Abstract

We investigate and compare the characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources (SFS’s) obtained from the use of different flattening techniques in double-pass forward (DPF) and double-pass backward (DPB) configurations. The intrinsic flattening technique consists of optimizing the length of the erbium-doped fiber. The extrinsic flattening methods include the addition of a samarium-doped fiber (SDF) and a fiber-Bragg-grating (FBG) notched filter at the output end separately to shape the SFS spectrum. Although intrinsically flattened DPF and DPB SFS’s have a large output power of >34 mW, they are accompanied by an ∼3-dB ripple. The FBG-flattened DPF and DPB SFS’s can achieve a wide linewidth of 35 nm with a small ripple of ∼1.7 dB and better pump-power-dependent mean-wavelength stability; SDF-flattened DPF and DPB SFS’s are inferior because of the SDF’s lossy spectrum.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. C. Cutler, S. A. Newton, H. J. Shaw, “Limitation of rotation sensing by scattering,” Opt. Lett. 5, 488 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. K. Burns, C. L. Chen, R. P. Moeller, “Fiber-optic gyroscopes with broad-band sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 98–105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “An overview of fiber-optic gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 91–107 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Bergh, B. Culshaw, C. C. Cutler, H. C. Lefvre, H. J. Shaw, “Source statics and the Kerr effect in fiber-optic gyroscopes,” Opt. Lett. 7, 563–565 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources for interferometric sensor applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 550–567 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. F. Wyscocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, “Wavelength stability of a high-output, broadband, Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source pump near 980 nm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 961–963 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. C. Hall, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, “High-stability Er3+-doped superfluorescent fiber sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1452–1460 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “A high-stability fiber amplifier source for the fiber optic gyroscope,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1689–1694 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. C. Hall, W. K. Burns, “Wavelength stability optimisation in Er3+-doped superfluorescent fibre sources,” Electron. Lett. 30, 653–654 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. A. Wang, C. D. Chen, “Stable and broadband Er-doped superfluorescent fibre sources using double-pass backward configuration,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1815–1817 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. A. Wang, C. D. Chen, “Characteristics comparison of Er-doped double-pass superfluorescent fiber sources pumped near 980 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 446–448 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C. H. Lee, Y. C. Chung, “WDM PON based on spectrum-sliced fiber amplifier light source,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 400–401.
  13. S. K. Liaw, Y. K. Chen, “Passive gain-equalized wideband erbium-doped fiber amplifier using sarimium-doped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 879–881 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. K. Chen, S. K. Liaw, “Optimum gain-equalized configuration of wideband erbium-doped amplifier using interstage sarimium-doped fiber and midway isolator,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2175–2177 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. W. Hodgson, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Spectrally shaped high-power amplified spontaneous emission sources incorporating long-period grating,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG3.
  16. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, “Erbium-doped superfluorescent fibre source with long-period fibre grating wavelength stabilisation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2061–2063 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Lefevre, The Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1993), Chap. 2, pp. 5–25.
  18. P. R. Morkel, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, “Noise characteristics of high-power doped-fibre superluminescent sources,” Electron. Lett. 26, 96–98 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. D. Dyer, K. B. Rochford, “Spectral tailoring of erbium superfluorescent fiber source,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1137–1139 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, A. M. Vengsarkar, “80 nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1967 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, “Tellurite-based EDFAs for broadband communication,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper WA1.

1998

S. D. Dyer, K. B. Rochford, “Spectral tailoring of erbium superfluorescent fiber source,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1137–1139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, A. M. Vengsarkar, “80 nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “A high-stability fiber amplifier source for the fiber optic gyroscope,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1689–1694 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Wang, C. D. Chen, “Characteristics comparison of Er-doped double-pass superfluorescent fiber sources pumped near 980 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 446–448 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, “Erbium-doped superfluorescent fibre source with long-period fibre grating wavelength stabilisation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2061–2063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. K. Liaw, Y. K. Chen, “Passive gain-equalized wideband erbium-doped fiber amplifier using sarimium-doped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 879–881 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Chen, S. K. Liaw, “Optimum gain-equalized configuration of wideband erbium-doped amplifier using interstage sarimium-doped fiber and midway isolator,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2175–2177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Wang, C. D. Chen, “Stable and broadband Er-doped superfluorescent fibre sources using double-pass backward configuration,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1815–1817 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. C. Hall, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, “High-stability Er3+-doped superfluorescent fiber sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1452–1460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. C. Hall, W. K. Burns, “Wavelength stability optimisation in Er3+-doped superfluorescent fibre sources,” Electron. Lett. 30, 653–654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources for interferometric sensor applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 550–567 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

P. R. Morkel, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, “Noise characteristics of high-power doped-fibre superluminescent sources,” Electron. Lett. 26, 96–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “An overview of fiber-optic gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 91–107 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

W. K. Burns, C. L. Chen, R. P. Moeller, “Fiber-optic gyroscopes with broad-band sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 98–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

1980

Bergh, R. A.

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “An overview of fiber-optic gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 91–107 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bergh, B. Culshaw, C. C. Cutler, H. C. Lefvre, H. J. Shaw, “Source statics and the Kerr effect in fiber-optic gyroscopes,” Opt. Lett. 7, 563–565 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, W. K.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, “Erbium-doped superfluorescent fibre source with long-period fibre grating wavelength stabilisation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2061–2063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hall, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, “High-stability Er3+-doped superfluorescent fiber sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1452–1460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hall, W. K. Burns, “Wavelength stability optimisation in Er3+-doped superfluorescent fibre sources,” Electron. Lett. 30, 653–654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, C. L. Chen, R. P. Moeller, “Fiber-optic gyroscopes with broad-band sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 98–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. D.

L. A. Wang, C. D. Chen, “Characteristics comparison of Er-doped double-pass superfluorescent fiber sources pumped near 980 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 446–448 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Wang, C. D. Chen, “Stable and broadband Er-doped superfluorescent fibre sources using double-pass backward configuration,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1815–1817 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. L.

W. K. Burns, C. L. Chen, R. P. Moeller, “Fiber-optic gyroscopes with broad-band sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 98–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. K.

S. K. Liaw, Y. K. Chen, “Passive gain-equalized wideband erbium-doped fiber amplifier using sarimium-doped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 879–881 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Chen, S. K. Liaw, “Optimum gain-equalized configuration of wideband erbium-doped amplifier using interstage sarimium-doped fiber and midway isolator,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2175–2177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. C.

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C. H. Lee, Y. C. Chung, “WDM PON based on spectrum-sliced fiber amplifier light source,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 400–401.

Culshaw, B.

Cutler, C. C.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “A high-stability fiber amplifier source for the fiber optic gyroscope,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1689–1694 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources for interferometric sensor applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 550–567 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Wyscocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, “Wavelength stability of a high-output, broadband, Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source pump near 980 nm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 961–963 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, S. D.

S. D. Dyer, K. B. Rochford, “Spectral tailoring of erbium superfluorescent fiber source,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1137–1139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Espindola, R. P.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, A. M. Vengsarkar, “80 nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. C.

D. C. Hall, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, “High-stability Er3+-doped superfluorescent fiber sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1452–1460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hall, W. K. Burns, “Wavelength stability optimisation in Er3+-doped superfluorescent fibre sources,” Electron. Lett. 30, 653–654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hodgson, C. W.

C. W. Hodgson, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Spectrally shaped high-power amplified spontaneous emission sources incorporating long-period grating,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG3.

Judkins, J. B.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, A. M. Vengsarkar, “80 nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jung, D. K.

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C. H. Lee, Y. C. Chung, “WDM PON based on spectrum-sliced fiber amplifier light source,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 400–401.

Kersey, A. D.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, “Erbium-doped superfluorescent fibre source with long-period fibre grating wavelength stabilisation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2061–2063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources for interferometric sensor applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 550–567 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Wyscocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, “Wavelength stability of a high-output, broadband, Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source pump near 980 nm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 961–963 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

P. R. Morkel, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, “Noise characteristics of high-power doped-fibre superluminescent sources,” Electron. Lett. 26, 96–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C. H. Lee, Y. C. Chung, “WDM PON based on spectrum-sliced fiber amplifier light source,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 400–401.

Lefevre, H.

H. Lefevre, The Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1993), Chap. 2, pp. 5–25.

Lefevre, H. C.

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “An overview of fiber-optic gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 91–107 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lefvre, H. C.

Liaw, S. K.

Y. K. Chen, S. K. Liaw, “Optimum gain-equalized configuration of wideband erbium-doped amplifier using interstage sarimium-doped fiber and midway isolator,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2175–2177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Liaw, Y. K. Chen, “Passive gain-equalized wideband erbium-doped fiber amplifier using sarimium-doped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 879–881 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, R. P.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, “Erbium-doped superfluorescent fibre source with long-period fibre grating wavelength stabilisation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2061–2063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hall, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, “High-stability Er3+-doped superfluorescent fiber sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1452–1460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, C. L. Chen, R. P. Moeller, “Fiber-optic gyroscopes with broad-band sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 98–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mori, A.

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, “Tellurite-based EDFAs for broadband communication,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper WA1.

Morkel, P. R.

P. R. Morkel, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, “Noise characteristics of high-power doped-fibre superluminescent sources,” Electron. Lett. 26, 96–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Newton, S. A.

Ohishi, Y.

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, “Tellurite-based EDFAs for broadband communication,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper WA1.

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, “Erbium-doped superfluorescent fibre source with long-period fibre grating wavelength stabilisation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2061–2063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

P. R. Morkel, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, “Noise characteristics of high-power doped-fibre superluminescent sources,” Electron. Lett. 26, 96–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pedrazzani, J. R.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, A. M. Vengsarkar, “80 nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rochford, K. B.

S. D. Dyer, K. B. Rochford, “Spectral tailoring of erbium superfluorescent fiber source,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1137–1139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “A high-stability fiber amplifier source for the fiber optic gyroscope,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1689–1694 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources for interferometric sensor applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 550–567 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “An overview of fiber-optic gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 91–107 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bergh, B. Culshaw, C. C. Cutler, H. C. Lefvre, H. J. Shaw, “Source statics and the Kerr effect in fiber-optic gyroscopes,” Opt. Lett. 7, 563–565 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Cutler, S. A. Newton, H. J. Shaw, “Limitation of rotation sensing by scattering,” Opt. Lett. 5, 488 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, S. K.

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C. H. Lee, Y. C. Chung, “WDM PON based on spectrum-sliced fiber amplifier light source,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 400–401.

Srivastava, A. K.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, A. M. Vengsarkar, “80 nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, A. M. Vengsarkar, “80 nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J. W.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, A. M. Vengsarkar, “80 nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, A. M. Vengsarkar, “80 nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, A. M. Vengsarkar, “80 nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Hodgson, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Spectrally shaped high-power amplified spontaneous emission sources incorporating long-period grating,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG3.

Wagener, J. L.

J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “A high-stability fiber amplifier source for the fiber optic gyroscope,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1689–1694 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. A.

L. A. Wang, C. D. Chen, “Characteristics comparison of Er-doped double-pass superfluorescent fiber sources pumped near 980 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 446–448 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Wang, C. D. Chen, “Stable and broadband Er-doped superfluorescent fibre sources using double-pass backward configuration,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1815–1817 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, C.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, A. M. Vengsarkar, “80 nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wyscocki, P. F.

Wysocki, P. F.

P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, “Characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources for interferometric sensor applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 550–567 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, A. M. Vengsarkar, “80 nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J. L.

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, A. M. Vengsarkar, “80 nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

D. C. Hall, W. K. Burns, “Wavelength stability optimisation in Er3+-doped superfluorescent fibre sources,” Electron. Lett. 30, 653–654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Wang, C. D. Chen, “Stable and broadband Er-doped superfluorescent fibre sources using double-pass backward configuration,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1815–1817 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Chen, S. K. Liaw, “Optimum gain-equalized configuration of wideband erbium-doped amplifier using interstage sarimium-doped fiber and midway isolator,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2175–2177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Morkel, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, “Noise characteristics of high-power doped-fibre superluminescent sources,” Electron. Lett. 26, 96–98 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Dyer, K. B. Rochford, “Spectral tailoring of erbium superfluorescent fiber source,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1137–1139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, C. Wolf, J. Zhou, J. B. Judkins, R. P. Espindola, A. M. Vengsarkar, “80 nm ultra-wideband erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1965–1967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, “Erbium-doped superfluorescent fibre source with long-period fibre grating wavelength stabilisation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2061–2063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. K. Liaw, Y. K. Chen, “Passive gain-equalized wideband erbium-doped fiber amplifier using sarimium-doped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 879–881 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Wang, C. D. Chen, “Characteristics comparison of Er-doped double-pass superfluorescent fiber sources pumped near 980 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 446–448 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

D. C. Hall, W. K. Burns, R. P. Moeller, “High-stability Er3+-doped superfluorescent fiber sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1452–1460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “A high-stability fiber amplifier source for the fiber optic gyroscope,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1689–1694 (1997).
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Opt. Lett.

Other

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for erbium-doped SFS’s in (a) DPF and (b) DPB configurations: WDM, wavelength-division multiplexer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured spectral output power of the intrinsic SFS in DPF and DPB configurations pumped with 160 mW of power. Inset, definition of the spectral power variation, ΔP.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Total output power versus pump power for intrinsic DPF and DPB SFS’s with several EDF lengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured spectral output power of the SDF-flattened SFS in DPF and DPB configurations, with an EDF of 15 m pumped with 160 mW of power and with SDF’s of 1 and 2.5 m.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral loss of the homemade SDF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured spectral output power of the FBG-flattened SFS in DPF and DPB configurations, with an EDF of 17 m pumped with 160 mW of power. Inset, transmission spectral loss characteristic of the FBG notched filter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SFS output power and spectral power variation ΔP of DPF and DPB SFS’s with (w/i) and without (w/o) FBG versus EDF length.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured linewidth of DPF and DPB SFS’s with (w/i) and without (w/o) FBG versus pump power.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured mean wavelength of DPF and DPB SFS’s with (w/i) and without (w/o) FBG versus pump power.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Performance Comparison of Intrinsically and Extrinsically Flattened SFS’s in DPF and DPB Configurations Pumped at 160 mW

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Proposed Externally FBG-Flattened SFS and Internally LPG- or Broadband FBG-Flattened SFS’s

Equations (4)

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ΔΦ=2πLDλsC Ω,
dλ¯sdT=λ¯sT+λ¯sPpumpPpumpT+λ¯sλpumpλpumpT,
λ¯s=j=1n PλjΔλjj=1n Pλj.
Δλ=j=1n PλjΔλλj2j=1n P2λjΔλλj.

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