Abstract

The Advanced Earth Observation Satellite (ADEOS), launched in the summer of 1996, has a high-resolution infrared Fourier transform spectrometer, with the interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases (IMG) onboard. The IMG has a high spectral resolution of 0.1 cm-1 for the purpose of retrieving greenhouse gas profile maps of the Earth. To meet the requirements of the retrieval algorithms for greenhouse gas profiles, atmospheric emission spectra must be calibrated to better than 1 K accuracy. Prior to the launch of the ADEOS with the IMG, we developed an airborne simulator called the tropospheric infrared interferometric sounder (TIIS). We explain the calibration procedure for the TIIS, which determines the points with the same optical path difference on interferograms for complex Fourier transformation, using the retained phase term on the calibrated spectrum. The downward atmospheric radiation, measured with the TIIS, was well calibrated using this algorithm. Furthermore, calibration of the spectra obtained from the IMG initial checkout mission observation was carried out.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Nishinomiya, “Preliminary study of data analysis system for greenhouse gases monitor boarding on a satellite,” (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan, 1991).
  2. S. Nishizawa, H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Kadokura, “Tropospheric infrared interferometric sounder (TIIS),” presented at the Fifth Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, Otemachi Financial Center, Tokyo, Japan, 30 November–2 December 1994.
  3. H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Kadokura, “Spectral observation of the sky radiation using a high-resolution FTIR,” (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan, 1993).
  4. C. Weddigen, C. Eesge Blom, M. Höpfner, “Phase corrections for the emission sounder MIPAS-FT,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4586–4589 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. R. Griffiths, J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley, New York, 1986), pp. 48–54.
  6. H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210–3218 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Schreiber, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, “Effects of the self-emission of an IR Fourier-transform spectrometer on measured absorption spectra,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6203–6209 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, fascod3p User Guide (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1988 (1)

Anderson, G. P.

G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, fascod3p User Guide (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

Blumenstock, T.

Buijs, H.

Chetwynd, J. H.

G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, fascod3p User Guide (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

de Haseth, J. A.

P. R. Griffiths, J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley, New York, 1986), pp. 48–54.

Eesge Blom, C.

Fischer, H.

Griffiths, P. R.

P. R. Griffiths, J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley, New York, 1986), pp. 48–54.

Höpfner, M.

Howell, H. B.

Kadokura, S.

H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Kadokura, “Spectral observation of the sky radiation using a high-resolution FTIR,” (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan, 1993).

S. Nishizawa, H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Kadokura, “Tropospheric infrared interferometric sounder (TIIS),” presented at the Fifth Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, Otemachi Financial Center, Tokyo, Japan, 30 November–2 December 1994.

Kobayashi, H.

H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Kadokura, “Spectral observation of the sky radiation using a high-resolution FTIR,” (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan, 1993).

S. Nishizawa, H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Kadokura, “Tropospheric infrared interferometric sounder (TIIS),” presented at the Fifth Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, Otemachi Financial Center, Tokyo, Japan, 30 November–2 December 1994.

H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Nishinomiya, “Preliminary study of data analysis system for greenhouse gases monitor boarding on a satellite,” (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan, 1991).

Laporte, D. D.

Nishinomiya, S.

H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Nishinomiya, “Preliminary study of data analysis system for greenhouse gases monitor boarding on a satellite,” (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan, 1991).

Nishizawa, S.

S. Nishizawa, H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Kadokura, “Tropospheric infrared interferometric sounder (TIIS),” presented at the Fifth Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, Otemachi Financial Center, Tokyo, Japan, 30 November–2 December 1994.

Revercomb, H. E.

Schreiber, J.

Shimota, A.

H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Nishinomiya, “Preliminary study of data analysis system for greenhouse gases monitor boarding on a satellite,” (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan, 1991).

S. Nishizawa, H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Kadokura, “Tropospheric infrared interferometric sounder (TIIS),” presented at the Fifth Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, Otemachi Financial Center, Tokyo, Japan, 30 November–2 December 1994.

H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Kadokura, “Spectral observation of the sky radiation using a high-resolution FTIR,” (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan, 1993).

Smith, W. L.

Sromovsky, L. A.

Weddigen, C.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Other (5)

G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, fascod3p User Guide (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

P. R. Griffiths, J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Wiley, New York, 1986), pp. 48–54.

H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Nishinomiya, “Preliminary study of data analysis system for greenhouse gases monitor boarding on a satellite,” (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan, 1991).

S. Nishizawa, H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Kadokura, “Tropospheric infrared interferometric sounder (TIIS),” presented at the Fifth Workshop on Atmospheric Science from Space using Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, Otemachi Financial Center, Tokyo, Japan, 30 November–2 December 1994.

H. Kobayashi, A. Shimota, S. Kadokura, “Spectral observation of the sky radiation using a high-resolution FTIR,” (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan, 1993).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Uncalibrated magnitude spectra. These spectra were obtained by calculating the complex Fourier transformation of interferograms by measuring the ambient temperature blackbody, the liquid N2-cooled blackbody, and the ice-cooled blackbody.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relationship of the incident radiance and the output magnitude. The turning point from a positive linear relationship to a negative linear relationship is shown in both graphs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vector representation of the output magnitude using the relationship between the incident and background radiance: (a) phase of incident radiance equal to the phase of background radiance; (b) phase of incident radiance equal to the phase of background plus π, incident radiance equal to background radiance; (c) phase of incident radiance equal to the phase of background plus π, incident radiance less than background radiance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calibrated spectrum of ice-cooled blackbody radiance. For this calibration we used the magnitude spectra calculated from a complex Fourier transformation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Recalibrated spectrum of ice-cooled blackbody radiance obtained with complex spectra and the method presented in this paper. Small differences that appear at the end regions are due to H2O and CO2 emissions from the optical path of an external ice-cooled blackbody.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Retained phase spectrum on the calibrated spectrum of ice-cooled blackbody radiance. It is suppressed to the level of instrument noise.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Downward atmospheric radiation spectra. (a) Spectrum calculated by fascod3p. The mid-latitude winter atmospheric model was adopted. (b) Calibrated spectrum of downward atmospheric radiation observed by the TIIS. The observation was performed at CRIEPI, Tokyo, in November 1995. The difference between the two spectra in the 800–1200-cm-1 wave-number range was caused mainly by the aerosols present in the lower atmosphere.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Retained phase spectrum on the calibrated spectrum of downward atmospheric radiation. There is a noisy area corresponding to small input radiance power.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Upward atmospheric radiation spectra. (a) Calibrated spectrum of upward radiation from 25.01 °S and 107.25 °E observed by use of the IMG band 3. The IMG was operated for the initial checkout mission on 10 October 1996. (b) Calculated spectra by fascod3p. Applied profiles of temperature and humidity were made by interpolation of the objective analysis data of the Japan Meteorological Agency to observation time and location.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Retained phase spectrum on the calibrated spectrum of upward atmospheric radiation obtained by the IMG observation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Characteristics of the IMG and the TIIS

Equations (9)

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C=rL+L0,
Cc=rBc+L0,
Ch=rBh+L0,
L=C-Cc/Ch-CcBh-Bc+Bc.
C=rL+L0 expiϕ0expiϕ,
L=|L|expiϕL,
|ϕL|=minimum.
In=inverse Fourier |C|exp-iϕL+δϕn,
δϕnλ=2πnλl/λ,

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