Abstract

A direct-search method for the computer design of holograms is demonstrated. Two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and containing holograms with different levels of intensity (gray scales) were designed, fabricated, and optically reconstructed. The number of effective gray levels and the image-intensity noise and contrast are discussed. A modification of the state-variables cost function used in the direct-search algorithm that permits reliable control of gray scales is presented. Optical reconstructions of two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and gray-scale binary phase computer-generated holograms are presented.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Clark, F. Linnane, S. D. Sharples, M. G. Somekh, “Frequency control in laser ultrasound with computer generated holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1963–1965 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. F. Gmitrio, P. E. Keller, C. Coleman, P. D. Maker, “Design and fabrication of multi-level phase holograms for on-axis optical interconnects,” in Diffractive Optics, Vol. 11 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 239–242.
  3. R. G. Hoptroff, P. W. McOwan, T. J. Hall, W. J. Hossack, R. E. Burge, “Two optimisation approaches to COHOE design,” Opt. Commun. 73, 188–194 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. C. Gallagher, D. Sweeney, “Computer generated microwave kinoforms,” Opt. Eng. 28, 599–604 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. T. Eismann, A. M. Tai, J. N. Cedrquist, “Holographic beamformer designed by an iterative technique,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1052, 10–18 (1989).
  6. B. K. Jennison, D. W. Sweeney, J. P. Allebach, “Iterative approaches to computer-generated holography,” Opt. Eng. 28, 629–637 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Clark, R. Smith, “A direct-search method for the computer design of holograms,” Opt. Commun. 124, 150–164 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. Seldowitz, J. P. Allebach, D. W. Sweeney, “Synthesis of digital holograms by direct binary search,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2788–2798 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. K. Jennison, J. P. Allebach, “Direct binary search computer generated hologram: an accelerated design technique and measurement of wave-front quality,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1052, 2–9 (1989).
  10. M. Clark, “A direct search method for the computer design of holograms,” Ph.D. dissertation (Imperial College, London, 1997).
  11. M. Clark, “Enhanced direct-search method for the computer design of holograms using state variables,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 24–34 (1996).
  12. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1974), Chap. 8.8.

1998 (1)

M. Clark, F. Linnane, S. D. Sharples, M. G. Somekh, “Frequency control in laser ultrasound with computer generated holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1963–1965 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Clark, R. Smith, “A direct-search method for the computer design of holograms,” Opt. Commun. 124, 150–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

R. G. Hoptroff, P. W. McOwan, T. J. Hall, W. J. Hossack, R. E. Burge, “Two optimisation approaches to COHOE design,” Opt. Commun. 73, 188–194 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Gallagher, D. Sweeney, “Computer generated microwave kinoforms,” Opt. Eng. 28, 599–604 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Jennison, D. W. Sweeney, J. P. Allebach, “Iterative approaches to computer-generated holography,” Opt. Eng. 28, 629–637 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Allebach, J. P.

B. K. Jennison, D. W. Sweeney, J. P. Allebach, “Iterative approaches to computer-generated holography,” Opt. Eng. 28, 629–637 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seldowitz, J. P. Allebach, D. W. Sweeney, “Synthesis of digital holograms by direct binary search,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2788–2798 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Jennison, J. P. Allebach, “Direct binary search computer generated hologram: an accelerated design technique and measurement of wave-front quality,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1052, 2–9 (1989).

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1974), Chap. 8.8.

Burge, R. E.

R. G. Hoptroff, P. W. McOwan, T. J. Hall, W. J. Hossack, R. E. Burge, “Two optimisation approaches to COHOE design,” Opt. Commun. 73, 188–194 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cedrquist, J. N.

M. T. Eismann, A. M. Tai, J. N. Cedrquist, “Holographic beamformer designed by an iterative technique,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1052, 10–18 (1989).

Clark, M.

M. Clark, F. Linnane, S. D. Sharples, M. G. Somekh, “Frequency control in laser ultrasound with computer generated holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1963–1965 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Clark, R. Smith, “A direct-search method for the computer design of holograms,” Opt. Commun. 124, 150–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Clark, “A direct search method for the computer design of holograms,” Ph.D. dissertation (Imperial College, London, 1997).

M. Clark, “Enhanced direct-search method for the computer design of holograms using state variables,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 24–34 (1996).

Coleman, C.

A. F. Gmitrio, P. E. Keller, C. Coleman, P. D. Maker, “Design and fabrication of multi-level phase holograms for on-axis optical interconnects,” in Diffractive Optics, Vol. 11 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 239–242.

Eismann, M. T.

M. T. Eismann, A. M. Tai, J. N. Cedrquist, “Holographic beamformer designed by an iterative technique,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1052, 10–18 (1989).

Gallagher, N. C.

N. C. Gallagher, D. Sweeney, “Computer generated microwave kinoforms,” Opt. Eng. 28, 599–604 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gmitrio, A. F.

A. F. Gmitrio, P. E. Keller, C. Coleman, P. D. Maker, “Design and fabrication of multi-level phase holograms for on-axis optical interconnects,” in Diffractive Optics, Vol. 11 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 239–242.

Hall, T. J.

R. G. Hoptroff, P. W. McOwan, T. J. Hall, W. J. Hossack, R. E. Burge, “Two optimisation approaches to COHOE design,” Opt. Commun. 73, 188–194 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hoptroff, R. G.

R. G. Hoptroff, P. W. McOwan, T. J. Hall, W. J. Hossack, R. E. Burge, “Two optimisation approaches to COHOE design,” Opt. Commun. 73, 188–194 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hossack, W. J.

R. G. Hoptroff, P. W. McOwan, T. J. Hall, W. J. Hossack, R. E. Burge, “Two optimisation approaches to COHOE design,” Opt. Commun. 73, 188–194 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jennison, B. K.

B. K. Jennison, D. W. Sweeney, J. P. Allebach, “Iterative approaches to computer-generated holography,” Opt. Eng. 28, 629–637 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Jennison, J. P. Allebach, “Direct binary search computer generated hologram: an accelerated design technique and measurement of wave-front quality,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1052, 2–9 (1989).

Keller, P. E.

A. F. Gmitrio, P. E. Keller, C. Coleman, P. D. Maker, “Design and fabrication of multi-level phase holograms for on-axis optical interconnects,” in Diffractive Optics, Vol. 11 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 239–242.

Linnane, F.

M. Clark, F. Linnane, S. D. Sharples, M. G. Somekh, “Frequency control in laser ultrasound with computer generated holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1963–1965 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maker, P. D.

A. F. Gmitrio, P. E. Keller, C. Coleman, P. D. Maker, “Design and fabrication of multi-level phase holograms for on-axis optical interconnects,” in Diffractive Optics, Vol. 11 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 239–242.

McOwan, P. W.

R. G. Hoptroff, P. W. McOwan, T. J. Hall, W. J. Hossack, R. E. Burge, “Two optimisation approaches to COHOE design,” Opt. Commun. 73, 188–194 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Seldowitz, M. A.

Sharples, S. D.

M. Clark, F. Linnane, S. D. Sharples, M. G. Somekh, “Frequency control in laser ultrasound with computer generated holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1963–1965 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

M. Clark, R. Smith, “A direct-search method for the computer design of holograms,” Opt. Commun. 124, 150–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Somekh, M. G.

M. Clark, F. Linnane, S. D. Sharples, M. G. Somekh, “Frequency control in laser ultrasound with computer generated holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1963–1965 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D.

N. C. Gallagher, D. Sweeney, “Computer generated microwave kinoforms,” Opt. Eng. 28, 599–604 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

B. K. Jennison, D. W. Sweeney, J. P. Allebach, “Iterative approaches to computer-generated holography,” Opt. Eng. 28, 629–637 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seldowitz, J. P. Allebach, D. W. Sweeney, “Synthesis of digital holograms by direct binary search,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2788–2798 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tai, A. M.

M. T. Eismann, A. M. Tai, J. N. Cedrquist, “Holographic beamformer designed by an iterative technique,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1052, 10–18 (1989).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1974), Chap. 8.8.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Clark, F. Linnane, S. D. Sharples, M. G. Somekh, “Frequency control in laser ultrasound with computer generated holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1963–1965 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. G. Hoptroff, P. W. McOwan, T. J. Hall, W. J. Hossack, R. E. Burge, “Two optimisation approaches to COHOE design,” Opt. Commun. 73, 188–194 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Clark, R. Smith, “A direct-search method for the computer design of holograms,” Opt. Commun. 124, 150–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

N. C. Gallagher, D. Sweeney, “Computer generated microwave kinoforms,” Opt. Eng. 28, 599–604 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Jennison, D. W. Sweeney, J. P. Allebach, “Iterative approaches to computer-generated holography,” Opt. Eng. 28, 629–637 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

M. T. Eismann, A. M. Tai, J. N. Cedrquist, “Holographic beamformer designed by an iterative technique,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1052, 10–18 (1989).

A. F. Gmitrio, P. E. Keller, C. Coleman, P. D. Maker, “Design and fabrication of multi-level phase holograms for on-axis optical interconnects,” in Diffractive Optics, Vol. 11 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 239–242.

B. K. Jennison, J. P. Allebach, “Direct binary search computer generated hologram: an accelerated design technique and measurement of wave-front quality,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1052, 2–9 (1989).

M. Clark, “A direct search method for the computer design of holograms,” Ph.D. dissertation (Imperial College, London, 1997).

M. Clark, “Enhanced direct-search method for the computer design of holograms using state variables,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 24–34 (1996).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1974), Chap. 8.8.

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