Abstract

A fast radiative transfer model has been developed for prelaunch simulation studies of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) data and for the exploitation of IASI radiances within the framework of a numerical weather prediction variational analysis scheme. The model uses profile-dependent predictors to parameterize the atmospheric optical depths and is fast enough to cope with the processing of observations in near real time and with the several thousands of transmittance calculations required to simulate radiances from a full range of atmospheric conditions. The development of the model has involved the selection of a training set of atmospheric profiles, the production of a line-by-line transmittance database, the selection of optimal predictors for the gases considered in the study, and the production of regression coefficients for the fast transmittance scheme. The model fit to the line-by-line radiances shows that it can reproduce the line-by-line radiances to a degree of accuracy that is at or below the instrumental noise.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1999 (1)

R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, P. Brunel, “An improved fast radiative transfer model for assimilation of satellite radiance observations,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 125, 1407–1425 (1999).

1998 (2)

F. Rabier, J. Thépaut, P. Courtier, “Extended assimilation and forecast experiments with a four dimensional variational assimilation system,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 124, 1861–1887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. E. Harries, J. M. Russel, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, P. Purcell, K. Stone, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. Gunson, G. Nedoluha, W. A. Traub, “Validation of measurements of water vapour from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,205–10,216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

1994 (1)

L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, S. E. Hannon, “A compilation of first-order line-mixing coefficients for CO2 Q-branches,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 281–294 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Anderson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Menoux, R. Le Doucen, C. Boulet, A. Roblin, A. M. Bouchardy, “Collision-induced absorption in the fundamental band of N2: temperature dependence of the absorption for N2–N2 and N2–O2 pairs,” Appl. Opt. 32, 263–268 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapour continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, J. S. Zander, J. S. Namkung, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Stratospheric infrared continuum absorption observed by the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,303–16,322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, T. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Eyre, H. M. Woolf, “Transmittance of atmospheric gases in the microwave region: a fast model,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3244–3249 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulnier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

J. Susskind, J. Rosenfeld, D. Reuter, “An accurate radiative transfer model for use in the direct physical inversion of HIRS2 and MSU temperature sounding data,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8550–8568 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

1978 (1)

Y. M. Timofeyev, M. V. Tonkov, “Effect of the induced oxygen absorption band on the transformation of radiation in the 6 µm region of the Earth’s atmosphere,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 437–441 (1978).

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

1973 (1)

1969 (1)

1967 (1)

B. H. Armstrong, “Spectrum line profiles: the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 7, 66–88 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Albritton, D.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Alves, D.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Anderson, E.

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Anderson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, B. H.

B. H. Armstrong, “Spectrum line profiles: the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 7, 66–88 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, R. M.

J. E. Harries, J. M. Russel, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, P. Purcell, K. Stone, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. Gunson, G. Nedoluha, W. A. Traub, “Validation of measurements of water vapour from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,205–10,216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bouchardy, A. M.

Boulet, C.

Brigham, E. O.

E. O. Brigham, Fast Fourier Transform (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1974).

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brunel, P.

R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, P. Brunel, “An improved fast radiative transfer model for assimilation of satellite radiance observations,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 125, 1407–1425 (1999).

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cayla, F.

F. Cayla, “Simulation of IASI spectra,” (Centre National D’ Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1996).

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Charlson, R.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Chedin, A.

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulnier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapour continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for H2O vapour: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapour, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, L. S. Rothman, W. O. Gallery, “Atmospheric spectral transmission and radiance: FASCOD1B,” in Atmospheric Transmission, R. W. Fenn, ed., Proc. SPIE277, 152–166 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Courtier, P.

F. Rabier, J. Thépaut, P. Courtier, “Extended assimilation and forecast experiments with a four dimensional variational assimilation system,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 124, 1861–1887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crone, L. J.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davies, R.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for H2O vapour: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapour, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. W.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapour continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Derwent, R.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Edwards, “GENLN2. A general line-by-line atmospheric transmittance and radiance model,” (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1992).

Ehalt, D.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Enting, I.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Evans, S. J.

S. J. Evans, Imperial College, London, UK (personal communication, 1997).

Eyre, J. R.

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Anderson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Eyre, H. M. Woolf, “Transmittance of atmospheric gases in the microwave region: a fast model,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3244–3249 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Eyre, “A fast radiative transfer model for satellite sounding systems,” (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK, 1991).

Farmer, C. B.

C. P. Rinsland, J. S. Zander, J. S. Namkung, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Stratospheric infrared continuum absorption observed by the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,303–16,322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Fouquart, Y.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

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D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

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Gallery, W. O.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, L. S. Rothman, W. O. Gallery, “Atmospheric spectral transmission and radiance: FASCOD1B,” in Atmospheric Transmission, R. W. Fenn, ed., Proc. SPIE277, 152–166 (1981).
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S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for H2O vapour: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapour, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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J. E. Harries, J. M. Russel, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, P. Purcell, K. Stone, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. Gunson, G. Nedoluha, W. A. Traub, “Validation of measurements of water vapour from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,205–10,216 (1996).
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Hannon, S. E.

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J. E. Harries, J. M. Russel, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, P. Purcell, K. Stone, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. Gunson, G. Nedoluha, W. A. Traub, “Validation of measurements of water vapour from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,205–10,216 (1996).
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W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Q. Mark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

Heiman, M.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Hill, M. L.

Isaksen, I.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Jonas, P.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Joos, F.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Anderson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
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Kneizys, F. X.

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S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for H2O vapour: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapour, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.
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S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, L. S. Rothman, W. O. Gallery, “Atmospheric spectral transmission and radiance: FASCOD1B,” in Atmospheric Transmission, R. W. Fenn, ed., Proc. SPIE277, 152–166 (1981).
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Lal, M.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Le Doucen, R.

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Q. Mark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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S. E. Hannon, L. L. Strow, W. W. McMillan, “Atmospheric infrared fast transmittance models: a comparison of two approaches,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2830, 94–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McMillin, L. M.

McNally, A. P.

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Anderson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
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A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulnier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
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C. P. Rinsland, J. S. Zander, J. S. Namkung, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Stratospheric infrared continuum absorption observed by the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,303–16,322 (1989).
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Nedoluha, G.

J. E. Harries, J. M. Russel, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, P. Purcell, K. Stone, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. Gunson, G. Nedoluha, W. A. Traub, “Validation of measurements of water vapour from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,205–10,216 (1996).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Norton, R. H.

C. P. Rinsland, J. S. Zander, J. S. Namkung, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Stratospheric infrared continuum absorption observed by the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,303–16,322 (1989).
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Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Persson, A.

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Anderson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
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D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Purcell, P.

J. E. Harries, J. M. Russel, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, P. Purcell, K. Stone, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. Gunson, G. Nedoluha, W. A. Traub, “Validation of measurements of water vapour from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,205–10,216 (1996).
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Rabier, F.

F. Rabier, J. Thépaut, P. Courtier, “Extended assimilation and forecast experiments with a four dimensional variational assimilation system,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 124, 1861–1887 (1998).
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Ramaswamy, V.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Rayer, P. J.

Raynaud, D.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Reuter, D.

J. Susskind, J. Rosenfeld, D. Reuter, “An accurate radiative transfer model for use in the direct physical inversion of HIRS2 and MSU temperature sounding data,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8550–8568 (1983).
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Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, J. S. Zander, J. S. Namkung, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Stratospheric infrared continuum absorption observed by the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,303–16,322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rizzi, R.

R. Rizzi, Dipartimento di Fisica Universita’ di Bologna, Bologna, Italy (personal communication, 1996).

Roblin, A.

Rodhe, H.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Rosenfeld, J.

J. Susskind, J. Rosenfeld, D. Reuter, “An accurate radiative transfer model for use in the direct physical inversion of HIRS2 and MSU temperature sounding data,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8550–8568 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, L. S. Rothman, W. O. Gallery, “Atmospheric spectral transmission and radiance: FASCOD1B,” in Atmospheric Transmission, R. W. Fenn, ed., Proc. SPIE277, 152–166 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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J. E. Harries, J. M. Russel, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, P. Purcell, K. Stone, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. Gunson, G. Nedoluha, W. A. Traub, “Validation of measurements of water vapour from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,205–10,216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sadasivan, S.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Sanhueza, E.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Saunders, R.

R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, P. Brunel, “An improved fast radiative transfer model for assimilation of satellite radiance observations,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 125, 1407–1425 (1999).

Schimel, D.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scott, N. A.

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulnier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shine, K. P.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Q. Mark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

Solomon, S.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Srinivasan, J.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Stone, K.

J. E. Harries, J. M. Russel, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, P. Purcell, K. Stone, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. Gunson, G. Nedoluha, W. A. Traub, “Validation of measurements of water vapour from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,205–10,216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Strow, L. L.

L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, S. E. Hannon, “A compilation of first-order line-mixing coefficients for CO2 Q-branches,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 281–294 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Strow, University of Maryland, Baltimore County 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, Md. 21250 (personal communication, 1998).

S. E. Hannon, L. L. Strow, W. W. McMillan, “Atmospheric infrared fast transmittance models: a comparison of two approaches,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2830, 94–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Susskind, J.

J. Susskind, J. Rosenfeld, D. Reuter, “An accurate radiative transfer model for use in the direct physical inversion of HIRS2 and MSU temperature sounding data,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8550–8568 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Takashima, T.

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, T. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, T.

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, T. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Thépaut, J.

F. Rabier, J. Thépaut, P. Courtier, “Extended assimilation and forecast experiments with a four dimensional variational assimilation system,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 124, 1861–1887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Timofeyev, Y. M.

Y. M. Timofeyev, M. V. Tonkov, “Effect of the induced oxygen absorption band on the transformation of radiation in the 6 µm region of the Earth’s atmosphere,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 437–441 (1978).

Tipping, R.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for H2O vapour: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapour, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D. C.

L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, S. E. Hannon, “A compilation of first-order line-mixing coefficients for CO2 Q-branches,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 281–294 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tonkov, M. V.

Y. M. Timofeyev, M. V. Tonkov, “Effect of the induced oxygen absorption band on the transformation of radiation in the 6 µm region of the Earth’s atmosphere,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 437–441 (1978).

Traub, W. A.

J. E. Harries, J. M. Russel, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, P. Purcell, K. Stone, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. Gunson, G. Nedoluha, W. A. Traub, “Validation of measurements of water vapour from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,205–10,216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tuck, A. F.

J. E. Harries, J. M. Russel, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, P. Purcell, K. Stone, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. Gunson, G. Nedoluha, W. A. Traub, “Validation of measurements of water vapour from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,205–10,216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wahiche, C.

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulnier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Watson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wigley, T.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Woolf, H. M.

J. R. Eyre, H. M. Woolf, “Transmittance of atmospheric gases in the microwave region: a fast model,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3244–3249 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Q. Mark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

Wuebbles, D.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yung, Y. L.

R. M. Goody, Y. L. Yung, Atmospheric Radiation: Theoretical Basis (Oxford University, New York, 1995).

Zander, J. S.

C. P. Rinsland, J. S. Zander, J. S. Namkung, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Stratospheric infrared continuum absorption observed by the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,303–16,322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

Appl. Opt. (10)

L. M. McMillin, L. J. Crone, M. D. Goldberg, T. J. Kleespies, “Atmospheric transmittances of an absorbing gas. 4. OPTRAN: a computationally fast and accurate transmittance model for absorbing gases with fixed and with variable mixing ratios at variable viewing angles,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6269–6274 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. McMillin, L. J. Crone, T. J. Kleespies, “Atmospheric transmittance of an absorbing gas. 5. Improvements to the OPTRAN approach,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8396–8399 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-µm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Friedman, “Infrared characteristics of ocean water (1.5–15 µm),” Appl. Opt. 8, 2073–2078 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. McMillin, H. E. Fleming, “Atmospheric transmittance of an absorbing gas: a computationally fast and accurate transmittance model for absorbing gases with constant mixing ratios in inhomogeneous atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 15, 358–363 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Fleming, L. M. McMillin, “Atmospheric transmittance of an absorbing gas. 2. A computationally fast and accurate transmittance model for slant paths at different zenith angles,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1366–1370 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. McMillin, H. E. Fleming, M. L. Hill, “Atmospheric transmittances of an absorbing gas. 3: A computationally fast and accurate transmittance model for absorbing gases with variable mixing ratios,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1600–1606 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Eyre, H. M. Woolf, “Transmittance of atmospheric gases in the microwave region: a fast model,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3244–3249 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Rayer, “Fast transmittance model for satellite sounding,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7387–7394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Menoux, R. Le Doucen, C. Boulet, A. Roblin, A. M. Bouchardy, “Collision-induced absorption in the fundamental band of N2: temperature dependence of the absorption for N2–N2 and N2–O2 pairs,” Appl. Opt. 32, 263–268 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atmos. Res. (1)

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapour continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Q. Mark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (1)

Y. M. Timofeyev, M. V. Tonkov, “Effect of the induced oxygen absorption band on the transformation of radiation in the 6 µm region of the Earth’s atmosphere,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 437–441 (1978).

J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, C. Wahiche, P. Moulnier, “The improved initialization inversion method: a high resolution physical method for temperature retrievals from satellites of the TIROS-N series,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 128–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

J. E. Harries, J. M. Russel, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, P. Purcell, K. Stone, R. M. Bevilacqua, M. Gunson, G. Nedoluha, W. A. Traub, “Validation of measurements of water vapour from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,205–10,216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, J. S. Zander, J. S. Namkung, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Stratospheric infrared continuum absorption observed by the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,303–16,322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Susskind, J. Rosenfeld, D. Reuter, “An accurate radiative transfer model for use in the direct physical inversion of HIRS2 and MSU temperature sounding data,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8550–8568 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (3)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Armstrong, “Spectrum line profiles: the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 7, 66–88 (1967).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, S. E. Hannon, “A compilation of first-order line-mixing coefficients for CO2 Q-branches,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 281–294 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. (3)

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Anderson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Rabier, J. Thépaut, P. Courtier, “Extended assimilation and forecast experiments with a four dimensional variational assimilation system,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 124, 1861–1887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, P. Brunel, “An improved fast radiative transfer model for assimilation of satellite radiance observations,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 125, 1407–1425 (1999).

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, T. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

GEWEX Science Plan, WMO document (World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva, 1990).

S. E. Hannon, L. L. Strow, W. W. McMillan, “Atmospheric infrared fast transmittance models: a comparison of two approaches,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2830, 94–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Eyre, “A fast radiative transfer model for satellite sounding systems,” (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK, 1991).

R. M. Goody, Y. L. Yung, Atmospheric Radiation: Theoretical Basis (Oxford University, New York, 1995).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for H2O vapour: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapour, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.
[CrossRef]

D. P. Edwards, “GENLN2. A general line-by-line atmospheric transmittance and radiance model,” (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1992).

R. Rizzi, Dipartimento di Fisica Universita’ di Bologna, Bologna, Italy (personal communication, 1996).

S. J. Evans, Imperial College, London, UK (personal communication, 1997).

D. Schimel, D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heiman, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T. Wigley, M. Prather, R. Derwent, D. Ehalt, P. Fraser, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K. P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, I. Isaksen, M. Lal, D. Wuebbles, “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 1995: the Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, K. Maskell, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1996), pp. 69–131.

F. Cayla, “Simulation of IASI spectra,” (Centre National D’ Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1996).

E. O. Brigham, Fast Fourier Transform (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1974).

L. L. Strow, University of Maryland, Baltimore County 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, Md. 21250 (personal communication, 1998).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, L. S. Rothman, W. O. Gallery, “Atmospheric spectral transmission and radiance: FASCOD1B,” in Atmospheric Transmission, R. W. Fenn, ed., Proc. SPIE277, 152–166 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Computed sea surface emissivity for the IASI channels. The wind speed is set to a reference value of 7 m s-1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Upper tropospheric/stratospheric water vapor from HALOE measurements. The average profile for each of the latitude bands covered by the 32 profile subset is shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histogram of frequency by bin number and pressure level for the 43 training profiles. At each pressure level the water vapor mixing ratio and temperature range are divided into a number of bins and the number of training profiles falling within each bin is shown for (a) temperature and (b) water vapor. Pressure values up to 100 hPa are shown in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of how the layer optical depth varies for (a) fixed gases at a frequency of 730 cm-1 and layer pressures between 102.5 and 85.18 hPa; (b) water vapor at a frequency of 1260.25 cm-1 and layer pressures between 521.46 and 478.54 hPa; (c) ozone at a frequency of 1034 cm-1 and layer pressures between 253.71 and 222.94 hPa. The ordinates are defined in Table 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Statistics of the difference between brightness temperatures computed by use of the fast model and line-by-line transmittances. The rms of the error for (a) water vapor plus fixed gases, the dependent set of profiles for the water vapour and fixed gases regression coefficients is used; (b) ozone, the dependent set of profiles for the ozone regression coefficients is used; (c) water vapor plus fixed gases and ozone for an independent profile set.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Minimum and Maximum Values of the Temperature, Water Vapor, and Ozone Values Used in the Regression at Each Point of the Pressure Layer Grid

Tables Icon

Table 2 Definition of Profile Variables Used in Predictors Defined in Table 3a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Regression Predictors Used by the RTIASI for Fixed Gases, Water Vapor, and Ozone

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Rν˜, θ=1-NRclrν˜, θ+NRcldν˜, θ,
Rclrν˜, θ=τsν˜, θsν˜, θBν˜, Ts+τs1 Bν˜, Tdτ+1-sν˜, θτs2ν˜, θτs1Bν˜, T/τ2dτ,
Rcldν˜, θ=τcldν˜, θBν˜, Tcld+τcld1 Bν˜, Tdτ,
Rˆν˜*, θ=-+ Rν˜, θfν˜*-ν˜dν˜,
Rˆν˜*clr=τˆs,ν˜*s,ν˜*Bν˜*Ts+j=1L Rˆj,ν˜*u+1-s,ν˜* ×j=1L Rˆj,ν˜*uτˆs,ν˜*2/τˆj,ν˜* τˆj-1,ν˜*+Rˆν˜*
Rˆj,ν˜*u=Bν˜*Tjτˆj-1,ν˜*-τˆj,ν˜*.
Rˆν˜*cld=τˆcld,ν˜*Bν˜*Tcld+Rˆν˜*+j=1Lcl Rˆj,ν˜*u,
dˆj,ν˜*=dˆj-1,ν˜*+k=1M aj,ν˜*,k Xk,j,
τˆν˜*,jT=τˆν˜*,jF τˆν˜*,jW τˆν˜*,jO,
dˆν˜*,jF-dˆν˜*,j-1F=-lnτˆν˜*,jF/τˆν˜*,j-1F,
dˆν˜*,jWV-dˆν˜*,j-1WV=-lnτˆν˜*,jF+WV/τˆν˜*,jF×τˆν˜*,j-1F/τˆν˜*,j-1F+W,
dˆν˜*,jO-dˆν˜*,j-1O=-lnτˆν˜*,jF+WV+O/τˆν˜*,jF+WV×τˆν˜*,j-1F+W/τˆν˜*,j-1F+WV+O,
τˆν˜*,jTmodel=τˆν˜*,jFmodelτˆν˜*,jWVmodel τˆν˜*,jOmodel
τˆν˜*,j=τˆν˜*,j-1exp-dˆν˜*,j-dˆν˜*,j-1+exp-dˆν˜*,j-dˆν˜*,j-1C/τˆν˜*,j-1-C/τˆν˜*,j-1,

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