrochromic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 911–919 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zeller, H. R.

H. R. Zeller, H. U. Beyeler, “Electrochromism and local order in amorphous WO3,” Appl. Phys. 13, 231–237 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Ji-Guang

Ji-Guang Zhang, D. K. Benson, C. E. Tracy, S. K. Deb, A. W. Czanderna, C. Bechinger, “Chromic mechanism in amorphous WO3 films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 2022–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Q.

Q. Zhong, J. R. Dahn, K. Colbow, “Lithium intercalation into WO3 and the phase diagram of LixWO3,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 2554–2560 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhong, J. R. Dahn, K. Colbow, “Lithium intercalation into WO3 and the phase diagram of LixWO3,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 2554–2560 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. A (1)

E. Salje, K. Viswanathan, “Physical properties and phase transitions in WO3,” Acta Crystallogr. A 31, 356–359 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

K. Bange, T. Gambke, “Electrochromic materials for optical switching devices,” Adv. Mater. 2, 10–16 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. (2)

H. R. Zeller, H. U. Beyeler, “Electrochromism and local order in amorphous WO3,” Appl. Phys. 13, 231–237 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakamura, S. Yamada, “Fundamental absorption edge of evaporated amorphous WO3 films,” Appl. Phys. 24, 55–59 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. B. Goldner, D. H. Mendelsohn, J. Alexander, W. R. Henderson, D. Fitzpatrick, T. E. Haas, H. H. Sample, “High near-infrared reflectivity modulation with polycrystalline electrochromic WO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 1093–1095 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

Y. Shigesato, A. Murayama, T. Kamimori, K. Matsuhiro, “Characterization of evaporated amorphous WO3 films by Raman and FTIR spectroscopies,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 33/34, 804–811 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Hochst, R. D. Bringans, “Electronic structure of evaporated and annealed tungsten oxide films studied with UPS,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 11/12, 768–773 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Hollinger, P. Pertosa, “Direct observation of the Anderson transition in HxWO3 bronzes by high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 74, 341–344 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Disp. Technol. Appl. (1)

M. Green, K. Kang, “Electrochromic displays,” Disp. Technol. Appl. 9, 166–173 (1988).

IEEE IEDM Tech. Digest (1)

T. Nishimura, Y. Inoue, K. Sugahara, S. Kusunoki, T. Kumamoto, S. Nakagawa, M. Nakaya, Y. Horiba, Y. Akasaka, “Three-dimensional IC for high performance image signal processor,” IEEE IEDM Tech. Digest, 111–112 (1987).

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (1)

E. Salje, “A new type of electro-optic effect in semiconducting WO3,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 7, 615–617 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Electrochem. (1)

C. Bohnke, O. Bohnke, “Heat treatment of amorphous electrochromic WO3 thin films deposited onto indium–tin oxide substrates,” J. Appl. Electrochem. 18, 715–723 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

H. Kaneko, K. Miyake, Y. Teramoto, “Preparation and properties of reactively sputtered tungsten oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 3070–3075 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshimura, “Oscillator strength of small-polaron absorption in WOx (x ≤ 3) electrochromic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 911–919 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. J. De Smet, “Ellipsometry of anisotropic substrates: reexamination of a special case,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2571–2575 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Green, Z. Hussain, “Optical properties of lithium tungsten bronze thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3451–3458 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Gerard, A. Deneuville, “Color in tungsten trioxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4252–4255 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. Green, Z. Hussain, “Optical properties of dilute hydrogen tungsten bronze thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 7788–7796 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (3)

K. Machida, M. Enyo, “Structural and electrochromic properties of tungsten and molybdenum trioxide electrodes in acidic media,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 1169–1175 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ji-Guang Zhang, D. K. Benson, C. E. Tracy, S. K. Deb, A. W. Czanderna, C. Bechinger, “Chromic mechanism in amorphous WO3 films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 2022–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ahsan Habib, S. P. Maheswari, “In situ infrared spectroscopic study of the electrochromic reactions of tungsten trioxide films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 138, 2029–2031 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

G. M. Ramans, J. V. Gabrusenoks, A. R. Lusis, A. A. Patmalnieks, “Structure of amorphous thin films of WO3 and MoO3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 637–640 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C (2)

O. F. Schirmer, E. Salje, “Conduction bipolarons in low-temperature crystalline WO3-x,” J. Phys. C 13, L1067–L1072 (1980); see also O. F. Schirmer, V. Wittwer, G. Baur, G. Brandt, “Dependence of WO3 electrochromic absorption on crystallinity,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 124, 749–753 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. Gazzinelli, O. F. Schirmer, “Light induced W5+ ESR in WO3,” J. Phys. C 10, L145–L148 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

E. Iguchi, H. Miyagi, “A study on the stability of polarons in monoclinic WO3,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 54, 403–409 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

M. Di. Giulio, D. Manno, G. Micocci, A. Serra, A. Tepore, “Gas-sensing properties of sputtered thin films of tungsten oxide,” J. Phys. D 30, 3211–3215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (4)

S. Tanisaki, “On the phase transition of tungsten trioxide below room temperature,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 15, 566–581 (1960).
[CrossRef]

T. Hirose, “Structural phase transitions and semiconductor–metal transition in WO3,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 49, 562–567 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. Iguchi, K. Akashi, “Dielectric relaxations and electrical transport due to nonadiabatic small polarons in p-type NiO doped with Li,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 61, 3385–3393 (1992); also see E. Iguchi, E. Salje, R. J. D. Tilley, “Polaron interaction energies in reduced tungsten trioxide,” J. Solid State Chem. 38, 342–359 (1981).

K. Furukawa, T. Hirose, “Anomalous thermal hysteresis of dielectric constant of tungsten trioxide WO3,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 55, 4137–4138 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A (1)

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem. (4)

B. Domenges, N. K. McGuire, M. O’Keeffe, “Bond lengths and valences in tungsten oxides,” J. Solid State Chem. 56, 94–100 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Booth, T. Ekstrom, E. Iguchi, R. J. D. Tilley, “Notes on phases occurring in the binary tungsten–oxygen system,” J. Solid State Chem. 41, 293–307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Nanba, I. Yasui, “X-ray diffraction study of microstructure of amorphous tungsten trioxide films prepared by electron beam vacuum evaporation,” J. Solid State Chem. 83, 304–315 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Bursill, “Structure of small defects in nonstoichiometric WO3-x,” J. Solid State Chem. 48, 256–271 (1983);M. Kawaminami, T. Hirose, “Condensed phonon modes in successive phases of WO3,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 46, 864–870 (1979);M. Kawaminami, T. Hirose, “Condensed modes in the triclinic WO3,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 47, 1733 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (9)

M. Baba, K. Ohta, T. Ikeda, “Preparation of metallic W film by H2 reduction of WO3 electron-resist film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 2581–2584 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Morita, H. Washida, “Electrochromism of atmospheric evaporated tungsten oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 754–759 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Shojiri, T. Miyano, C. Kaito, “Electron microscopic studies of structure and crystallization of amorphous metal oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1937–1945 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shigesato, Y. Hayashi, A. Masui, T. Haranou, “The structural changes of indium-tin oxide and a-WO3 films by introducing water to the deposition processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 814–819 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Shiojiri, T. Miyano, C. Kaito, “Electron microscopic studies of structure and crystallization of amorphous metal oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1937–1945 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Shiojiri, T. Miyano, C. Kaito, “Structure and crystallization of very thin amorphous WO3 films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 567–568 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Nagai, T. Kamimori, “Kinetic study of LixWOx electrochromism,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 681–687 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Koshida, O. Tomita, “Ion-beam modification of amorphous WO3 film and its properties as a high-contrast inorganic ion resist,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 92–94 (1985); also see N. Koshida, O. Tomita, “Mechanism of a high-contrast inorganic ion resist using amorphous WO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1932–1935 (1986).

M. Hashimoto, S. Watanuki, N. Koshida, M. Komuro, N. Atoda, “Dual function of thin MoO3 and WO3 films as negative and positive resists for focused ion beam lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3665–3669 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

C. Julien, “Technological applications of solid state ionics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 6, 9–28 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

G. Hoppmann, E. Salje, “Absorption spectra and optical gap energies of WxMo1-xO3,” Opt. Commun. 30, 199–202 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. Salje, “The electrochromic effect in polar WO3,” Opt. Commun. 24, 231–232 (1977).

Optik. (1)

R. G. Evans, L. A. Bursill, D. J. Smith, “Electron optical study of tungsten trioxide,” Optik. 72, 137–142 (1986).

Philos. Mag. (1)

S. K. Deb, “Optical and photoelectric properties and color centers in thin films of tungsten oxide,” Philos. Mag. 27, 801–821 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag. B (3)

M. Green, A. Travlos, “Sodium tungsten bronze thin films: optical properties of dilute bronzes,” Philos. Mag. B 51, 501–520 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. Salje, G. Hoppmann, “Small-polaron absorption in WxMo1-xO3,” Philos. Mag. B 43, 105–114 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Gehlig, E. Salje, “Dielectric properties and polaronic conductivity of WO3 and WxMo1-xO3,” Philos. Mag. B 47, 229–245 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag. Lett. (1)

A. S. Alexandrov, D. K. Ray, “Theory of high-Tc superconductors: back to small bipolarons,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 63, 295–302 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. C (1)

A. S. Alexandrov, A. M. Bratkovsky, N. F. Mott, E. K. H. Salje, “Near-infrared absorption of YBa2Cu3O7-δ: evidence for Bose–Einstein condensation of small bipolarons,” Phys. C 215, 359–370 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

S. Sawada, G. C. Danielson, “Domain structure of WO3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 113, 1005–1013 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (6)

J. F. Owen, K. J. Teegarden, H. R. Shanks, “Optical properties of the sodium-tungsten bronzes and tungsten trioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 3827–3837 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhong, J. R. Dahn, K. Colbow, “Lithium intercalation into WO3 and the phase diagram of LixWO3,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 2554–2560 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhong, J. R. Dahn, K. Colbow, “Lithium intercalation into WO3 and the phase diagram of LixWO3,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 2554–2560 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Hjelm, C. G. Granqvist, J. M. Wills, “Electronic structure and optical properties of WO3, LiWO3, NaWO3, and HWO3,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 2436–2445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Ngai, R. Silberglitt, “Effect of lattice instability on superconductivity in sodium tungsten bronze,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 1032–1039 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Deb, “Electron spin resonance of defects in single crystal and thin films of tungsten trioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 1020–1024 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

W. A. Kamitakahara, K. Scharnberg, H. R. Shanks, “Special phonons and superconductivity in the hexagonal tungsten bronzes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1607–1611 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

J. J. Kleperis, P. D. Cikmach, A. R. Lusis, “Colour centers in amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 83, 291–297 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

K. Matsuhiro, Y. Masuda, “Transmissive electrochromic display using a porous crystalline WO3 counter electrode,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21/22, 101–105 (1980).

RCA Rev. (1)

B. W. Faughnan, R. S. Crandall, P. M. Heyman, “Electrochromism in WO3 amorphous films,” RCA Rev. 36, 177–200 (1975).

Rev. Pure Appl. Chem. (1)

G. Hagg, A. Magneli, “Recent structure investigations of oxygen compounds of molybdenum and tungsten,” Rev. Pure Appl. Chem. 4, 235–249 (1954).

Sol. Energy Mater. (4)

T. Kamimori, J. Nagai, M. Mizuhashi, “Electrochromic devices for transmissive and reflective light control,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 27–38 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Nagai, T. Kamimori, M. Mizuhashi, “Electrochromism in amorphous lithium tungsten oxide films,” Sol. Energy Mater. 13, 279–295 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Sharon, M. K. Sharan, S. R. Jawalekar, “Preparation and characterization of oxygen deficient WO3 film,” Sol. Energy Mater. 10, 329–334 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. Marszalek, E. Leja, T. Stapinski, “Direct current sputtered electrochromic coatings,” Sol. Energy Mater. 16, 47–53 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

M. Rubin, K. Von Rottkay, S.-J. Wen, N. Ozer, J. Slack, “Optical indices of lithiated electrochromic oxides,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54, 49–57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Deb, “Opportunities and challenges of electrochromic phenomena in transition metal oxides,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 25, 327–338 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

O. F. Schirmer, E. Salje, “The W5+ polaron in crystalline low temperature WO3 ESR and optical absorption,” Solid State Commun. 33, 333–336 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Ionics (1)

J. V. Gabrusenoks, P. D. Cikmach, A. R. Lusis, J. J. Kleperis, G. M. Ramans, “Electrochromic color centers in amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films,” Solid State Ionics 14, 25–30 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Solid State (1)

V. S. Grunin, V. L. Makarov, I. B. Patrina, M. V. Razumeenko, “EPR of electron and hole centers in WO3 single crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 30, 1421–1424 (1988).

Thin Solid Films (6)

M. Ladouceur, J. P. Bodelet, L. Parent, S. Dallaire, “Plasma spraying of WO3: structural characterization of the coatings,” Thin Solid Films 166, 249–254 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Agrawal, H. Habibi, “Effect of heat treatment on the structure, composition and electrochromic properties of evaporated tungsten oxide films,” Thin Solid Films 169, 257–270 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Davazoglou, A. Donnadieu, “Structure and optical properties of WO3 thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 147, 131–142 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Agnihotry, K. K. Saini, T. K. Saxena, S. Chandra, “Electrical properties and morphology of obliquely deposited electrochromic WO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 141, 183–192 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Green, K. Kang, “Variation in the chemical potential of sodium in NaxWO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 62, 385–387 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison, “Data analysis for spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 234, 416–422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

R. H. Muller, ed., Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1973), Vol. 9, p. 167.

F. L. McCrackin, J. P. Colson, “Computational techniques for the use of the exact Drude equations in reflection problems,” in Ellipsometry in the Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, Symposium Proceedings, Washington, D.C., 1963, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, J. Kruger, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. Misc. Publ.256 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1964), pp. 61–82.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), p. 186.

M. J. Madou, S. R. Morrison, Chemical Sensing with Solid State Devices (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989).

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988); see also H. Berning, “Theory and calculations of optical thin films,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Haas, ed. (Academic, New York, 1963), Vol. 1, p. 63.

F. L. McCrackin, “A Fortran program for analysis of ellipsometer measurements,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Tech. Note 479 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969).

M. Ueta, H. Kanzaki, K. Kobayashi, Y. Toyozowa, E. Hanamura, Excitonic Processes in Solids (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Demiryont, S. C. Schulz, “Stoichiometry considerations on optical and electrochromic properties of sputtered tungsten oxide films,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion VIII, C. Granqvist, C. M. Lampert, eds., Proc. SPIE1149, 28–39 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Ottermann, A. Temmink, K. Bange, “Correlation of injected charge to optical constants (n, k) of electrochromic films,” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion IX, C. Granqvist, C. M. Lampert, eds., Proc. SPIE1272, 111–121 (1990).

C. G. Granqvist, “Energy-efficient windows: options with present and forthcoming technology,” in Electricity: Efficient End-Use and New Generation Technologies, and Their Planning Implications, T. B. Johansson, B. Bodlund, R. H. Williams, eds. (Lund University Press, Sweden, 1989), pp. 89–123.

A. Travlos, “Physical properties of thin films of sodium tungsten bronzes,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of London, London, 1984).

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of PCWSW′A for manual ellipsometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Azimuths and amplitudes of plane-polarized light reflected from a glass: (a) at any angle of incidence; (b) near Brewster’s angle of incidence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calibration curve of analyzer (A) versus polarizer (P) for the manual ellipsometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Manual ellipsometer constructed and composed of an aluminium alloy base plate to which ellipsometric components were fixed. The incident section is composed of L, a He–Ne laser; Q1, mica quarter-wave plate producing circularly polarized light; P, the Glan–Thomson polarizer prism mounted on a Bellingham and Stanlay head (scale to 0.01°); Q, second mica quarter-wave plate mounted in a B and S head (scale to 0.01°), C, sample vacuum cell setup on spectrometer table and connected to temperature controller. The reflected section is composed of A, a Glan–Thomson analyzer prism mounted in a B and S head (scale to 0.01°); PM, detector (photomultiplier tube) connected to Keithly to monitor output signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plots of (a) refractive index n and (b) extinction coefficient k versus temperature of WO3 thin film under vacuum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Plot of refractive index n versus temperature of WO3 thin film being annealed under vacuum for different periods of time. (b) Plot of extinction coefficient k versus temperature, of WO3 thin film under vacuum for different periods of time.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plot of refractive index n and extinction coefficient k versus temperature T of a WO3 thin film under vacuum across a temperature range of 100–380 K. Solid lines refer to curve fitting for the experimental n and k values.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Plot of refractive index n and extinction coefficient k versus time, of WO3 thin film being annealed at temperature, T = (373 ± 1)K, under hydrogen and then in an oxygen plasma environment.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plot of refractive index n and extinction coefficient k versus time, of WO3 thin film being annealed at temperature, T = (453 ± 1)K, under hydrogen and then in an oxygen plasma environment.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Plot of refractive index n and extinction coefficient k of WO3 thin film versus substrate temperature T under vacuum.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Model of a monoclinic (ReO3-type) structure of WO3 at room temperature: ●, tungsten atoms; ○, oxygen atoms.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Crystal structural model of (a) tetragonal type 2 and (b) tetragonal type 1, of WO3 with ReO3-type WO6 octahedra: ●, tungsten atoms; ○, oxygen atoms.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Structural model of an orthorombic type of WO3: ○, oxygen atoms; tungsten atoms are not shown. (b) Numbers shown are WO bond lengths in angstroms.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Model of triclinic (ReO3-type) structure of WO3: ●, tungsten atoms; ○, oxygen atoms.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Structural model of WO2.72 viewed along the short axis and consisting of repeat units of the pentagonal column: ●, tungsten atoms; ○, oxygen atoms.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Structural model of tungsten oxide, WO2.90: ●, tungsten atoms; ○, oxygen atoms.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Plot of optical constants (n, k) versus wavelength λ (determined by the spectrophotometric technique) of WO3 thin film of 0.34-µm thickness. (Spectrophotometric readings were taken at room temperature in open air.)

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Sketch of simple model of a bipolaron.

Tables (13)

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Table 1 Vacuum Ellipsometric Alignment Data with Reference to the Stainless-Steel Mirror

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Table 2 Vacuum Ellipsometric Alignment Data when Platinum Thick Film on a Microscopic Glass Slide is Used

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Table 3 Ellipsometer Readings

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Table 4 Vacuum Ellipsometric Measurements on a 7059 Glass Slide (Owing to Strain Effects because of Optical Windows) Kept Under Vacuum and in Open Aira

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Table 5 Vacuum Ellipsometric Data on a 7059 Glass Slide (with Back Surface Roughened by Silicon Carbide)

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Table 6 Manual and Autoellipsometric (Comparative) Data on WO3 Thin Films Deposited on 7059 Glass Slides

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Table 7 Vacuum Ellipsometric Temperature-Dependent Data on WO3 Thin Film Deposited on a 7059 Glass Slide

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Table 8 Vacuum-Annealed Ellipsometric Data on WO3 Thin Film Upheld at Different Temperatures

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Table 9 Vacuum-Low-Temperature Ellipsometric Measurements on WO3 Thin Film with Liquid Nitrogen Used as a Coolant and the Temperature Directed by a 407 Controller

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Table 10 Ellipsometric Data Collected on WO3 Thin Film Owing to Hydrogen and Oxygen Plasma Treatments while Film Upheld at T = 373 K

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Table 11 Ellipsometric Data Collected on WO3 Thin Film Owing to Hydrogen and Oxygen Plasma Treatments while Film Upheld at T = 453 K

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Table 12 Vacuum Ellipsometric Data on Evaporated WO3 Thin Films Prepared at Different Substrate (7059 Glass) Temperatures

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Table 13 Vacuum Ellipsometric Data on WO3 Thin Films when the Rate of Evaporation is Varied while the Substrate (7059 glass) Is at Room Temperature

Equations (22)

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tan ψ=|E1s||E1p|1,
E2pE2s=|E2p||E2s|expιδp-δp,
ρ=tan ψ expιΔ.
ns=nair tan ϕ1-4ρ sin2 ϕρ+121/2.
Rp=r12p+r23p exp D1+r12pr23p exp D,
Rs=r12s+r23s exp D1+r12sr23s exp D,
D=-4πι cos ϕ dλ.
ρ=RpRs=tan ψ expιΔ.
Δ=tan-12B sin ϕ tan ϕA2+B2-sin2 ϕ tan2 ϕ,
Ψ=tan-1×A2+B2-2A sin ϕ tan ϕ+sin2 ϕ tan2 ϕA2+B2+2A sin ϕ tan ϕ+sin2 ϕ tan2 ϕ1/2.
A=n2-sin2 φ1/2,
B=0.
Δ=arctan 0
Δ=0, π,
Ψ=tan-1n2-sin2 ϕ1/2-sin ϕ tan ϕ1/2.
Δ=±2P±π/2,
Ψ=ap=as.
WO3+xH++xe-HxWO3,
WO3+xH++xe-WO3-xOHx.
WO3+3H2W+3H2O.
WO3-x+xH2OWO3+2xH++2xe-.
Ebi<2Eb,

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