Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate two optical architectures that process the receive mode of a p × p element phased-array antenna. The architectures are based on free-space propagation and switching of the channelized optical carriers of microwave signals. With the first architecture a direct transposition of the received signals in the optical domain is assumed. The second architecture is based on the optical generation and distribution of a microwave local oscillator matched in frequency and direction. Preliminary experimental results at microwave frequencies of ∼3 GHz are presented.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Zmuda, E. Toughlian, Photonic Aspects of Modern Radars (Artech, Boston, 1995).
  2. N. A. Riza, ed., Selected Papers on Photonic Control Systems for Phased-Array Antennas, Vol. 136of SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997).
  3. D. Dolfi, P. Joffre, J. Antoine, J. P. Huignard, D. Philippet, D. Granger, “Experimental demonstration of a phased-array antenna optically controlled with phase and time delays,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5293–5300 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “True time-delay fiber-optic control of an ultrawideband array transmitter/receiver with multibeam capability,” Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2387–2394 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. R. Stephens, J. J. Lee, G. L. Tangonan, I. L. Newberg, H. T. Wang, “Photonic RF mixing feed for multibeam arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper WE 1-6.
  6. D. Dolfi, J. P. Huignard, J. Chazelas, O. Maas, “Photonics for microwave processing in radar systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper WE 1-5.
  7. M. J. Wale, “Component technology for microwave photonic systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper TH 1-2.
  8. J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingstone, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. P. Goutzoulis, J. M. Zomp, “Development and field demonstration of an eight-element receive wavelength-multiplexed true-time-delay steering system,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7315–7326 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “True time-delay fiber-optic control of an ultrawideband array transmitter/receiver with multibeam capability,” Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2387–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingstone, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, J.

Chazelas, J.

D. Dolfi, J. P. Huignard, J. Chazelas, O. Maas, “Photonics for microwave processing in radar systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper WE 1-5.

Dolfi, D.

D. Dolfi, P. Joffre, J. Antoine, J. P. Huignard, D. Philippet, D. Granger, “Experimental demonstration of a phased-array antenna optically controlled with phase and time delays,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5293–5300 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dolfi, J. P. Huignard, J. Chazelas, O. Maas, “Photonics for microwave processing in radar systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper WE 1-5.

Esman, R. D.

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “True time-delay fiber-optic control of an ultrawideband array transmitter/receiver with multibeam capability,” Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2387–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, M. Y.

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “True time-delay fiber-optic control of an ultrawideband array transmitter/receiver with multibeam capability,” Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2387–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goutzoulis, A. P.

Granger, D.

Huignard, J. P.

D. Dolfi, P. Joffre, J. Antoine, J. P. Huignard, D. Philippet, D. Granger, “Experimental demonstration of a phased-array antenna optically controlled with phase and time delays,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5293–5300 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dolfi, J. P. Huignard, J. Chazelas, O. Maas, “Photonics for microwave processing in radar systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper WE 1-5.

Joffre, P.

Jones, V. I.

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingstone, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. J.

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingstone, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Stephens, J. J. Lee, G. L. Tangonan, I. L. Newberg, H. T. Wang, “Photonic RF mixing feed for multibeam arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper WE 1-6.

Lewis, J. B.

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingstone, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Livingstone, S.

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingstone, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Loo, R. Y.

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingstone, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maas, O.

D. Dolfi, J. P. Huignard, J. Chazelas, O. Maas, “Photonics for microwave processing in radar systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper WE 1-5.

Newberg, I. L.

R. R. Stephens, J. J. Lee, G. L. Tangonan, I. L. Newberg, H. T. Wang, “Photonic RF mixing feed for multibeam arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper WE 1-6.

Philippet, D.

Stephens, R. R.

R. R. Stephens, J. J. Lee, G. L. Tangonan, I. L. Newberg, H. T. Wang, “Photonic RF mixing feed for multibeam arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper WE 1-6.

Tangonan, G. L.

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingstone, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Stephens, J. J. Lee, G. L. Tangonan, I. L. Newberg, H. T. Wang, “Photonic RF mixing feed for multibeam arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper WE 1-6.

Toughlian, E.

H. Zmuda, E. Toughlian, Photonic Aspects of Modern Radars (Artech, Boston, 1995).

Wale, M. J.

M. J. Wale, “Component technology for microwave photonic systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper TH 1-2.

Wang, H. T.

R. R. Stephens, J. J. Lee, G. L. Tangonan, I. L. Newberg, H. T. Wang, “Photonic RF mixing feed for multibeam arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper WE 1-6.

Wechsberg, M.

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingstone, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yen, H. W.

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingstone, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zmuda, H.

H. Zmuda, E. Toughlian, Photonic Aspects of Modern Radars (Artech, Boston, 1995).

Zomp, J. M.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingstone, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “True time-delay fiber-optic control of an ultrawideband array transmitter/receiver with multibeam capability,” Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2387–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R. R. Stephens, J. J. Lee, G. L. Tangonan, I. L. Newberg, H. T. Wang, “Photonic RF mixing feed for multibeam arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper WE 1-6.

D. Dolfi, J. P. Huignard, J. Chazelas, O. Maas, “Photonics for microwave processing in radar systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper WE 1-5.

M. J. Wale, “Component technology for microwave photonic systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/Lasers & Electro-Optics Society International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP’97, D. Jaeger, ed. (Duisburg, Germany, 4–6 September 1997), Paper TH 1-2.

H. Zmuda, E. Toughlian, Photonic Aspects of Modern Radars (Artech, Boston, 1995).

N. A. Riza, ed., Selected Papers on Photonic Control Systems for Phased-Array Antennas, Vol. 136of SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the direct architecture. (a) Transmit mode, (b) receive mode, (c) optical implementation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Principle of the controlled delays.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principle of the MLOA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Complementary path. Two cross-polarized beams experience complementary paths through the SLM’s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Principle of the double mixing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Processing with 2(p × p) pixels. This configuration permits cancellation of the phase error for one frequency in the bandwidth.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setup. Direct architecture, f 1 = f 2. Only two beams, from the four generated, are used. They simulate the received signals by an antenna of two radiating elements. MLOA, single mixing: f 1 = f r = 2.785 GHz, f 2 = f LO = 2.885 GHz. The four beams are used and detected. Double-mixing, only AOM1 is used, providing rf signal and LO at the same frequency f 1 = 2.785 GHz (AOM, acousto-optic modulator; P, 45°-oriented polarizer). This corresponds to the case in which the Doppler shift is zero.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental results for the direct architecture. Top signal is reference. In each picture the bottom signal corresponds to the four time delays: (a) δτ = 0, (b) δτ = (221 ± 4) ps, (c) δτ = (150 ± 4) ps, (d) δτ = (371 ± 4) ps.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental results for the single mixing. In this experiment f r = 2.785 GHz, f LO = 2.885 GHz, f i = f LO - f r = (100 ± 2) MHz. The time delay between the two rf beams is maximum [τth = (452 ± 22) ps]. As expected the time delay is observed at τ = (460 ± 20) ps, corresponding to a phase error of 18°. (a) τ = 0, Δϕ = 0, f 1 = 100 MHz; (b) τ = 460 ps, Δϕ = 18°, f 1 = 100 MHz.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental results for the double mixing. In this experiment one rf beam and one LO beam at frequency f = 2.785 GHz are used. The intermediate frequency is f i = 700 MHz. The beams experience (a) the shortest path (τ = 0) or (b) the longest path (τ = 450 ps, Δτ < 10 ps, Δϕ ∼ 5°). The time error between these two cases is less than 10 ps (range limit of the oscilloscope we used).

Equations (13)

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ϕket=2πfet-τk.
ϕkrt=2πfe+fDt-2T+τk,
ϕkst=ϕkLOt-ϕkrt,
ϕkLOt=2πfLOt-τM-τk.
ϕkst=2πfit+τk-fLOτM+2frT,
δϕjk=2πfiτk-τj=2πfiδτjk.
δϕMπp-1fiΛ/csin θ=πp-1fi/fesin θ.
ϕkLOt=2πfe-fit-2πfeτM-τk,
ϕkst=2πfD+fit+2πfeτM-2T-2πfD2T-τk.
δϕjk=2πfDτk-τj2πfDτM.
ϕkst=2πfit+2πfLOτkLO-frτke-2πfLOτM+4πfrT,
δϕjk=2πfLOτkLO-τjLO-2πfrτke-τje,
τkLO-τjLO=τke-τjefr/fLO.

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