Abstract

A method for determining the ocean-bottom optical albedo R b from in-water upward and downward irradiance measurements at a shallow site is presented, tested, and compared with a more familiar approach that requires additional measurements at a nearby deep-water site. Also presented are two new algorithms for estimating R b from measurements of the downward irradiance and vertically upward radiance. All methods performed well in numerical situations at depths at which the influence of the bottom on the light field was significant.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. G. Ackleson, “Diffuse attenuation is optically shallow water: effects of bottom reflectance,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 326–330 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water. Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, New York, 1994).
  3. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “Influence of bottom depth and albedo on reflectance of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2153–2159 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Pratt, K. L. Carder, D. K. Costello, Z. Lee, “Algorithms for path radiance and attenuation to provide color corrections for underwater imagery, characterize optical properties and determine bottom albedo,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 753–759 (1997).
  5. S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. R. Lyzenga, “Passive remote-sensing techniques for mapping water depth and bottom features,” Appl. Opt. 17, 379–383 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Remote-sensing estimates of inherent optical properties in a coastal environment,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 61, 290–301 (1997).
  8. Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for the interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. LeDrew, H. Holden, D. Peddle, J. Morrow, “Mapping coral ecosystems in Fiji from SPOT imagery with in situ optical correction,” in Information Tools for Sustainable Development: Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment and 18th Symposium of the Canadian Remote Sensing Society (Canadian Aeronautic and Space Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, 1996), pp. 581–584.
  10. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the earth’s atmosphere–ocean system: I. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Maritorena, “Remote sensing of the water attenuation in coral reefs: a case study in French Polynesia,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 17, 155–166 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. R. Lyzenga, “Remote sensing of bottom reflectance and water attenuation parameters in shallow water using aircraft and Landsat data,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 2, 71–82 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. J. McCormick, “Analytical transport theory applications in optical oceanography,” Ann. Nucl. Energy 23, 381–395 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. D. Philpot, “Radiative transfer in stratified waters: a single-scattering approximation for irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4123–4132 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. T. O. Kirk, “The upwelling light stream in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1410–1425 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “On calibration of passive optical bathymetry from the spatial variation of environmental parameters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1481–1501 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. A. Leathers, N. J. McCormick, “Ocean inherent optical property estimation from irradiances,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8685–8698 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Kishino, “Interrelationship between light and phytoplankton in the sea,” in Ocean Optics, R. W. Spinrad, K. L. Carder, M. J. Perry, eds. (Oxford University, New York, 1994).
  19. J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A reflecting tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 124–136 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Z. Jin, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting layered media such as the atmosphere/ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. D. Mobley, Sequoia Scientific Inc., 9725 SE 36th St., Mercer Island, Wash. 98040, (personal communication, 1999).
  23. N. J. McCormick, “Asymptotic optical attenuation,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 1570–1578 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Remote-sensing estimates of inherent optical properties in a coastal environment,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 61, 290–301 (1997).

R. A. Leathers, N. J. McCormick, “Ocean inherent optical property estimation from irradiances,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8685–8698 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. Maritorena, “Remote sensing of the water attenuation in coral reefs: a case study in French Polynesia,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 17, 155–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. J. McCormick, “Analytical transport theory applications in optical oceanography,” Ann. Nucl. Energy 23, 381–395 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

N. J. McCormick, “Asymptotic optical attenuation,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 1570–1578 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

J. T. O. Kirk, “The upwelling light stream in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1410–1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “On calibration of passive optical bathymetry from the spatial variation of environmental parameters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1481–1501 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1981 (1)

D. R. Lyzenga, “Remote sensing of bottom reflectance and water attenuation parameters in shallow water using aircraft and Landsat data,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 2, 71–82 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1974 (1)

1972 (1)

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the earth’s atmosphere–ocean system: I. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ackleson, S. G.

S. G. Ackleson, “Diffuse attenuation is optically shallow water: effects of bottom reflectance,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 326–330 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Remote-sensing estimates of inherent optical properties in a coastal environment,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 61, 290–301 (1997).

Brown, O. B.

Carder, K. L.

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for the interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pratt, K. L. Carder, D. K. Costello, Z. Lee, “Algorithms for path radiance and attenuation to provide color corrections for underwater imagery, characterize optical properties and determine bottom albedo,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 753–759 (1997).

Costello, D. K.

P. Pratt, K. L. Carder, D. K. Costello, Z. Lee, “Algorithms for path radiance and attenuation to provide color corrections for underwater imagery, characterize optical properties and determine bottom albedo,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 753–759 (1997).

Davis, C. O.

Gentili, B.

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, H. R.

Gould, R. W.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Remote-sensing estimates of inherent optical properties in a coastal environment,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 61, 290–301 (1997).

Hawes, S. K.

Holden, H.

E. LeDrew, H. Holden, D. Peddle, J. Morrow, “Mapping coral ecosystems in Fiji from SPOT imagery with in situ optical correction,” in Information Tools for Sustainable Development: Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment and 18th Symposium of the Canadian Remote Sensing Society (Canadian Aeronautic and Space Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, 1996), pp. 581–584.

Jin, Z.

Kattawar, G. W.

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the earth’s atmosphere–ocean system: I. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, “The upwelling light stream in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1410–1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, M.

M. Kishino, “Interrelationship between light and phytoplankton in the sea,” in Ocean Optics, R. W. Spinrad, K. L. Carder, M. J. Perry, eds. (Oxford University, New York, 1994).

Leathers, R. A.

LeDrew, E.

E. LeDrew, H. Holden, D. Peddle, J. Morrow, “Mapping coral ecosystems in Fiji from SPOT imagery with in situ optical correction,” in Information Tools for Sustainable Development: Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment and 18th Symposium of the Canadian Remote Sensing Society (Canadian Aeronautic and Space Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, 1996), pp. 581–584.

Lee, Z.

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for the interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pratt, K. L. Carder, D. K. Costello, Z. Lee, “Algorithms for path radiance and attenuation to provide color corrections for underwater imagery, characterize optical properties and determine bottom albedo,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 753–759 (1997).

Lyzenga, D. R.

D. R. Lyzenga, “Remote sensing of bottom reflectance and water attenuation parameters in shallow water using aircraft and Landsat data,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 2, 71–82 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Lyzenga, “Passive remote-sensing techniques for mapping water depth and bottom features,” Appl. Opt. 17, 379–383 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maritorena, S.

S. Maritorena, “Remote sensing of the water attenuation in coral reefs: a case study in French Polynesia,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 17, 155–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, N. J.

R. A. Leathers, N. J. McCormick, “Ocean inherent optical property estimation from irradiances,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8685–8698 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. J. McCormick, “Analytical transport theory applications in optical oceanography,” Ann. Nucl. Energy 23, 381–395 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. J. McCormick, “Asymptotic optical attenuation,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 1570–1578 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. R.

N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “On calibration of passive optical bathymetry from the spatial variation of environmental parameters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1481–1501 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water. Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, New York, 1994).

C. D. Mobley, Sequoia Scientific Inc., 9725 SE 36th St., Mercer Island, Wash. 98040, (personal communication, 1999).

Morel, A.

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morrow, J.

E. LeDrew, H. Holden, D. Peddle, J. Morrow, “Mapping coral ecosystems in Fiji from SPOT imagery with in situ optical correction,” in Information Tools for Sustainable Development: Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment and 18th Symposium of the Canadian Remote Sensing Society (Canadian Aeronautic and Space Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, 1996), pp. 581–584.

O’Neill, N. T.

N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “On calibration of passive optical bathymetry from the spatial variation of environmental parameters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1481–1501 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, T. G.

Peddle, D.

E. LeDrew, H. Holden, D. Peddle, J. Morrow, “Mapping coral ecosystems in Fiji from SPOT imagery with in situ optical correction,” in Information Tools for Sustainable Development: Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment and 18th Symposium of the Canadian Remote Sensing Society (Canadian Aeronautic and Space Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, 1996), pp. 581–584.

Philpot, W. D.

Plass, G. N.

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the earth’s atmosphere–ocean system: I. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Pratt, P.

P. Pratt, K. L. Carder, D. K. Costello, Z. Lee, “Algorithms for path radiance and attenuation to provide color corrections for underwater imagery, characterize optical properties and determine bottom albedo,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 753–759 (1997).

Reinersman, P.

Stamnes, K.

Stavn, R. H.

Steward, R. G.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A reflecting tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 124–136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Nucl. Energy (1)

N. J. McCormick, “Analytical transport theory applications in optical oceanography,” Ann. Nucl. Energy 23, 381–395 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Int. J. Remote Sensing (4)

N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “On calibration of passive optical bathymetry from the spatial variation of environmental parameters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1481–1501 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Remote-sensing estimates of inherent optical properties in a coastal environment,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 61, 290–301 (1997).

S. Maritorena, “Remote sensing of the water attenuation in coral reefs: a case study in French Polynesia,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 17, 155–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Lyzenga, “Remote sensing of bottom reflectance and water attenuation parameters in shallow water using aircraft and Landsat data,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 2, 71–82 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Oceanogr. (1)

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the earth’s atmosphere–ocean system: I. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (3)

N. J. McCormick, “Asymptotic optical attenuation,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 1570–1578 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. T. O. Kirk, “The upwelling light stream in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1410–1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

E. LeDrew, H. Holden, D. Peddle, J. Morrow, “Mapping coral ecosystems in Fiji from SPOT imagery with in situ optical correction,” in Information Tools for Sustainable Development: Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment and 18th Symposium of the Canadian Remote Sensing Society (Canadian Aeronautic and Space Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, 1996), pp. 581–584.

S. G. Ackleson, “Diffuse attenuation is optically shallow water: effects of bottom reflectance,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 326–330 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water. Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, New York, 1994).

P. Pratt, K. L. Carder, D. K. Costello, Z. Lee, “Algorithms for path radiance and attenuation to provide color corrections for underwater imagery, characterize optical properties and determine bottom albedo,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 753–759 (1997).

M. Kishino, “Interrelationship between light and phytoplankton in the sea,” in Ocean Optics, R. W. Spinrad, K. L. Carder, M. J. Perry, eds. (Oxford University, New York, 1994).

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A reflecting tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 124–136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, Sequoia Scientific Inc., 9725 SE 36th St., Mercer Island, Wash. 98040, (personal communication, 1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Profiles of estimates of the bottom albedo Rbτ with, a, the estimate equal to the irradiance reflectance R(τ); b, Eq. (8) with known R and K ; and c, Eqs. (8) and (9). The simulation was generated for R b = 0.2, five optical depth water, ω0 = 0.8, and 75% collimated light at 30° from the zenith.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Profiles of estimates of the bottom albedo Rbτ with the two-site E u - E d method of Eq. (7) (left) for ω0 = 0.7 and R b = 0.2 and (right) for ω0 = 0.9 and R b = 0.1. The simulations were for sunny conditions, and the R b determination was done with K in Eq. (7) replaced (— * —) by Kdz¯ and (—) by the deep (asymptotic) value of K d (z).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Profiles of estimates of the bottom albedo Rbτ from E u (z) and E d (z) with (— * —) the two-site method of Eq. (7) and (—) the one-site method of Eq. (8). These sunny-sky simulations were (left) for ω0 = 0.9 and R b = 0.1 and (right) for ω0 = 0.8 and R b = 0.2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profiles of estimates of the bottom albedo Rbτ from L u (z) and E d (z) with (— * —) the two-site method of Eq. (11) and (—) the one-site method of Eq. (10). The simulations were (left) for sunny conditions, ω0 = 0.9 and R b = 0.1, and (right) for overcast conditions, ω0 = 0.9 and R b = 0.2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculations of the Bottom Albedoa

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ z+cLz, μ=b -11 β˜z, μ, μLz, μdμ,
Edz=2π 01 μLz, μdμ, Euz=2π -10 |μ|Lz, μdμ.
Rz=Euz/Edz,
RLz=πLuz/Edz,
Kdz=-1EdzdEdzdz,
Rz=R2ndz+Rb-R2ndzexp-2zb-zK2nd,
Rb=R2ndz+Rz-R2ndzexp2zb-zK2nd.
Rb=R+Rz-Rexp2zb-zK,
1-R1+R2=Edz-Euz2|z1z2Edz+Euz2|z1z2.
Rb=RL+RLz-RLexp2zb-zK.
Rb=R2ndLz+RLz-R2ndLzexp2zb-zK2nd,
Luz=Lz, -1=j=1JCvjϕvj, -1exp-cz/vj+C-vjϕ-vj, -1expcz/vj,
Edz=j=1JCvjg˜1vjexp-cz/vj+C-vjg˜1-vjexpcz/vj,
g˜j±v1=01 ϕ±vj, μPjμdμ
LuzCv1ϕv1, -1exp-cz/v1+C-v1ϕ-v1, -1expcz/v1,
EdzCv1g˜1v1exp-cz/v1+C-v1g˜1-v1expcz/v1.
RLz=RL+πrϕ-v1, -1exp2cz/v1/g˜1v11+rR exp2cz/v1.
RLz-RL=r exp2cz/v1πϕ-v1, -1/g˜1v1-RLR1+rR exp2cz/v1.
RLz-RLexp-2cz/v11+rR exp2cz/v1=rπϕ-v1, -1/g˜1v1-RLR.
RLz=RL+RLzb-RLexp-2czb-z/v11+rR exp2czb/v11+rR exp2cz/v1.
RLz=RL+RLzb-RLexp-2czb-z/v1,

Metrics