Abstract

We present results of an experiment performed in Lake Baikal at a depth of ∼1 km. The photomultipliers of an underwater neutrino telescope under construction at this site were illuminated by a distant laser. The experiment not only provided a useful cross-check of the time calibration of the detector but also allowed us to determine inherent optical parameters of the water in a way that was complementary to standard methods. In 1997 we measured an absorption length of 22 m and an asymptotic attenuation length of 18 m. The effective scattering length was measured as 480 m. By use of 〈cos θ〉 = 0.95 (0.90) for the average scattering angle, this length corresponds to a geometric scattering length of 24 (48) m.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. B. Bezrukov, N. M. Budnev, Zh. A. M. Dzhilkibaev, M. D. Galperin, O. Yu. Lanin, B. A. Tarashchanskii, “Measurement of the light absorption coefficient in Lake Baikal water,” Oceanology 30, 1022–1026 (1990), in Russian.
  2. O. N. Gaponenko, R. R. Mirgazov, B. A. Tarashchanskii, “Reconstruction of the primary hydrooptical characteristics from the light field of a point source,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 9, 677–682 (1996).
  3. H. Bradner, G. Blackinton, “Long baseline measurements of light transmission in clear water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1009–1012 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Maffione, K. J. Voss, R. C. Honey, “Measurement of the spectral absorption coefficient in the ocean with an isotropic source,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3273–3279 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. G. Anassontzis, P. Ioannou, Chr. Kourkoumelis, L. K. Resvanis, H. Bradner, “Light transmissivity in the NESTOR site,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 349, 242–246 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics, Vol. 5 of the Elsevier Oceanography Series (Elsevier, New York, 1976).
  7. B. A. Tarashchanskii, O. N. Gaponenko, V. I. Dobrynin, “On a technique for measuring the scattering phase function using the light field from a source with a wide directional pattern,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 7, 819–823 (1994).
  8. B. A. Tarashchanskii, R. R. Mirgazov, K. A. Pochejkin, “Stationary deep-water meter of hydrooptical parameters,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 8, 771–774 (1995).
  9. S. Barwick, “High energy neutrino observatories: status and future,” Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 43, 183–193 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Baikal Neutrino Collaboration, “The Baikal underwater neutrino telescope: design, performance, and first results,” Astropart. Phys. 7, 263–282 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Th. Mikolajski, “Methodische Untersuchungen und Kalibration des Baikal Neutrino Teleskops,” Ph.D. dissertation (Humboldt-Universität Berlin, DESY-Zeuthen 95-03, 1995), http://www.ifh.de/nuastro/publications/ .
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  13. D. Pandel, “Bestimmung von Wasser- und Detektorparametern und Rekonstruktion von Myonen bis 100 TeV mit dem Baikal-Neutrinoteleskop NT-72,” Diploma thesis (Humboldt-Universität Berlin, DESY-Zeuthen, 1996), http://www.ifh.de/nuastro/publications/ .
  14. D. Bauer, J. C. Brun-Cottan, A. Saliot, “Princip d’une measure directe dans l’eau de mer du coefficient d’absorption de la lumiere,” Cah. Oceanogr. 23, 841–850 (1971).
  15. V. N. Pelewin, T. M. Prokudina, “Determination of the absorption coefficient of sea water by the parameters of an isotropic source,” Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics (Nauka, Moscow, 1972), pp. 148–157 in Russian.
  16. O. Ju. Lanin, “Determination of optical parameters of medium with strong anisotropic scattering function,” Diploma thesis (Moscow Engineering Physical Institute, Moscow, 1989).
  17. P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. S. Monin, Oceanic Optics, Vol. 1 (Nauka, Moscow, 1983).
  19. L. S. Dolin, “On a technique for calculation of the brightness at large optical distances from a light source,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, No. 1, 102–109 (1981) (in Russian).
  20. R. A. Maffione, J. S. Jaffe, “The average cosine due to an isotropic light source in the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,179–13,192 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Baikal Neutrino Collaboration, “The Baikal underwater neutrino telescope: design, performance, and first results,” Astropart. Phys. 7, 263–282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

O. N. Gaponenko, R. R. Mirgazov, B. A. Tarashchanskii, “Reconstruction of the primary hydrooptical characteristics from the light field of a point source,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 9, 677–682 (1996).

1995 (4)

B. A. Tarashchanskii, R. R. Mirgazov, K. A. Pochejkin, “Stationary deep-water meter of hydrooptical parameters,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 8, 771–774 (1995).

S. Barwick, “High energy neutrino observatories: status and future,” Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 43, 183–193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Maffione, J. S. Jaffe, “The average cosine due to an isotropic light source in the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,179–13,192 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

E. G. Anassontzis, P. Ioannou, Chr. Kourkoumelis, L. K. Resvanis, H. Bradner, “Light transmissivity in the NESTOR site,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 349, 242–246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Tarashchanskii, O. N. Gaponenko, V. I. Dobrynin, “On a technique for measuring the scattering phase function using the light field from a source with a wide directional pattern,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 7, 819–823 (1994).

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

L. B. Bezrukov, N. M. Budnev, Zh. A. M. Dzhilkibaev, M. D. Galperin, O. Yu. Lanin, B. A. Tarashchanskii, “Measurement of the light absorption coefficient in Lake Baikal water,” Oceanology 30, 1022–1026 (1990), in Russian.

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

L. S. Dolin, “On a technique for calculation of the brightness at large optical distances from a light source,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, No. 1, 102–109 (1981) (in Russian).

1971 (1)

D. Bauer, J. C. Brun-Cottan, A. Saliot, “Princip d’une measure directe dans l’eau de mer du coefficient d’absorption de la lumiere,” Cah. Oceanogr. 23, 841–850 (1971).

Anassontzis, E. G.

E. G. Anassontzis, P. Ioannou, Chr. Kourkoumelis, L. K. Resvanis, H. Bradner, “Light transmissivity in the NESTOR site,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 349, 242–246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Askebjer, P.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barwick, S.

S. Barwick, “High energy neutrino observatories: status and future,” Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 43, 183–193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barwick, S. W.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, D.

D. Bauer, J. C. Brun-Cottan, A. Saliot, “Princip d’une measure directe dans l’eau de mer du coefficient d’absorption de la lumiere,” Cah. Oceanogr. 23, 841–850 (1971).

Bergstrom, L.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bezrukov, L. B.

L. B. Bezrukov, N. M. Budnev, Zh. A. M. Dzhilkibaev, M. D. Galperin, O. Yu. Lanin, B. A. Tarashchanskii, “Measurement of the light absorption coefficient in Lake Baikal water,” Oceanology 30, 1022–1026 (1990), in Russian.

Blackinton, G.

Bouchta, A.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradner, H.

E. G. Anassontzis, P. Ioannou, Chr. Kourkoumelis, L. K. Resvanis, H. Bradner, “Light transmissivity in the NESTOR site,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 349, 242–246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Bradner, G. Blackinton, “Long baseline measurements of light transmission in clear water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1009–1012 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brun-Cottan, J. C.

D. Bauer, J. C. Brun-Cottan, A. Saliot, “Princip d’une measure directe dans l’eau de mer du coefficient d’absorption de la lumiere,” Cah. Oceanogr. 23, 841–850 (1971).

Budnev, N. M.

L. B. Bezrukov, N. M. Budnev, Zh. A. M. Dzhilkibaev, M. D. Galperin, O. Yu. Lanin, B. A. Tarashchanskii, “Measurement of the light absorption coefficient in Lake Baikal water,” Oceanology 30, 1022–1026 (1990), in Russian.

Carius, S.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coulthard, A.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobrynin, V. I.

B. A. Tarashchanskii, O. N. Gaponenko, V. I. Dobrynin, “On a technique for measuring the scattering phase function using the light field from a source with a wide directional pattern,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 7, 819–823 (1994).

Dolin, L. S.

L. S. Dolin, “On a technique for calculation of the brightness at large optical distances from a light source,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, No. 1, 102–109 (1981) (in Russian).

Dzhilkibaev, Zh. A. M.

L. B. Bezrukov, N. M. Budnev, Zh. A. M. Dzhilkibaev, M. D. Galperin, O. Yu. Lanin, B. A. Tarashchanskii, “Measurement of the light absorption coefficient in Lake Baikal water,” Oceanology 30, 1022–1026 (1990), in Russian.

Engel, K.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erlandsson, B.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galperin, M. D.

L. B. Bezrukov, N. M. Budnev, Zh. A. M. Dzhilkibaev, M. D. Galperin, O. Yu. Lanin, B. A. Tarashchanskii, “Measurement of the light absorption coefficient in Lake Baikal water,” Oceanology 30, 1022–1026 (1990), in Russian.

Gaponenko, O. N.

O. N. Gaponenko, R. R. Mirgazov, B. A. Tarashchanskii, “Reconstruction of the primary hydrooptical characteristics from the light field of a point source,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 9, 677–682 (1996).

B. A. Tarashchanskii, O. N. Gaponenko, V. I. Dobrynin, “On a technique for measuring the scattering phase function using the light field from a source with a wide directional pattern,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 7, 819–823 (1994).

Goobar, A.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, L.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hallgren, A.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halzen, F.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honey, R. C.

Hulth, P. O.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ioannou, P.

E. G. Anassontzis, P. Ioannou, Chr. Kourkoumelis, L. K. Resvanis, H. Bradner, “Light transmissivity in the NESTOR site,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 349, 242–246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, J.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaffe, J. S.

R. A. Maffione, J. S. Jaffe, “The average cosine due to an isotropic light source in the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,179–13,192 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics, Vol. 5 of the Elsevier Oceanography Series (Elsevier, New York, 1976).

Johansson, S.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kandhadai, V.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kourkoumelis, Chr.

E. G. Anassontzis, P. Ioannou, Chr. Kourkoumelis, L. K. Resvanis, H. Bradner, “Light transmissivity in the NESTOR site,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 349, 242–246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lanin, O. Ju.

O. Ju. Lanin, “Determination of optical parameters of medium with strong anisotropic scattering function,” Diploma thesis (Moscow Engineering Physical Institute, Moscow, 1989).

Lanin, O. Yu.

L. B. Bezrukov, N. M. Budnev, Zh. A. M. Dzhilkibaev, M. D. Galperin, O. Yu. Lanin, B. A. Tarashchanskii, “Measurement of the light absorption coefficient in Lake Baikal water,” Oceanology 30, 1022–1026 (1990), in Russian.

Liubarsky, I.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowder, D.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maffione, R. A.

R. A. Maffione, J. S. Jaffe, “The average cosine due to an isotropic light source in the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,179–13,192 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Maffione, K. J. Voss, R. C. Honey, “Measurement of the spectral absorption coefficient in the ocean with an isotropic source,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3273–3279 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikolajski, Th.

Th. Mikolajski, “Methodische Untersuchungen und Kalibration des Baikal Neutrino Teleskops,” Ph.D. dissertation (Humboldt-Universität Berlin, DESY-Zeuthen 95-03, 1995), http://www.ifh.de/nuastro/publications/ .

Miller, T.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirgazov, R. R.

O. N. Gaponenko, R. R. Mirgazov, B. A. Tarashchanskii, “Reconstruction of the primary hydrooptical characteristics from the light field of a point source,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 9, 677–682 (1996).

B. A. Tarashchanskii, R. R. Mirgazov, K. A. Pochejkin, “Stationary deep-water meter of hydrooptical parameters,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 8, 771–774 (1995).

Mock, P. C.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monin, A. S.

A. S. Monin, Oceanic Optics, Vol. 1 (Nauka, Moscow, 1983).

Morse, R.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pandel, D.

D. Pandel, “Bestimmung von Wasser- und Detektorparametern und Rekonstruktion von Myonen bis 100 TeV mit dem Baikal-Neutrinoteleskop NT-72,” Diploma thesis (Humboldt-Universität Berlin, DESY-Zeuthen, 1996), http://www.ifh.de/nuastro/publications/ .

Pelewin, V. N.

V. N. Pelewin, T. M. Prokudina, “Determination of the absorption coefficient of sea water by the parameters of an isotropic source,” Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics (Nauka, Moscow, 1972), pp. 148–157 in Russian.

Pochejkin, K. A.

B. A. Tarashchanskii, R. R. Mirgazov, K. A. Pochejkin, “Stationary deep-water meter of hydrooptical parameters,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 8, 771–774 (1995).

Porrata, R.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, P. B.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prokudina, T. M.

V. N. Pelewin, T. M. Prokudina, “Determination of the absorption coefficient of sea water by the parameters of an isotropic source,” Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics (Nauka, Moscow, 1972), pp. 148–157 in Russian.

Resvanis, L. K.

E. G. Anassontzis, P. Ioannou, Chr. Kourkoumelis, L. K. Resvanis, H. Bradner, “Light transmissivity in the NESTOR site,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 349, 242–246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Richards, A.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinstein, H.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saliot, A.

D. Bauer, J. C. Brun-Cottan, A. Saliot, “Princip d’une measure directe dans l’eau de mer du coefficient d’absorption de la lumiere,” Cah. Oceanogr. 23, 841–850 (1971).

Schneider, E.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarashchanskii, B. A.

O. N. Gaponenko, R. R. Mirgazov, B. A. Tarashchanskii, “Reconstruction of the primary hydrooptical characteristics from the light field of a point source,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 9, 677–682 (1996).

B. A. Tarashchanskii, R. R. Mirgazov, K. A. Pochejkin, “Stationary deep-water meter of hydrooptical parameters,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 8, 771–774 (1995).

B. A. Tarashchanskii, O. N. Gaponenko, V. I. Dobrynin, “On a technique for measuring the scattering phase function using the light field from a source with a wide directional pattern,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 7, 819–823 (1994).

L. B. Bezrukov, N. M. Budnev, Zh. A. M. Dzhilkibaev, M. D. Galperin, O. Yu. Lanin, B. A. Tarashchanskii, “Measurement of the light absorption coefficient in Lake Baikal water,” Oceanology 30, 1022–1026 (1990), in Russian.

Tilav, S.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voss, K. J.

Walck, C.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, G.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astropart. Phys. (1)

Baikal Neutrino Collaboration, “The Baikal underwater neutrino telescope: design, performance, and first results,” Astropart. Phys. 7, 263–282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Oceanic Opt. (3)

O. N. Gaponenko, R. R. Mirgazov, B. A. Tarashchanskii, “Reconstruction of the primary hydrooptical characteristics from the light field of a point source,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 9, 677–682 (1996).

B. A. Tarashchanskii, O. N. Gaponenko, V. I. Dobrynin, “On a technique for measuring the scattering phase function using the light field from a source with a wide directional pattern,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 7, 819–823 (1994).

B. A. Tarashchanskii, R. R. Mirgazov, K. A. Pochejkin, “Stationary deep-water meter of hydrooptical parameters,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 8, 771–774 (1995).

Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (1)

L. S. Dolin, “On a technique for calculation of the brightness at large optical distances from a light source,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, No. 1, 102–109 (1981) (in Russian).

Cah. Oceanogr. (1)

D. Bauer, J. C. Brun-Cottan, A. Saliot, “Princip d’une measure directe dans l’eau de mer du coefficient d’absorption de la lumiere,” Cah. Oceanogr. 23, 841–850 (1971).

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

R. A. Maffione, J. S. Jaffe, “The average cosine due to an isotropic light source in the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,179–13,192 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (1)

E. G. Anassontzis, P. Ioannou, Chr. Kourkoumelis, L. K. Resvanis, H. Bradner, “Light transmissivity in the NESTOR site,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 349, 242–246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) (1)

S. Barwick, “High energy neutrino observatories: status and future,” Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 43, 183–193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oceanology (1)

L. B. Bezrukov, N. M. Budnev, Zh. A. M. Dzhilkibaev, M. D. Galperin, O. Yu. Lanin, B. A. Tarashchanskii, “Measurement of the light absorption coefficient in Lake Baikal water,” Oceanology 30, 1022–1026 (1990), in Russian.

Science (1)

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergstrom, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

A. S. Monin, Oceanic Optics, Vol. 1 (Nauka, Moscow, 1983).

V. N. Pelewin, T. M. Prokudina, “Determination of the absorption coefficient of sea water by the parameters of an isotropic source,” Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics (Nauka, Moscow, 1972), pp. 148–157 in Russian.

O. Ju. Lanin, “Determination of optical parameters of medium with strong anisotropic scattering function,” Diploma thesis (Moscow Engineering Physical Institute, Moscow, 1989).

Th. Mikolajski, “Methodische Untersuchungen und Kalibration des Baikal Neutrino Teleskops,” Ph.D. dissertation (Humboldt-Universität Berlin, DESY-Zeuthen 95-03, 1995), http://www.ifh.de/nuastro/publications/ .

Baikal Neutrino Collaboration, “Response of the NT-36 array to a distant pointlike light source,” Proceedings of the 24th International Cosmic Ray Conference (Instituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Rome, 1995), Vol. 1, pp. 1043–1046.

D. Pandel, “Bestimmung von Wasser- und Detektorparametern und Rekonstruktion von Myonen bis 100 TeV mit dem Baikal-Neutrinoteleskop NT-72,” Diploma thesis (Humboldt-Universität Berlin, DESY-Zeuthen, 1996), http://www.ifh.de/nuastro/publications/ .

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics, Vol. 5 of the Elsevier Oceanography Series (Elsevier, New York, 1976).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Location of the Baikal experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Overall view of the NT-200 complex: 1–3, cables to shore; 4–6, string stations for shore cables; 7, string with the telescope; 8, hydrometric string; 9–14, ultrasonic emitters. The detail at bottom left, which hides ultrasonic emitter 14, shows two pairs of OM’s together with the electronics module controlling the OM’s. Shown are two pairs directed face to face.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic view of the laser module.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic view of the 1995 configuration of the laser experiment. Each filled circle represents a pair of OM’s (channel). The laser is indicated by the open circle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic view of the 1997 configuration of the laser experiment. Channels are shown explicitly as pairs of OM’s. The various positions of the laser are indicated by asterisks. The OM’s face down with the exception of channels 2 and 11 (upward arrows) that are directed upward.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity versus distance as obtained from Monte Carlo calculations (histogram), Eq. (12) (dashed curve), and Eq. (15) (solid curve). In all three cases λabs = 23 m and P = 0.1 have been used. The dotted curve is the result of Eq. (3) with μ(R) = 1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Laser experiment 1995: light intensity as a function of the distance to the laser. The dots show the measured values, the solid curve shows an exponential decrease with λ = 19.9 m. If scattering is included, the dependence shown by the dashed curve is expected.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Laser experiment 1997: logarithm of average amplitude 〈A〉 times squared distance R 2 versus distance R for one of the 12 channels of the first string. Curves are to guide the eye. Each curve corresponds to one of five different laser intensities. Saturation of the curves at low R is due to the limited dynamic range; flattening at high R is due to the noise. Fits have been applied to the linear part of the curves.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Laser experiment 1997: average arrival times 〈t〉 versus distance R. Dots represent the measured values, lines give expectations for different values of the effective scattering length λeff. In both cases absorption effects have been subtracted (see text).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Logarithm of the product of average amplitude 〈A〉 and R versus distance R in the asymptotic regime for channel 2, looking away from the laser.

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΦR, Ω, t=FRδΩδt-R/υ,
FR= ΦR, Ω, tdΩdt=I04πR2 exp-Rλabs.
FR=I04πR2 exp-Rλabs μR,
ri=λsct,
ri·ri+1=λsct2cos θ.
cos θi, i+k=cos θk,
R=i=1nj=1n ri·rj1/2=λsctn+2 i=1nn-kcos θk1/2.
L=nλsct.
LRR1+13R3λsct1-cos θ1/2.
FR=I04πR2 exp-Rλabs1+13Rλsct1-cos θ1/2.
P=λabsλsctθ22.
FR=I04πR2 exp-Rλabs1+13Rλabs P1/2.
λeff=λsct1-cos θ,
FR=I04πR2 exp-Rλabs1+13Rλeff1/2.
FR=I04πR2RP/λabssinhRP/λabs exp-Rλabs.
FR=I0P2πRλabs exp-Rλabs1+P=I02πRλabsλeff1/2 exp-Rλabs1+λabs/λeff1/2.
FR1R2 exp-Rλ
t=Rcw1+13Rλeff1/21cwR+16R2λeff,
FR1R exp-Rλasm,
λasm=λabs1+λabs/λeff1/2
 ΦR, Ω, tdt=FRρΩ.

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