Abstract

For an integrated free-space optical interconnection system we suggest the use of microprisms to achieve large coupling angles at low loss. Prisms were fabricated in photoresist and quartz glass by analog lithography. High-energy-beam–sensitive glass was used as the gray-tone mask. Optical testing of the prisms shows acceptable surface quality and high efficiency (95%).

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Cangellaris, “The interconnect bottleneck in multi-GHz processors: new opportunities for hybrid electrical/optical solutions,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing, L. Johnsson, R. Kostuck, E. Schenfeld, M. Snir, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1998), pp. 98–103.
  2. S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Integrated micro-optical imaging system with a high interconnection capacity fabricated in planar optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4729–4735 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Jürss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, “Fabrication of microrelief surfaces using a one-step lithography process,” in Microelectronic Structures and MEMS for Optical Processing III, M. Motamedi, H. P. Herzig, eds., Proc. SPIE3226, 2–10 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E.-B. Kley, W. Dorl, “Einsatz von Elektronenstrahllithograhie zur Herstellung mikrooptischer Bauelemente,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 960, 531–541 (1992).
  5. W. Däschner, C. Wu, S. H. Lee, “General aspheric refractive micro-optics fabricated by optical lithography using a high energy beam sensitive glass gray-level mask,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 135–138 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, L. Stauffer, M. Scheidt, J. R. Rogers, “Integrated micro-optical systems fabricated by replication technology,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 183–185.
  7. E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 45–53 (1996).
  8. C. Wu, “Method of making high energy beam sensitive glass,” U.S. patent5,078,771, 7January1992.
  9. J. Jahns, S. Sinzinger, M. Testorf, “Scaling considerations for planar optical interconnects,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper W53.
  10. B. Lunitz, J. Jahns, “Tolerant design of a planar optical clock distribution system,” Opt. Commun. 134, 281–288 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

W. Däschner, C. Wu, S. H. Lee, “General aspheric refractive micro-optics fabricated by optical lithography using a high energy beam sensitive glass gray-level mask,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 135–138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E.-B. Kley, W. Dorl, “Einsatz von Elektronenstrahllithograhie zur Herstellung mikrooptischer Bauelemente,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 960, 531–541 (1992).

Cangellaris, A.

A. Cangellaris, “The interconnect bottleneck in multi-GHz processors: new opportunities for hybrid electrical/optical solutions,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing, L. Johnsson, R. Kostuck, E. Schenfeld, M. Snir, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1998), pp. 98–103.

Coldren, L. A.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 45–53 (1996).

Däschner, W.

W. Däschner, C. Wu, S. H. Lee, “General aspheric refractive micro-optics fabricated by optical lithography using a high energy beam sensitive glass gray-level mask,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 135–138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dorl, W.

E.-B. Kley, W. Dorl, “Einsatz von Elektronenstrahllithograhie zur Herstellung mikrooptischer Bauelemente,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 960, 531–541 (1992).

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, L. Stauffer, M. Scheidt, J. R. Rogers, “Integrated micro-optical systems fabricated by replication technology,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 183–185.

Hofmann, U.

K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Jürss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, “Fabrication of microrelief surfaces using a one-step lithography process,” in Microelectronic Structures and MEMS for Optical Processing III, M. Motamedi, H. P. Herzig, eds., Proc. SPIE3226, 2–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

B. Lunitz, J. Jahns, “Tolerant design of a planar optical clock distribution system,” Opt. Commun. 134, 281–288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Integrated micro-optical imaging system with a high interconnection capacity fabricated in planar optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4729–4735 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jahns, S. Sinzinger, M. Testorf, “Scaling considerations for planar optical interconnects,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper W53.

Jayaraman, V.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 45–53 (1996).

Jürss, M.

K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Jürss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, “Fabrication of microrelief surfaces using a one-step lithography process,” in Microelectronic Structures and MEMS for Optical Processing III, M. Motamedi, H. P. Herzig, eds., Proc. SPIE3226, 2–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.-B.

E.-B. Kley, W. Dorl, “Einsatz von Elektronenstrahllithograhie zur Herstellung mikrooptischer Bauelemente,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 960, 531–541 (1992).

Lee, S. H.

W. Däschner, C. Wu, S. H. Lee, “General aspheric refractive micro-optics fabricated by optical lithography using a high energy beam sensitive glass gray-level mask,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 135–138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lunitz, B.

B. Lunitz, J. Jahns, “Tolerant design of a planar optical clock distribution system,” Opt. Commun. 134, 281–288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mondry, M.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 45–53 (1996).

Peters, F. H.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 45–53 (1996).

Peters, M. G.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 45–53 (1996).

Pilz, W.

K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Jürss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, “Fabrication of microrelief surfaces using a one-step lithography process,” in Microelectronic Structures and MEMS for Optical Processing III, M. Motamedi, H. P. Herzig, eds., Proc. SPIE3226, 2–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quenzer, H. J.

K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Jürss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, “Fabrication of microrelief surfaces using a one-step lithography process,” in Microelectronic Structures and MEMS for Optical Processing III, M. Motamedi, H. P. Herzig, eds., Proc. SPIE3226, 2–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reimer, K.

K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Jürss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, “Fabrication of microrelief surfaces using a one-step lithography process,” in Microelectronic Structures and MEMS for Optical Processing III, M. Motamedi, H. P. Herzig, eds., Proc. SPIE3226, 2–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, G. D.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 45–53 (1996).

Rogers, J. R.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, L. Stauffer, M. Scheidt, J. R. Rogers, “Integrated micro-optical systems fabricated by replication technology,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 183–185.

Rossi, M.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, L. Stauffer, M. Scheidt, J. R. Rogers, “Integrated micro-optical systems fabricated by replication technology,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 183–185.

Scheidt, M.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, L. Stauffer, M. Scheidt, J. R. Rogers, “Integrated micro-optical systems fabricated by replication technology,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 183–185.

Sinzinger, S.

S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Integrated micro-optical imaging system with a high interconnection capacity fabricated in planar optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4729–4735 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jahns, S. Sinzinger, M. Testorf, “Scaling considerations for planar optical interconnects,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper W53.

Stauffer, L.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, L. Stauffer, M. Scheidt, J. R. Rogers, “Integrated micro-optical systems fabricated by replication technology,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 183–185.

Strzelecka, E. M.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 45–53 (1996).

Testorf, M.

J. Jahns, S. Sinzinger, M. Testorf, “Scaling considerations for planar optical interconnects,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper W53.

Thibeault, B. J.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 45–53 (1996).

Thompson, G. B.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 45–53 (1996).

Wagner, B.

K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Jürss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, “Fabrication of microrelief surfaces using a one-step lithography process,” in Microelectronic Structures and MEMS for Optical Processing III, M. Motamedi, H. P. Herzig, eds., Proc. SPIE3226, 2–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

W. Däschner, C. Wu, S. H. Lee, “General aspheric refractive micro-optics fabricated by optical lithography using a high energy beam sensitive glass gray-level mask,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 135–138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, “Method of making high energy beam sensitive glass,” U.S. patent5,078,771, 7January1992.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

W. Däschner, C. Wu, S. H. Lee, “General aspheric refractive micro-optics fabricated by optical lithography using a high energy beam sensitive glass gray-level mask,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 135–138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Lunitz, J. Jahns, “Tolerant design of a planar optical clock distribution system,” Opt. Commun. 134, 281–288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) (1)

E.-B. Kley, W. Dorl, “Einsatz von Elektronenstrahllithograhie zur Herstellung mikrooptischer Bauelemente,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 960, 531–541 (1992).

Other (6)

A. Cangellaris, “The interconnect bottleneck in multi-GHz processors: new opportunities for hybrid electrical/optical solutions,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing, L. Johnsson, R. Kostuck, E. Schenfeld, M. Snir, eds. (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1998), pp. 98–103.

K. Reimer, U. Hofmann, M. Jürss, W. Pilz, H. J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, “Fabrication of microrelief surfaces using a one-step lithography process,” in Microelectronic Structures and MEMS for Optical Processing III, M. Motamedi, H. P. Herzig, eds., Proc. SPIE3226, 2–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, L. Stauffer, M. Scheidt, J. R. Rogers, “Integrated micro-optical systems fabricated by replication technology,” in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 183–185.

E. M. Strzelecka, G. B. Thompson, G. D. Robinson, M. G. Peters, B. J. Thibeault, M. Mondry, V. Jayaraman, F. H. Peters, L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic integration of refractive lenses with vertical cavity lasers and detectors for optical interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Packaging, M. R. Feldman, Y.-C. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2691, 45–53 (1996).

C. Wu, “Method of making high energy beam sensitive glass,” U.S. patent5,078,771, 7January1992.

J. Jahns, S. Sinzinger, M. Testorf, “Scaling considerations for planar optical interconnects,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, Vol. 14 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper W53.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Integrated planar free-space optical system concept for building compact systems for interconnection and sensor applications. Opt., optical.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Use of micro-optical elements in a planar optical interconnect. Microprisms for beam deflection are integrated directly on the bottom surface of the VCSEL chip. Microlenses are used to collimate the beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Analog contact lithography with a HEBS glass gray-scale mask.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM photograph of a prism array with a 20-µm sag in the photoresist.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical setup for investigating the effect of the prism surface on the reflected beam.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Airy pattern reflected from a smooth surface. (b) Pattern reflected from a microprism in photoresist. (c) Spot reflected from a microprism in quartz with the reflow technique.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Deflection angle defined for prisms (a) in GaAs and (b) in quartz.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Deflection angle inside a glass substrate of a planar integrated free-space optical system with a microprism in the bottom of the GaAs substrate or the quartz substrate.

Equations (2)

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α=arctanhl-arcsin1nqusinarctanhl,
α=arcsin1nqusinarcsinnGaAs sinarctanhl-arctanhl.

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