Abstract

Strong blue fluorescence at 487 nm corresponding to the 1 G 43 H 6 transition was generated from Tm3+-doped lutetium aluminum garnet on excitation with a 618-nm dye laser as a result of a photon-avalanche upconversion mechanism.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Scheps, “Upconversion laser processes,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 20, 271–358 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. D. Filer, N. P. Barnes, C. A. Morrison, “Theoretical temperature-dependent branching ratios and laser thresholds of the 3F4 to 3H6 Levels of Tm3+ in ten garnets,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 10, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 189–200.
  3. N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, F. L. Naranjo, W. J. Rodrigues, M. R. Kokta, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Ho:Tm:LuAG,” Opt. Lett. 18, 708–710 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. D. Kmetec, T. S. Kubo, T. J. Kane, C. J. Grund, “Laser performance of diode-pumped thulium-doped Y3Al5O12, (Y, Lu)3Al5O12, and Lu3Al5O12 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 186–188 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, R. L. Hutcheson, “Diode-pumped Ho:Tm:Lu3Al5O12 room temperature laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 109–112.
  6. E. D. Filer, N. P. Barnes, F. L. Naranjo, M. R. Kokta, “Spectroscopy and lasing in Ho:Tm:Lu3 Al5O12,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 15, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 411–414.
  7. S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, “Blue upconverted fluorescence via photon-avalanche pumping in YAG:Tm,” Phys. Status Solidi B 183, K33–K36 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. P. Scott, F. Zhao, R. S. F. Chang, N. Djeu, “Upconversion-pumped blue laser in Tm:YAG,” Opt. Lett. 18, 113–115 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. W. J. L. Oomen, “Upconversion in Tm3+-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 150–152 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. C. Collings, A. J. Silversmith, “Avalanche upconversion in LaF3:Tm3+,” J. Lumin. 62, 271–279 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. S. Chivan, W. E. Case, D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr3+-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Chen, F. Auzel, “Room temperature photon avalanche up-conversion in an erbium-doped fluoride fiber,” J. Phys. D 28, 207–211 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. F. Joubert, S. Guy, B. Jacquier, “Model of photon-avalanche effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10,031–10,037 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, T. Hanada, “Selective sensitization of 480-nm blue upconversion by Tm3+-Er3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 933–942 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. N. Patel, B. R. Reddy, S. K. Nash-Stevenson, “Spectroscopy and two-photon upconversion studies of Ho3+-doped Lu3Al5O12,” Opt. Mater. 10, 225–234 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. A. Kaminski, T. I. Butaeva, A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. G. Petrosyan, G. I. Rogov, V. A. Fedorov, “New data on stimulated emission of crystals containing Er3+ and Ho3+ ions,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 308–310 (1976).
  17. N. P. Barnes, M. G. Jani, R. L. Hutchison, “Diode-pumped, room-temperature Tm:LuAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4290–4294 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

D. N. Patel, B. R. Reddy, S. K. Nash-Stevenson, “Spectroscopy and two-photon upconversion studies of Ho3+-doped Lu3Al5O12,” Opt. Mater. 10, 225–234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Scheps, “Upconversion laser processes,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 20, 271–358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

Y. Chen, F. Auzel, “Room temperature photon avalanche up-conversion in an erbium-doped fluoride fiber,” J. Phys. D 28, 207–211 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes, M. G. Jani, R. L. Hutchison, “Diode-pumped, room-temperature Tm:LuAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4290–4294 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (4)

1993 (3)

1992 (1)

E. W. J. L. Oomen, “Upconversion in Tm3+-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 150–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. S. Chivan, W. E. Case, D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr3+-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

A. A. Kaminski, T. I. Butaeva, A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. G. Petrosyan, G. I. Rogov, V. A. Fedorov, “New data on stimulated emission of crystals containing Er3+ and Ho3+ ions,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 308–310 (1976).

Auzel, F.

Y. Chen, F. Auzel, “Room temperature photon avalanche up-conversion in an erbium-doped fluoride fiber,” J. Phys. D 28, 207–211 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes, M. G. Jani, R. L. Hutchison, “Diode-pumped, room-temperature Tm:LuAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4290–4294 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, F. L. Naranjo, W. J. Rodrigues, M. R. Kokta, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Ho:Tm:LuAG,” Opt. Lett. 18, 708–710 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Filer, N. P. Barnes, C. A. Morrison, “Theoretical temperature-dependent branching ratios and laser thresholds of the 3F4 to 3H6 Levels of Tm3+ in ten garnets,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 10, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 189–200.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, R. L. Hutcheson, “Diode-pumped Ho:Tm:Lu3Al5O12 room temperature laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 109–112.

E. D. Filer, N. P. Barnes, F. L. Naranjo, M. R. Kokta, “Spectroscopy and lasing in Ho:Tm:Lu3 Al5O12,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 15, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 411–414.

Butaeva, T. I.

A. A. Kaminski, T. I. Butaeva, A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. G. Petrosyan, G. I. Rogov, V. A. Fedorov, “New data on stimulated emission of crystals containing Er3+ and Ho3+ ions,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 308–310 (1976).

Case, W. E.

J. S. Chivan, W. E. Case, D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr3+-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. S. F.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, F. Auzel, “Room temperature photon avalanche up-conversion in an erbium-doped fluoride fiber,” J. Phys. D 28, 207–211 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chivan, J. S.

J. S. Chivan, W. E. Case, D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr3+-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Collings, B. C.

B. C. Collings, A. J. Silversmith, “Avalanche upconversion in LaF3:Tm3+,” J. Lumin. 62, 271–279 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Djeu, N.

Eden, D. D.

J. S. Chivan, W. E. Case, D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr3+-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, V. A.

A. A. Kaminski, T. I. Butaeva, A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. G. Petrosyan, G. I. Rogov, V. A. Fedorov, “New data on stimulated emission of crystals containing Er3+ and Ho3+ ions,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 308–310 (1976).

Filer, E. D.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, F. L. Naranjo, W. J. Rodrigues, M. R. Kokta, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Ho:Tm:LuAG,” Opt. Lett. 18, 708–710 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Filer, N. P. Barnes, C. A. Morrison, “Theoretical temperature-dependent branching ratios and laser thresholds of the 3F4 to 3H6 Levels of Tm3+ in ten garnets,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 10, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 189–200.

E. D. Filer, N. P. Barnes, F. L. Naranjo, M. R. Kokta, “Spectroscopy and lasing in Ho:Tm:Lu3 Al5O12,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 15, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 411–414.

Grund, C. J.

Guy, S.

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, “Blue upconverted fluorescence via photon-avalanche pumping in YAG:Tm,” Phys. Status Solidi B 183, K33–K36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Joubert, S. Guy, B. Jacquier, “Model of photon-avalanche effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10,031–10,037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hanada, T.

Hutcheson, R. L.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, R. L. Hutcheson, “Diode-pumped Ho:Tm:Lu3Al5O12 room temperature laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 109–112.

Hutchison, R. L.

Ivanov, A. O.

A. A. Kaminski, T. I. Butaeva, A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. G. Petrosyan, G. I. Rogov, V. A. Fedorov, “New data on stimulated emission of crystals containing Er3+ and Ho3+ ions,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 308–310 (1976).

Jacquier, B.

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, “Blue upconverted fluorescence via photon-avalanche pumping in YAG:Tm,” Phys. Status Solidi B 183, K33–K36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Joubert, S. Guy, B. Jacquier, “Model of photon-avalanche effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10,031–10,037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jani, M. G.

N. P. Barnes, M. G. Jani, R. L. Hutchison, “Diode-pumped, room-temperature Tm:LuAG laser,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4290–4294 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, R. L. Hutcheson, “Diode-pumped Ho:Tm:Lu3Al5O12 room temperature laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 109–112.

Joubert, M. F.

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, “Blue upconverted fluorescence via photon-avalanche pumping in YAG:Tm,” Phys. Status Solidi B 183, K33–K36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Joubert, S. Guy, B. Jacquier, “Model of photon-avalanche effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10,031–10,037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, A. A.

A. A. Kaminski, T. I. Butaeva, A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. G. Petrosyan, G. I. Rogov, V. A. Fedorov, “New data on stimulated emission of crystals containing Er3+ and Ho3+ ions,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 308–310 (1976).

Kane, T. J.

Kmetec, J. D.

Kokta, M. R.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, F. L. Naranjo, W. J. Rodrigues, M. R. Kokta, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Ho:Tm:LuAG,” Opt. Lett. 18, 708–710 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Filer, N. P. Barnes, F. L. Naranjo, M. R. Kokta, “Spectroscopy and lasing in Ho:Tm:Lu3 Al5O12,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 15, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 411–414.

Kubo, T. S.

Mochalov, I. V.

A. A. Kaminski, T. I. Butaeva, A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. G. Petrosyan, G. I. Rogov, V. A. Fedorov, “New data on stimulated emission of crystals containing Er3+ and Ho3+ ions,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 308–310 (1976).

Morrison, C. A.

E. D. Filer, N. P. Barnes, C. A. Morrison, “Theoretical temperature-dependent branching ratios and laser thresholds of the 3F4 to 3H6 Levels of Tm3+ in ten garnets,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 10, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 189–200.

Murray, K. E.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, R. L. Hutcheson, “Diode-pumped Ho:Tm:Lu3Al5O12 room temperature laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 109–112.

Naranjo, F. L.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, F. L. Naranjo, W. J. Rodrigues, M. R. Kokta, “Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Ho:Tm:LuAG,” Opt. Lett. 18, 708–710 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Filer, N. P. Barnes, F. L. Naranjo, M. R. Kokta, “Spectroscopy and lasing in Ho:Tm:Lu3 Al5O12,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 15, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 411–414.

Nash-Stevenson, S. K.

D. N. Patel, B. R. Reddy, S. K. Nash-Stevenson, “Spectroscopy and two-photon upconversion studies of Ho3+-doped Lu3Al5O12,” Opt. Mater. 10, 225–234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oomen, E. W. J. L.

E. W. J. L. Oomen, “Upconversion in Tm3+-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 150–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Patel, D. N.

D. N. Patel, B. R. Reddy, S. K. Nash-Stevenson, “Spectroscopy and two-photon upconversion studies of Ho3+-doped Lu3Al5O12,” Opt. Mater. 10, 225–234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petrosyan, A. G.

A. A. Kaminski, T. I. Butaeva, A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. G. Petrosyan, G. I. Rogov, V. A. Fedorov, “New data on stimulated emission of crystals containing Er3+ and Ho3+ ions,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 308–310 (1976).

Reddy, B. R.

D. N. Patel, B. R. Reddy, S. K. Nash-Stevenson, “Spectroscopy and two-photon upconversion studies of Ho3+-doped Lu3Al5O12,” Opt. Mater. 10, 225–234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigues, W. J.

Rogov, G. I.

A. A. Kaminski, T. I. Butaeva, A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. G. Petrosyan, G. I. Rogov, V. A. Fedorov, “New data on stimulated emission of crystals containing Er3+ and Ho3+ ions,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 308–310 (1976).

Scheps, R.

R. Scheps, “Upconversion laser processes,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 20, 271–358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scott, B. P.

Silversmith, A. J.

B. C. Collings, A. J. Silversmith, “Avalanche upconversion in LaF3:Tm3+,” J. Lumin. 62, 271–279 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soga, N.

Suzuki, K.

Tanabe, S.

Zhao, F.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. S. Chivan, W. E. Case, D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr3+-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

B. C. Collings, A. J. Silversmith, “Avalanche upconversion in LaF3:Tm3+,” J. Lumin. 62, 271–279 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

E. W. J. L. Oomen, “Upconversion in Tm3+-doped ZBLAN glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 150–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

Y. Chen, F. Auzel, “Room temperature photon avalanche up-conversion in an erbium-doped fluoride fiber,” J. Phys. D 28, 207–211 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

D. N. Patel, B. R. Reddy, S. K. Nash-Stevenson, “Spectroscopy and two-photon upconversion studies of Ho3+-doped Lu3Al5O12,” Opt. Mater. 10, 225–234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. F. Joubert, S. Guy, B. Jacquier, “Model of photon-avalanche effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10,031–10,037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, “Blue upconverted fluorescence via photon-avalanche pumping in YAG:Tm,” Phys. Status Solidi B 183, K33–K36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Scheps, “Upconversion laser processes,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 20, 271–358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. A. Kaminski, T. I. Butaeva, A. O. Ivanov, I. V. Mochalov, A. G. Petrosyan, G. I. Rogov, V. A. Fedorov, “New data on stimulated emission of crystals containing Er3+ and Ho3+ ions,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 308–310 (1976).

Other (3)

E. D. Filer, N. P. Barnes, C. A. Morrison, “Theoretical temperature-dependent branching ratios and laser thresholds of the 3F4 to 3H6 Levels of Tm3+ in ten garnets,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 10, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 189–200.

M. G. Jani, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, R. L. Hutcheson, “Diode-pumped Ho:Tm:Lu3Al5O12 room temperature laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 109–112.

E. D. Filer, N. P. Barnes, F. L. Naranjo, M. R. Kokta, “Spectroscopy and lasing in Ho:Tm:Lu3 Al5O12,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 15, of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 411–414.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Partial energy-level diagram of Tm3+:LuAG, depicting laser excitation (⇒) and emission (→) transitions under 618-nm dye laser pumping. The wavy arrow represents nonradiative relaxation. The dashed line does not represent any energy level.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy upconversion spectrum of Tm3+:LuAG observed under 618-nm dye laser excitation. The 487-nm peak is the strongest, and the 367-nm peak is the weakest. The numbers below the peaks are the multiplication factors that we used to obtain the spectral recording.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

487-nm (1 G 43 H 6) upconversion signal intensity versus laser power, which indicates a threshold power of 30 mW for the photon-avalanche effect.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser excitation spectrum of the 487-nm transition, showing excitations at 616.7 and 618 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

487-nm signal temporal evolution observed under 618-nm dye laser excitation, which depicts the photon-avalanche effect. The laser power is 225 mW.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Partial energy-level diagram of Tm3+:LuAG, depicting the photon-avalanche mechanism; a, b, cross-pair relaxation paths.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Partial energy-level diagram of Tm3+:LuAG, depicting cross-pair relaxation path b on an expanded scale.

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