Abstract

Some full-field digital x-ray mammography systems use multiple abutted two-dimensional detectors. Gaps between adjacent detectors produce seams in the composite image. We develop an adaptive linear interpolation method for estimation of missing data in the seams. In this method, the interpolation path is determined on the basis of the similarity between adjacent subimage boundary profiles. In experiments with phantom images and clinical mammograms, the adaptive method performed significantly better than the conventional linear interpolation.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. J. Yaffe, S. A. Feig, “Current status of digital mammography,” Semin. Ultrasound, CT and MR 17, 424–443 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  2. A. Karellas, L. J. Harris, H. Liu, M. A. Davis, C. J. D’Orsi, “Charge-coupled device detector: performance considerations and potential for mammographic imaging,” Med. Phys. 19, 1015–1023 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Kimme-Smith, T. Solberg, “Acceptance testing prone stereotactic biopsy units,” Med. Phys. 21, 1197–1201 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Liu, A. Karellas, L. Harris, C. D’Orsi, “Optical properties of fiber tapers and their impact on the performance of a fiber optically coupled CCD x-ray imaging system,” in Clinical Applications of Modern Imaging Technology, A. O. Wist, K. S. Heiferman, eds., Proc. SPIE1894, 136–147 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Roehrig, L. L. Fajardo, Y. Tong, W. V. Schempp, “Signal, noise, and detective quantum efficiency in CCD-based x-ray imaging systems for use in mammography,” in Physics of Medical Imaging, R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE2163, 320–329 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Liu, A. Karellas, L. Harris, C. D’Orsi, “Large-field high-spatial resolution digital x-ray mammography,” in Optical Biophysics, H. Podbielska, ed., Proc. SPIE2390, 110–115 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Liu, L. L. Fajardo, R. Baxter, J. H. Chen, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, A. Jalink, “Full-size, high spatial resolution digital mammography using CCD scanning technique, in Digital Mammography 1996, K. Doi, M. L. Giger, R. M. Nishikaw, R. A. Schmidt, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 145–150.
  8. M. J. Yaffe, “Digital Mammography,” in Syllabus: A Categorical Course in Physics, Technical Aspects of Breast Imaging, 2nd ed., A. G. Haus, M. J. Yaffe, eds. (RSNA, Oak Brook, Ill., 1993), pp. 271–282.
  9. A. Jalink, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, H. Liu, “CCD-mosaic technique for large field digital mammography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15, 260–267 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Chueng, R. Coe, “Full-field single-exposure digital mammography,” Med. Electron. 155, 50–56 (1995).

1996 (2)

M. J. Yaffe, S. A. Feig, “Current status of digital mammography,” Semin. Ultrasound, CT and MR 17, 424–443 (1996).
[PubMed]

A. Jalink, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, H. Liu, “CCD-mosaic technique for large field digital mammography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15, 260–267 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. Chueng, R. Coe, “Full-field single-exposure digital mammography,” Med. Electron. 155, 50–56 (1995).

1994 (1)

C. Kimme-Smith, T. Solberg, “Acceptance testing prone stereotactic biopsy units,” Med. Phys. 21, 1197–1201 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

A. Karellas, L. J. Harris, H. Liu, M. A. Davis, C. J. D’Orsi, “Charge-coupled device detector: performance considerations and potential for mammographic imaging,” Med. Phys. 19, 1015–1023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baxter, R.

H. Liu, L. L. Fajardo, R. Baxter, J. H. Chen, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, A. Jalink, “Full-size, high spatial resolution digital mammography using CCD scanning technique, in Digital Mammography 1996, K. Doi, M. L. Giger, R. M. Nishikaw, R. A. Schmidt, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 145–150.

Chen, J. H.

H. Liu, L. L. Fajardo, R. Baxter, J. H. Chen, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, A. Jalink, “Full-size, high spatial resolution digital mammography using CCD scanning technique, in Digital Mammography 1996, K. Doi, M. L. Giger, R. M. Nishikaw, R. A. Schmidt, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 145–150.

Chueng, L.

L. Chueng, R. Coe, “Full-field single-exposure digital mammography,” Med. Electron. 155, 50–56 (1995).

Coe, R.

L. Chueng, R. Coe, “Full-field single-exposure digital mammography,” Med. Electron. 155, 50–56 (1995).

D’Orsi, C.

H. Liu, A. Karellas, L. Harris, C. D’Orsi, “Large-field high-spatial resolution digital x-ray mammography,” in Optical Biophysics, H. Podbielska, ed., Proc. SPIE2390, 110–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, A. Karellas, L. Harris, C. D’Orsi, “Optical properties of fiber tapers and their impact on the performance of a fiber optically coupled CCD x-ray imaging system,” in Clinical Applications of Modern Imaging Technology, A. O. Wist, K. S. Heiferman, eds., Proc. SPIE1894, 136–147 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D’Orsi, C. J.

A. Karellas, L. J. Harris, H. Liu, M. A. Davis, C. J. D’Orsi, “Charge-coupled device detector: performance considerations and potential for mammographic imaging,” Med. Phys. 19, 1015–1023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, M. A.

A. Karellas, L. J. Harris, H. Liu, M. A. Davis, C. J. D’Orsi, “Charge-coupled device detector: performance considerations and potential for mammographic imaging,” Med. Phys. 19, 1015–1023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fajardo, L. L.

H. Roehrig, L. L. Fajardo, Y. Tong, W. V. Schempp, “Signal, noise, and detective quantum efficiency in CCD-based x-ray imaging systems for use in mammography,” in Physics of Medical Imaging, R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE2163, 320–329 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, L. L. Fajardo, R. Baxter, J. H. Chen, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, A. Jalink, “Full-size, high spatial resolution digital mammography using CCD scanning technique, in Digital Mammography 1996, K. Doi, M. L. Giger, R. M. Nishikaw, R. A. Schmidt, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 145–150.

Feig, S. A.

M. J. Yaffe, S. A. Feig, “Current status of digital mammography,” Semin. Ultrasound, CT and MR 17, 424–443 (1996).
[PubMed]

Halama, G.

A. Jalink, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, H. Liu, “CCD-mosaic technique for large field digital mammography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15, 260–267 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, L. L. Fajardo, R. Baxter, J. H. Chen, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, A. Jalink, “Full-size, high spatial resolution digital mammography using CCD scanning technique, in Digital Mammography 1996, K. Doi, M. L. Giger, R. M. Nishikaw, R. A. Schmidt, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 145–150.

Harris, L.

H. Liu, A. Karellas, L. Harris, C. D’Orsi, “Large-field high-spatial resolution digital x-ray mammography,” in Optical Biophysics, H. Podbielska, ed., Proc. SPIE2390, 110–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, A. Karellas, L. Harris, C. D’Orsi, “Optical properties of fiber tapers and their impact on the performance of a fiber optically coupled CCD x-ray imaging system,” in Clinical Applications of Modern Imaging Technology, A. O. Wist, K. S. Heiferman, eds., Proc. SPIE1894, 136–147 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harris, L. J.

A. Karellas, L. J. Harris, H. Liu, M. A. Davis, C. J. D’Orsi, “Charge-coupled device detector: performance considerations and potential for mammographic imaging,” Med. Phys. 19, 1015–1023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalink, A.

A. Jalink, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, H. Liu, “CCD-mosaic technique for large field digital mammography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15, 260–267 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, L. L. Fajardo, R. Baxter, J. H. Chen, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, A. Jalink, “Full-size, high spatial resolution digital mammography using CCD scanning technique, in Digital Mammography 1996, K. Doi, M. L. Giger, R. M. Nishikaw, R. A. Schmidt, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 145–150.

Karellas, A.

A. Karellas, L. J. Harris, H. Liu, M. A. Davis, C. J. D’Orsi, “Charge-coupled device detector: performance considerations and potential for mammographic imaging,” Med. Phys. 19, 1015–1023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. Karellas, L. Harris, C. D’Orsi, “Optical properties of fiber tapers and their impact on the performance of a fiber optically coupled CCD x-ray imaging system,” in Clinical Applications of Modern Imaging Technology, A. O. Wist, K. S. Heiferman, eds., Proc. SPIE1894, 136–147 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, A. Karellas, L. Harris, C. D’Orsi, “Large-field high-spatial resolution digital x-ray mammography,” in Optical Biophysics, H. Podbielska, ed., Proc. SPIE2390, 110–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kimme-Smith, C.

C. Kimme-Smith, T. Solberg, “Acceptance testing prone stereotactic biopsy units,” Med. Phys. 21, 1197–1201 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

A. Jalink, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, H. Liu, “CCD-mosaic technique for large field digital mammography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15, 260–267 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Karellas, L. J. Harris, H. Liu, M. A. Davis, C. J. D’Orsi, “Charge-coupled device detector: performance considerations and potential for mammographic imaging,” Med. Phys. 19, 1015–1023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. Karellas, L. Harris, C. D’Orsi, “Optical properties of fiber tapers and their impact on the performance of a fiber optically coupled CCD x-ray imaging system,” in Clinical Applications of Modern Imaging Technology, A. O. Wist, K. S. Heiferman, eds., Proc. SPIE1894, 136–147 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, A. Karellas, L. Harris, C. D’Orsi, “Large-field high-spatial resolution digital x-ray mammography,” in Optical Biophysics, H. Podbielska, ed., Proc. SPIE2390, 110–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, L. L. Fajardo, R. Baxter, J. H. Chen, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, A. Jalink, “Full-size, high spatial resolution digital mammography using CCD scanning technique, in Digital Mammography 1996, K. Doi, M. L. Giger, R. M. Nishikaw, R. A. Schmidt, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 145–150.

McAdoo, J.

A. Jalink, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, H. Liu, “CCD-mosaic technique for large field digital mammography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15, 260–267 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, L. L. Fajardo, R. Baxter, J. H. Chen, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, A. Jalink, “Full-size, high spatial resolution digital mammography using CCD scanning technique, in Digital Mammography 1996, K. Doi, M. L. Giger, R. M. Nishikaw, R. A. Schmidt, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 145–150.

Roehrig, H.

H. Roehrig, L. L. Fajardo, Y. Tong, W. V. Schempp, “Signal, noise, and detective quantum efficiency in CCD-based x-ray imaging systems for use in mammography,” in Physics of Medical Imaging, R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE2163, 320–329 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schempp, W. V.

H. Roehrig, L. L. Fajardo, Y. Tong, W. V. Schempp, “Signal, noise, and detective quantum efficiency in CCD-based x-ray imaging systems for use in mammography,” in Physics of Medical Imaging, R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE2163, 320–329 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Solberg, T.

C. Kimme-Smith, T. Solberg, “Acceptance testing prone stereotactic biopsy units,” Med. Phys. 21, 1197–1201 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, Y.

H. Roehrig, L. L. Fajardo, Y. Tong, W. V. Schempp, “Signal, noise, and detective quantum efficiency in CCD-based x-ray imaging systems for use in mammography,” in Physics of Medical Imaging, R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE2163, 320–329 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yaffe, M. J.

M. J. Yaffe, S. A. Feig, “Current status of digital mammography,” Semin. Ultrasound, CT and MR 17, 424–443 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. J. Yaffe, “Digital Mammography,” in Syllabus: A Categorical Course in Physics, Technical Aspects of Breast Imaging, 2nd ed., A. G. Haus, M. J. Yaffe, eds. (RSNA, Oak Brook, Ill., 1993), pp. 271–282.

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

A. Jalink, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, H. Liu, “CCD-mosaic technique for large field digital mammography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15, 260–267 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Med. Electron. (1)

L. Chueng, R. Coe, “Full-field single-exposure digital mammography,” Med. Electron. 155, 50–56 (1995).

Med. Phys. (2)

A. Karellas, L. J. Harris, H. Liu, M. A. Davis, C. J. D’Orsi, “Charge-coupled device detector: performance considerations and potential for mammographic imaging,” Med. Phys. 19, 1015–1023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kimme-Smith, T. Solberg, “Acceptance testing prone stereotactic biopsy units,” Med. Phys. 21, 1197–1201 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semin. Ultrasound, CT and MR (1)

M. J. Yaffe, S. A. Feig, “Current status of digital mammography,” Semin. Ultrasound, CT and MR 17, 424–443 (1996).
[PubMed]

Other (5)

H. Liu, A. Karellas, L. Harris, C. D’Orsi, “Optical properties of fiber tapers and their impact on the performance of a fiber optically coupled CCD x-ray imaging system,” in Clinical Applications of Modern Imaging Technology, A. O. Wist, K. S. Heiferman, eds., Proc. SPIE1894, 136–147 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Roehrig, L. L. Fajardo, Y. Tong, W. V. Schempp, “Signal, noise, and detective quantum efficiency in CCD-based x-ray imaging systems for use in mammography,” in Physics of Medical Imaging, R. Shaw, eds., Proc. SPIE2163, 320–329 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, A. Karellas, L. Harris, C. D’Orsi, “Large-field high-spatial resolution digital x-ray mammography,” in Optical Biophysics, H. Podbielska, ed., Proc. SPIE2390, 110–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, L. L. Fajardo, R. Baxter, J. H. Chen, J. McAdoo, G. Halama, A. Jalink, “Full-size, high spatial resolution digital mammography using CCD scanning technique, in Digital Mammography 1996, K. Doi, M. L. Giger, R. M. Nishikaw, R. A. Schmidt, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 145–150.

M. J. Yaffe, “Digital Mammography,” in Syllabus: A Categorical Course in Physics, Technical Aspects of Breast Imaging, 2nd ed., A. G. Haus, M. J. Yaffe, eds. (RSNA, Oak Brook, Ill., 1993), pp. 271–282.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Adaptive linear interpolation for digital mammography systems with abutted detectors. The optimal interpolation path is designed to follow structural features in the field of view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray bar pattern image acquired with a lens-coupled CCD mammography prototype. The seams were introduced at 30 deg. with respect to the lead bars: (a) original image, (b) image with a seam of 4 pixels in width, (c) interpolated with the conventional linear interpolation, (d) with the adaptive linear interpolation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mammogram acquired with a fiber optically coupled system. The breast of the patient is moderate in density: (a) original image, (b) image with a seam of 4 pixels in width, (c) interpolated with the conventional linear interpolation, (d) with the adaptive linear interpolation. Magnified views of a portion of the seam are embedded in (a)–(d) to illustrate the advantages of the adaptive linear interpolation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mammogram acquired with the lens-coupled CCD system with a cluster of microcalcification: (a) original image, (b) image with a seam of 4 pixels in width, (c) interpolated with the conventional linear interpolation, (d) with the adaptive linear interpolation.

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