Abstract

We report the application of a dual polarization distributed feedback (DFB) fiber laser as a strain and temperature sensor. By measurement of the absolute wavelength of one polarization as well as the polarization beat frequency, strain and temperature were determined simultaneously. The sensor has an accuracy of ±3 μ∊ and ±0.04 °C. Self-heating of the DFB fiber laser as a function of pump power was measured with this sensor.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, W. W. Morey, “Fiber-optic Bragg grating strain sensor with drift-compensated high-resolution interferometric wavelength-shift detection,” Opt. Lett. 18, 72–74 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.
  6. M. G. Xu, L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, J. L. Cruz, “Temperature-independent strain sensor using a chirped Bragg grating in a tapered optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 823–825 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. M. Melle, A. T. Alavie, S. Karr, T. Coroy, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A Bragg grating-tuned fiber laser strain sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 263–266 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, P. K. Cheo, “Single- and multipoint fiber-laser sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 267–270 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. T. Alavie, S. E. Karr, A. Othonos, R. M. Measures, “A multiplexed Bragg grating fiber laser sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1112–1114 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. C. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 312–331 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. K. Kim, S. K. Kim, B. Y. Kim, “Polarization control of polarimetric fiber-laser sensors,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1465–1467 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, “Polarimetric heterodyning Bragg-grating fiber-laser sensor,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1976–1978 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. T. Kringlebotn, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, “Er3+:Yb3+-codoped fiber distributed-feedback laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2101–2103 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, “Characterization of intensity distribution in symmetric and asymmetric fiber DFB lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 80.
  15. J. Hübner, P. Varming, M. Kristensen, “Five wavelength DFB fibre laser source for WDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 139–140 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric Er3+-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser sensor for differential pressure and force measurements,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1869–1871 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Singh, J. S. Sirkis, “Simultaneously measuring temperature and strain using optical fiber microcavities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 647–653 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S.-Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23–33 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1997

J. Hübner, P. Varming, M. Kristensen, “Five wavelength DFB fibre laser source for WDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 139–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Singh, J. S. Sirkis, “Simultaneously measuring temperature and strain using optical fiber microcavities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 647–653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

M. G. Xu, L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, J. L. Cruz, “Temperature-independent strain sensor using a chirped Bragg grating in a tapered optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 823–825 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. T. Kringlebotn, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, “Er3+:Yb3+-codoped fiber distributed-feedback laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2101–2103 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, W. W. Morey, “Fiber-optic Bragg grating strain sensor with drift-compensated high-resolution interferometric wavelength-shift detection,” Opt. Lett. 18, 72–74 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Kim, S. K. Kim, B. Y. Kim, “Polarization control of polarimetric fiber-laser sensors,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1465–1467 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, “Polarimetric heterodyning Bragg-grating fiber-laser sensor,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1976–1978 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Melle, A. T. Alavie, S. Karr, T. Coroy, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A Bragg grating-tuned fiber laser strain sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 263–266 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, P. K. Cheo, “Single- and multipoint fiber-laser sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 267–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Alavie, S. E. Karr, A. Othonos, R. M. Measures, “A multiplexed Bragg grating fiber laser sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1112–1114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

S.-Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23–33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1983

S. C. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 312–331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Alavie, A. T.

S. M. Melle, A. T. Alavie, S. Karr, T. Coroy, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A Bragg grating-tuned fiber laser strain sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 263–266 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Alavie, S. E. Karr, A. Othonos, R. M. Measures, “A multiplexed Bragg grating fiber laser sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1112–1114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J.-L.

J. T. Kringlebotn, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, “Er3+:Yb3+-codoped fiber distributed-feedback laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2101–2103 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ball, G. A.

G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, “Polarimetric heterodyning Bragg-grating fiber-laser sensor,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1976–1978 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, P. K. Cheo, “Single- and multipoint fiber-laser sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 267–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Berkoff, T. A.

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Blake, J. N.

S.-Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23–33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cheo, P. K.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, P. K. Cheo, “Single- and multipoint fiber-laser sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 267–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Coroy, T.

S. M. Melle, A. T. Alavie, S. Karr, T. Coroy, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A Bragg grating-tuned fiber laser strain sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 263–266 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

M. G. Xu, L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, J. L. Cruz, “Temperature-independent strain sensor using a chirped Bragg grating in a tapered optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 823–825 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

M. G. Xu, L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, J. L. Cruz, “Temperature-independent strain sensor using a chirped Bragg grating in a tapered optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 823–825 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Himeno, K.

M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.

Huang, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23–33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hübner, J.

J. Hübner, P. Varming, M. Kristensen, “Five wavelength DFB fibre laser source for WDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 139–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, “Characterization of intensity distribution in symmetric and asymmetric fiber DFB lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 80.

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Karr, S.

S. M. Melle, A. T. Alavie, S. Karr, T. Coroy, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A Bragg grating-tuned fiber laser strain sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 263–266 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Karr, S. E.

A. T. Alavie, S. E. Karr, A. Othonos, R. M. Measures, “A multiplexed Bragg grating fiber laser sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1112–1114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

Kim, B. Y.

H. K. Kim, S. K. Kim, B. Y. Kim, “Polarization control of polarimetric fiber-laser sensors,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1465–1467 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23–33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

Kim, S. K.

Kringlebotn, J. T.

Kristensen, M.

J. Hübner, P. Varming, M. Kristensen, “Five wavelength DFB fibre laser source for WDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 139–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric Er3+-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser sensor for differential pressure and force measurements,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1869–1871 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, “Characterization of intensity distribution in symmetric and asymmetric fiber DFB lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 80.

Liu, K.

S. M. Melle, A. T. Alavie, S. Karr, T. Coroy, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A Bragg grating-tuned fiber laser strain sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 263–266 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. H.

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

S. M. Melle, A. T. Alavie, S. Karr, T. Coroy, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A Bragg grating-tuned fiber laser strain sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 263–266 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Alavie, S. E. Karr, A. Othonos, R. M. Measures, “A multiplexed Bragg grating fiber laser sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1112–1114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Melle, S. M.

S. M. Melle, A. T. Alavie, S. Karr, T. Coroy, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A Bragg grating-tuned fiber laser strain sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 263–266 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

Morey, W. W.

Nakai, M.

M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.

Othonos, A.

A. T. Alavie, S. E. Karr, A. Othonos, R. M. Measures, “A multiplexed Bragg grating fiber laser sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1112–1114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

Rashleigh, S. C.

S. C. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 312–331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

M. G. Xu, L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, J. L. Cruz, “Temperature-independent strain sensor using a chirped Bragg grating in a tapered optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 823–825 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kringlebotn, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, “Er3+:Yb3+-codoped fiber distributed-feedback laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2101–2103 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rønnekleiv, E.

E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, “Characterization of intensity distribution in symmetric and asymmetric fiber DFB lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 80.

Singh, H.

H. Singh, J. S. Sirkis, “Simultaneously measuring temperature and strain using optical fiber microcavities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 647–653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sirkis, J. S.

H. Singh, J. S. Sirkis, “Simultaneously measuring temperature and strain using optical fiber microcavities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 647–653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sudo, M.

M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.

Suzaki, S.

M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.

Tucknott, J. A.

M. G. Xu, L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, J. L. Cruz, “Temperature-independent strain sensor using a chirped Bragg grating in a tapered optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 823–825 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Varming, P.

J. Hübner, P. Varming, M. Kristensen, “Five wavelength DFB fibre laser source for WDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 139–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wada, A.

M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.

Xu, M. G.

M. G. Xu, L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, J. L. Cruz, “Temperature-independent strain sensor using a chirped Bragg grating in a tapered optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 823–825 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, R.

M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.

Zervas, M. N.

E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, “Characterization of intensity distribution in symmetric and asymmetric fiber DFB lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 80.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. G. Xu, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, J. L. Cruz, “Temperature-independent strain sensor using a chirped Bragg grating in a tapered optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 823–825 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Hübner, P. Varming, M. Kristensen, “Five wavelength DFB fibre laser source for WDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 139–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

S. M. Melle, A. T. Alavie, S. Karr, T. Coroy, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A Bragg grating-tuned fiber laser strain sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 263–266 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, P. K. Cheo, “Single- and multipoint fiber-laser sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 267–270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Alavie, S. E. Karr, A. Othonos, R. M. Measures, “A multiplexed Bragg grating fiber laser sensor system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1112–1114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

S. C. Rashleigh, “Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 312–331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Singh, J. S. Sirkis, “Simultaneously measuring temperature and strain using optical fiber microcavities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 647–653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23–33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 170–173.

E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, M. N. Zervas, R. I. Laming, “Characterization of intensity distribution in symmetric and asymmetric fiber DFB lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 80.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement: WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; ISO, isolator; 50:50, coupler; PC1 and PC2, polarization controllers; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; POL, polarizer; FP, Fabry–Perot spectrometer; PIN, photodiode; RFSA, rf spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength of x-polarization and polarization beat frequency as a function of strain.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength of x-polarization and polarization beat frequency as a function of temperature. Data of only five strain levels is shown for clarity of the graph.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength of x-polarization and polarization beat frequency as a function of pump power at 1480 nm.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λx,y=2nx,yΛ,
Δν=cB/2n2Λ,
δλx,y/λx,y=1+peδ|T=const+α+ξδT|=const,
δΔνΔν=1BdBd-1+2peδ|T=const+1BdBdT-α+2ξδT|=const.
δλx,yδΔν=k11k12k21k22δδT=KδδT.
k11=1.147±0.002pm/μ, k12=7.946±0.065pm/°C, k21=7.946±0.043kHz/μ, k22=-1.623±0.002MHz/°C.

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