Abstract

A third-order grating coupler with a grating period 3 times that of a first-order grating is discussed in terms of efficiency enhancement. A reflection film is integrated between the optical buffer layer and the substrate beneath the grating–guiding core. The power-distribution ratio for each diffracted wave depends on the optical buffer layer’s thickness because of interference effects. The thickness is determined to suppress first- and second-order diffraction and to enhance the power distribution to the output air-radiation wave generated by third-order diffraction. A demonstrator was designed and examined at a wavelength of 0.82 µm. The measured output coupling efficiency was 40%, whereas the theoretical prediction was 60%.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Kogelnik, T. P. Sosnowski, “Holographic thin film couplers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602–1608 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 845–867 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “High-performance focusing grating coupler fabricated by electron-beam writing,” in Technical Digest of the Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics, Kissimmee, Japan, 24–27 April 1984, paper ThD-4.
  5. R. L. Roncone, L. Li, K. A. Bates, J. J. Burke, L. Weisenbach, B. J. J. Zelinski, “Design and fabrication of a single-channel grating coupler,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4522–4528 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Ura, S. Kido, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Design of high efficiency 3rd order grating coupler in semiconductor waveguide,” in Technical Digest of the Fifth Optoelectronics Conference, Chiba, Japan, 12–15 July 1994, paper 15B4-2.
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    [CrossRef]
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1995 (1)

N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, “Highly efficient grating-coupled surface-emitters with single outcoupling elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1394–1396 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1569–1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1986 (1)

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 845–867 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1970 (2)

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik, T. P. Sosnowski, “Holographic thin film couplers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602–1608 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bates, K. A.

Burke, J. J.

Chang, K. C.

Dakss, M. L.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, N.

N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, “Highly efficient grating-coupled surface-emitters with single outcoupling elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1394–1396 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hagberg, M.

N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, “Highly efficient grating-coupled surface-emitters with single outcoupling elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1394–1396 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, P. F.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kido, S.

S. Ura, S. Kido, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Design of high efficiency 3rd order grating coupler in semiconductor waveguide,” in Technical Digest of the Fifth Optoelectronics Conference, Chiba, Japan, 12–15 July 1994, paper 15B4-2.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, T. P. Sosnowski, “Holographic thin film couplers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602–1608 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, J.

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “High-performance focusing grating coupler fabricated by electron-beam writing,” in Technical Digest of the Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics, Kissimmee, Japan, 24–27 April 1984, paper ThD-4.

Kuhn, L.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, “Highly efficient grating-coupled surface-emitters with single outcoupling elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1394–1396 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Nishihara, H.

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1569–1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 845–867 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “High-performance focusing grating coupler fabricated by electron-beam writing,” in Technical Digest of the Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics, Kissimmee, Japan, 24–27 April 1984, paper ThD-4.

S. Ura, S. Kido, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Design of high efficiency 3rd order grating coupler in semiconductor waveguide,” in Technical Digest of the Fifth Optoelectronics Conference, Chiba, Japan, 12–15 July 1994, paper 15B4-2.

Oh, M.

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1569–1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roncone, R. L.

Scott, B. A.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Shah, V.

Sosnowski, T. P.

H. Kogelnik, T. P. Sosnowski, “Holographic thin film couplers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602–1608 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1569–1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 845–867 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “High-performance focusing grating coupler fabricated by electron-beam writing,” in Technical Digest of the Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics, Kissimmee, Japan, 24–27 April 1984, paper ThD-4.

S. Ura, S. Kido, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Design of high efficiency 3rd order grating coupler in semiconductor waveguide,” in Technical Digest of the Fifth Optoelectronics Conference, Chiba, Japan, 12–15 July 1994, paper 15B4-2.

Tamir, T.

Ura, S.

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1569–1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, S. Kido, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Design of high efficiency 3rd order grating coupler in semiconductor waveguide,” in Technical Digest of the Fifth Optoelectronics Conference, Chiba, Japan, 12–15 July 1994, paper 15B4-2.

Weisenbach, L.

Zelinski, B. J. J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, T. P. Sosnowski, “Holographic thin film couplers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602–1608 (1970).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, “Highly efficient grating-coupled surface-emitters with single outcoupling elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1394–1396 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1569–1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 845–867 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “High-performance focusing grating coupler fabricated by electron-beam writing,” in Technical Digest of the Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics, Kissimmee, Japan, 24–27 April 1984, paper ThD-4.

S. Ura, S. Kido, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Design of high efficiency 3rd order grating coupler in semiconductor waveguide,” in Technical Digest of the Fifth Optoelectronics Conference, Chiba, Japan, 12–15 July 1994, paper 15B4-2.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Vector diagram of a third-order grating coupler. The arrows indicate diffraction-order waves.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional view of the proposed third-order grating coupler.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated dependence of the radiation-decay factor α r and of the power-distribution ratios ηqi on the buffer-layer thickness t b .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic view of the sample fabricated by means of chemical vapor deposition, electron-beam (EB) coating, Espacer 100, EB direct writing, and exposure for characterization of the third-order grating coupler GC1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM photographs of the fabricated sample with first-order and third-order grating couplers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity profile of a wave radiating along the guided-wave propagation direction on the grating aperture. GC, grating coupler.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Specifications of a Third-Order Grating Coupler as Determined for Fabrication and Characterization

Equations (2)

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βq=k0ni sin θqi=β0-qK,  i=a, s,
Pqi=ηqi1-exp-2αrLPin,  i=a, s,

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