Abstract

Special features of a two-sided interferometer based on a ring optical scheme previously proposed [V. M. Khavinson and L. F. Khavinson, in Investigations in the Field of Length and Angle Measurements, N. P. Gerasimov, ed., Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1983), pp. 14–18], which exploits an alternative measurement method to the conventional method for measuring absolutely the lengths of precision gauge blocks. Both measuring surfaces of a gauge are viewed directly without an auxiliary platen wrung onto one of them. The two-sided method results in improved consistency of measurement results because the elimination of wringing avoids the contact error that can occur in the gauge length obtained when the conventional method is used. A variety of means to control the optical phase differences in the interferometer are considered.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. H. Rolt, Gauges and Fine Measurements (Macmillan, London, 1929), Vol. 1.
  2. Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale, “End standards of length (gauge blocks),” (Bureau International de Métrologie Légale, Paris, 1981).
  3. C. Candler, Modern Interferometers (Hilger & Watts, Glasgow, UK, 1951).
  4. G. G. Hunzinger, “Un nouvel interféromètre à trois ondes,” Rev. Opt. 36, 285–291 (1957).
  5. P. Hariharan, D. Sen, “New gauge interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 232–234 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Dorenwendt, “Interferentielle Messung von nicht angeschobenen Parallelendmassen,” (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany, 1973), Part 2, Section 1, p. 121.
  7. L. F. Khavinson, “On uncertainties in high-precision interferometric measurement of the length of gauge blocks,” in Metrology and Increase in Quality of Products Manufactured by Enterprises of Leningrad, Proceedings of the Seminar on Society Knowledge, 12–13 May 1980, B. N. Oleynik, A. V. Kotkov, eds. (Scientific Technical Popularization House, Leningrad, 1981), pp. 57–68 (in Russian).
  8. M. Dühmke, E. Engelhard, “Herstellung einer Einrichtung zur Bestimmung der Rauhigkeitskorrektion von Parallel-Endmassen,” (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany, 1950), Vol. 7, No. 2, p. 4.
  9. E. Engelhard, “Precise interferometric measurement of gauge blocks,” in Metrology of Gauge Blocks, Proceedings of a Symposium on Gauge Blocks, 11–12 August 1955, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ.581, 1–20 (1957).
  10. M. Dühmke, W. Fischer, “Der Einfluss des Materials der Anschubplatte auf den gemessenen Endmasswert,” PTB-Mitteilungen 76, 519–521 (1966).
  11. C. F. Bruce, B. S. Thornton, “Adhesion and contact error in length metrology,” J. Appl. Phys. 27, 853–859 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Sasada, “Variation in wringing film thickness between gauge blocks and base plates,” Bull. Natl. Res. Lab. Metrol. (Japan) 30, 8–15 (1975).
  13. A. Michel, “Incertitudes liées à l’utilisation de plans références en silice lors des mesures interférentielles de cales à bouts plans parallèles,” Bull. Bur. Natl. Metrol. (France) 16 (62), 3–11 (1985).
  14. H. Böhme, “Interferentielle Messung von Parallelendmassen aus Wolframkarbid bei Anschub auf Hilfsplatten aus nicht gleichem Werkstoff,” (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany, 1974), Part 2, Section 1, p. 132.
  15. T. Kiyoji, F. Yasukharu, “Study of wringing gauge blocks,” J. Jpn. Soc. Precision Eng. 38, 155–160 (1972) (in Japanese).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Dorenwendt, “Über den Einfluss von Rauhen Oberflähen bei der Interferentiellen Längenmessung,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 9–16 (1972).
  17. E. G. Thwaite, “Phase correction in the interferometric measurement of end standards,” Metrologia 14, 53–62 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. M. Khavinson, “On absolute methods for the length measurement of gauge blocks,” Izmer. Tekh. 1993 (8), 25–26.
  19. V. M. Khavinson, L. F. Khavinson, “Two-side interferometer for measuring the length of gauge blocks,” in Investigations in the Field of Length and Angle Measurements, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, N. P. Gerasimov, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1983), pp. 14–18 (in Russian).
  20. F. H. Rolt, “Use of light waves for controlling the accuracy of block gauges,” in Metrology of Gauge Blocks, Proceedings of a Symposium on Gauge Blocks, 11–12 August 1955, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ.581, 27–41 (1957).
  21. J. Suska, “Interferentielle Längenmessung von Parallelendmassen bis zum Nennmass 1m,” Feingerätetechnik 18, 155–162 (1969).
  22. A. Michel, “Automation of length measurements which involve analysis of interference patterns,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 860–865 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Jackson, D. J. Pugh, “New-NPL automatic gauge block interferometer,” Natl. Phys. Lab. News N365, 23–37 (1986).
  24. A. A. Bolonin, L. F. Vitushkin, T. I. Glosman, O. D. Glukhov, Yu. G. Zakharenko, N. A. Kalinin, G. I. Leibengardt, N. A. Melnikov, V. B. Piljushin, V. L. Phendorin, L. F. Khavinson, V. L. Shur, “The new primary standard of the length unit—meter,” in Current Problems of Improvement in Tools for Measuring Mechanical Quantities, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, A. P. Stchjolkin, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1986) pp. 4–10 (in Russian).
  25. E. Ikonen, K. Riski, “Gauge-block interferometer based on stabilized laser and a white-light source,” Metrologia 30, 95–104 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. Ikonen, K. Riski, “Gauge-block interferometer based on stabilized laser and a white-light source,” Metrologia 30, 95–104 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

K. Jackson, D. J. Pugh, “New-NPL automatic gauge block interferometer,” Natl. Phys. Lab. News N365, 23–37 (1986).

1985 (1)

A. Michel, “Incertitudes liées à l’utilisation de plans références en silice lors des mesures interférentielles de cales à bouts plans parallèles,” Bull. Bur. Natl. Metrol. (France) 16 (62), 3–11 (1985).

1984 (1)

A. Michel, “Automation of length measurements which involve analysis of interference patterns,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 860–865 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

E. G. Thwaite, “Phase correction in the interferometric measurement of end standards,” Metrologia 14, 53–62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Y. Sasada, “Variation in wringing film thickness between gauge blocks and base plates,” Bull. Natl. Res. Lab. Metrol. (Japan) 30, 8–15 (1975).

1972 (2)

T. Kiyoji, F. Yasukharu, “Study of wringing gauge blocks,” J. Jpn. Soc. Precision Eng. 38, 155–160 (1972) (in Japanese).
[CrossRef]

K. Dorenwendt, “Über den Einfluss von Rauhen Oberflähen bei der Interferentiellen Längenmessung,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 9–16 (1972).

1969 (1)

J. Suska, “Interferentielle Längenmessung von Parallelendmassen bis zum Nennmass 1m,” Feingerätetechnik 18, 155–162 (1969).

1966 (1)

M. Dühmke, W. Fischer, “Der Einfluss des Materials der Anschubplatte auf den gemessenen Endmasswert,” PTB-Mitteilungen 76, 519–521 (1966).

1959 (1)

1957 (1)

G. G. Hunzinger, “Un nouvel interféromètre à trois ondes,” Rev. Opt. 36, 285–291 (1957).

1956 (1)

C. F. Bruce, B. S. Thornton, “Adhesion and contact error in length metrology,” J. Appl. Phys. 27, 853–859 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Böhme, H.

H. Böhme, “Interferentielle Messung von Parallelendmassen aus Wolframkarbid bei Anschub auf Hilfsplatten aus nicht gleichem Werkstoff,” (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany, 1974), Part 2, Section 1, p. 132.

Bolonin, A. A.

A. A. Bolonin, L. F. Vitushkin, T. I. Glosman, O. D. Glukhov, Yu. G. Zakharenko, N. A. Kalinin, G. I. Leibengardt, N. A. Melnikov, V. B. Piljushin, V. L. Phendorin, L. F. Khavinson, V. L. Shur, “The new primary standard of the length unit—meter,” in Current Problems of Improvement in Tools for Measuring Mechanical Quantities, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, A. P. Stchjolkin, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1986) pp. 4–10 (in Russian).

Bruce, C. F.

C. F. Bruce, B. S. Thornton, “Adhesion and contact error in length metrology,” J. Appl. Phys. 27, 853–859 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Candler, C.

C. Candler, Modern Interferometers (Hilger & Watts, Glasgow, UK, 1951).

Dorenwendt, K.

K. Dorenwendt, “Über den Einfluss von Rauhen Oberflähen bei der Interferentiellen Längenmessung,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 9–16 (1972).

K. Dorenwendt, “Interferentielle Messung von nicht angeschobenen Parallelendmassen,” (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany, 1973), Part 2, Section 1, p. 121.

Dühmke, M.

M. Dühmke, W. Fischer, “Der Einfluss des Materials der Anschubplatte auf den gemessenen Endmasswert,” PTB-Mitteilungen 76, 519–521 (1966).

M. Dühmke, E. Engelhard, “Herstellung einer Einrichtung zur Bestimmung der Rauhigkeitskorrektion von Parallel-Endmassen,” (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany, 1950), Vol. 7, No. 2, p. 4.

Engelhard, E.

M. Dühmke, E. Engelhard, “Herstellung einer Einrichtung zur Bestimmung der Rauhigkeitskorrektion von Parallel-Endmassen,” (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany, 1950), Vol. 7, No. 2, p. 4.

E. Engelhard, “Precise interferometric measurement of gauge blocks,” in Metrology of Gauge Blocks, Proceedings of a Symposium on Gauge Blocks, 11–12 August 1955, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ.581, 1–20 (1957).

Fischer, W.

M. Dühmke, W. Fischer, “Der Einfluss des Materials der Anschubplatte auf den gemessenen Endmasswert,” PTB-Mitteilungen 76, 519–521 (1966).

Glosman, T. I.

A. A. Bolonin, L. F. Vitushkin, T. I. Glosman, O. D. Glukhov, Yu. G. Zakharenko, N. A. Kalinin, G. I. Leibengardt, N. A. Melnikov, V. B. Piljushin, V. L. Phendorin, L. F. Khavinson, V. L. Shur, “The new primary standard of the length unit—meter,” in Current Problems of Improvement in Tools for Measuring Mechanical Quantities, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, A. P. Stchjolkin, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1986) pp. 4–10 (in Russian).

Glukhov, O. D.

A. A. Bolonin, L. F. Vitushkin, T. I. Glosman, O. D. Glukhov, Yu. G. Zakharenko, N. A. Kalinin, G. I. Leibengardt, N. A. Melnikov, V. B. Piljushin, V. L. Phendorin, L. F. Khavinson, V. L. Shur, “The new primary standard of the length unit—meter,” in Current Problems of Improvement in Tools for Measuring Mechanical Quantities, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, A. P. Stchjolkin, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1986) pp. 4–10 (in Russian).

Hariharan, P.

Hunzinger, G. G.

G. G. Hunzinger, “Un nouvel interféromètre à trois ondes,” Rev. Opt. 36, 285–291 (1957).

Ikonen, E.

E. Ikonen, K. Riski, “Gauge-block interferometer based on stabilized laser and a white-light source,” Metrologia 30, 95–104 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, K.

K. Jackson, D. J. Pugh, “New-NPL automatic gauge block interferometer,” Natl. Phys. Lab. News N365, 23–37 (1986).

Kalinin, N. A.

A. A. Bolonin, L. F. Vitushkin, T. I. Glosman, O. D. Glukhov, Yu. G. Zakharenko, N. A. Kalinin, G. I. Leibengardt, N. A. Melnikov, V. B. Piljushin, V. L. Phendorin, L. F. Khavinson, V. L. Shur, “The new primary standard of the length unit—meter,” in Current Problems of Improvement in Tools for Measuring Mechanical Quantities, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, A. P. Stchjolkin, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1986) pp. 4–10 (in Russian).

Khavinson, L. F.

A. A. Bolonin, L. F. Vitushkin, T. I. Glosman, O. D. Glukhov, Yu. G. Zakharenko, N. A. Kalinin, G. I. Leibengardt, N. A. Melnikov, V. B. Piljushin, V. L. Phendorin, L. F. Khavinson, V. L. Shur, “The new primary standard of the length unit—meter,” in Current Problems of Improvement in Tools for Measuring Mechanical Quantities, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, A. P. Stchjolkin, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1986) pp. 4–10 (in Russian).

L. F. Khavinson, “On uncertainties in high-precision interferometric measurement of the length of gauge blocks,” in Metrology and Increase in Quality of Products Manufactured by Enterprises of Leningrad, Proceedings of the Seminar on Society Knowledge, 12–13 May 1980, B. N. Oleynik, A. V. Kotkov, eds. (Scientific Technical Popularization House, Leningrad, 1981), pp. 57–68 (in Russian).

V. M. Khavinson, L. F. Khavinson, “Two-side interferometer for measuring the length of gauge blocks,” in Investigations in the Field of Length and Angle Measurements, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, N. P. Gerasimov, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1983), pp. 14–18 (in Russian).

Khavinson, V. M.

V. M. Khavinson, L. F. Khavinson, “Two-side interferometer for measuring the length of gauge blocks,” in Investigations in the Field of Length and Angle Measurements, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, N. P. Gerasimov, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1983), pp. 14–18 (in Russian).

V. M. Khavinson, “On absolute methods for the length measurement of gauge blocks,” Izmer. Tekh. 1993 (8), 25–26.

Kiyoji, T.

T. Kiyoji, F. Yasukharu, “Study of wringing gauge blocks,” J. Jpn. Soc. Precision Eng. 38, 155–160 (1972) (in Japanese).
[CrossRef]

Kotkov, A. V.

L. F. Khavinson, “On uncertainties in high-precision interferometric measurement of the length of gauge blocks,” in Metrology and Increase in Quality of Products Manufactured by Enterprises of Leningrad, Proceedings of the Seminar on Society Knowledge, 12–13 May 1980, B. N. Oleynik, A. V. Kotkov, eds. (Scientific Technical Popularization House, Leningrad, 1981), pp. 57–68 (in Russian).

Leibengardt, G. I.

A. A. Bolonin, L. F. Vitushkin, T. I. Glosman, O. D. Glukhov, Yu. G. Zakharenko, N. A. Kalinin, G. I. Leibengardt, N. A. Melnikov, V. B. Piljushin, V. L. Phendorin, L. F. Khavinson, V. L. Shur, “The new primary standard of the length unit—meter,” in Current Problems of Improvement in Tools for Measuring Mechanical Quantities, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, A. P. Stchjolkin, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1986) pp. 4–10 (in Russian).

Melnikov, N. A.

A. A. Bolonin, L. F. Vitushkin, T. I. Glosman, O. D. Glukhov, Yu. G. Zakharenko, N. A. Kalinin, G. I. Leibengardt, N. A. Melnikov, V. B. Piljushin, V. L. Phendorin, L. F. Khavinson, V. L. Shur, “The new primary standard of the length unit—meter,” in Current Problems of Improvement in Tools for Measuring Mechanical Quantities, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, A. P. Stchjolkin, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1986) pp. 4–10 (in Russian).

Michel, A.

A. Michel, “Incertitudes liées à l’utilisation de plans références en silice lors des mesures interférentielles de cales à bouts plans parallèles,” Bull. Bur. Natl. Metrol. (France) 16 (62), 3–11 (1985).

A. Michel, “Automation of length measurements which involve analysis of interference patterns,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 860–865 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Oleynik, B. N.

L. F. Khavinson, “On uncertainties in high-precision interferometric measurement of the length of gauge blocks,” in Metrology and Increase in Quality of Products Manufactured by Enterprises of Leningrad, Proceedings of the Seminar on Society Knowledge, 12–13 May 1980, B. N. Oleynik, A. V. Kotkov, eds. (Scientific Technical Popularization House, Leningrad, 1981), pp. 57–68 (in Russian).

Phendorin, V. L.

A. A. Bolonin, L. F. Vitushkin, T. I. Glosman, O. D. Glukhov, Yu. G. Zakharenko, N. A. Kalinin, G. I. Leibengardt, N. A. Melnikov, V. B. Piljushin, V. L. Phendorin, L. F. Khavinson, V. L. Shur, “The new primary standard of the length unit—meter,” in Current Problems of Improvement in Tools for Measuring Mechanical Quantities, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, A. P. Stchjolkin, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1986) pp. 4–10 (in Russian).

Piljushin, V. B.

A. A. Bolonin, L. F. Vitushkin, T. I. Glosman, O. D. Glukhov, Yu. G. Zakharenko, N. A. Kalinin, G. I. Leibengardt, N. A. Melnikov, V. B. Piljushin, V. L. Phendorin, L. F. Khavinson, V. L. Shur, “The new primary standard of the length unit—meter,” in Current Problems of Improvement in Tools for Measuring Mechanical Quantities, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, A. P. Stchjolkin, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1986) pp. 4–10 (in Russian).

Pugh, D. J.

K. Jackson, D. J. Pugh, “New-NPL automatic gauge block interferometer,” Natl. Phys. Lab. News N365, 23–37 (1986).

Riski, K.

E. Ikonen, K. Riski, “Gauge-block interferometer based on stabilized laser and a white-light source,” Metrologia 30, 95–104 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rolt, F. H.

F. H. Rolt, Gauges and Fine Measurements (Macmillan, London, 1929), Vol. 1.

F. H. Rolt, “Use of light waves for controlling the accuracy of block gauges,” in Metrology of Gauge Blocks, Proceedings of a Symposium on Gauge Blocks, 11–12 August 1955, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ.581, 27–41 (1957).

Sasada, Y.

Y. Sasada, “Variation in wringing film thickness between gauge blocks and base plates,” Bull. Natl. Res. Lab. Metrol. (Japan) 30, 8–15 (1975).

Sen, D.

Shur, V. L.

A. A. Bolonin, L. F. Vitushkin, T. I. Glosman, O. D. Glukhov, Yu. G. Zakharenko, N. A. Kalinin, G. I. Leibengardt, N. A. Melnikov, V. B. Piljushin, V. L. Phendorin, L. F. Khavinson, V. L. Shur, “The new primary standard of the length unit—meter,” in Current Problems of Improvement in Tools for Measuring Mechanical Quantities, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, A. P. Stchjolkin, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1986) pp. 4–10 (in Russian).

Suska, J.

J. Suska, “Interferentielle Längenmessung von Parallelendmassen bis zum Nennmass 1m,” Feingerätetechnik 18, 155–162 (1969).

Thornton, B. S.

C. F. Bruce, B. S. Thornton, “Adhesion and contact error in length metrology,” J. Appl. Phys. 27, 853–859 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Thwaite, E. G.

E. G. Thwaite, “Phase correction in the interferometric measurement of end standards,” Metrologia 14, 53–62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Vitushkin, L. F.

A. A. Bolonin, L. F. Vitushkin, T. I. Glosman, O. D. Glukhov, Yu. G. Zakharenko, N. A. Kalinin, G. I. Leibengardt, N. A. Melnikov, V. B. Piljushin, V. L. Phendorin, L. F. Khavinson, V. L. Shur, “The new primary standard of the length unit—meter,” in Current Problems of Improvement in Tools for Measuring Mechanical Quantities, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, A. P. Stchjolkin, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1986) pp. 4–10 (in Russian).

Yasukharu, F.

T. Kiyoji, F. Yasukharu, “Study of wringing gauge blocks,” J. Jpn. Soc. Precision Eng. 38, 155–160 (1972) (in Japanese).
[CrossRef]

Zakharenko, Yu. G.

A. A. Bolonin, L. F. Vitushkin, T. I. Glosman, O. D. Glukhov, Yu. G. Zakharenko, N. A. Kalinin, G. I. Leibengardt, N. A. Melnikov, V. B. Piljushin, V. L. Phendorin, L. F. Khavinson, V. L. Shur, “The new primary standard of the length unit—meter,” in Current Problems of Improvement in Tools for Measuring Mechanical Quantities, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, A. P. Stchjolkin, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1986) pp. 4–10 (in Russian).

Bull. Bur. Natl. Metrol. (France) (1)

A. Michel, “Incertitudes liées à l’utilisation de plans références en silice lors des mesures interférentielles de cales à bouts plans parallèles,” Bull. Bur. Natl. Metrol. (France) 16 (62), 3–11 (1985).

Bull. Natl. Res. Lab. Metrol. (Japan) (1)

Y. Sasada, “Variation in wringing film thickness between gauge blocks and base plates,” Bull. Natl. Res. Lab. Metrol. (Japan) 30, 8–15 (1975).

Feingerätetechnik (1)

J. Suska, “Interferentielle Längenmessung von Parallelendmassen bis zum Nennmass 1m,” Feingerätetechnik 18, 155–162 (1969).

Izmer. Tekh. (1)

V. M. Khavinson, “On absolute methods for the length measurement of gauge blocks,” Izmer. Tekh. 1993 (8), 25–26.

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. F. Bruce, B. S. Thornton, “Adhesion and contact error in length metrology,” J. Appl. Phys. 27, 853–859 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. Jpn. Soc. Precision Eng. (1)

T. Kiyoji, F. Yasukharu, “Study of wringing gauge blocks,” J. Jpn. Soc. Precision Eng. 38, 155–160 (1972) (in Japanese).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Metrologia (2)

E. Ikonen, K. Riski, “Gauge-block interferometer based on stabilized laser and a white-light source,” Metrologia 30, 95–104 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Thwaite, “Phase correction in the interferometric measurement of end standards,” Metrologia 14, 53–62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Natl. Phys. Lab. News (1)

K. Jackson, D. J. Pugh, “New-NPL automatic gauge block interferometer,” Natl. Phys. Lab. News N365, 23–37 (1986).

Optik (Stuttgart) (1)

K. Dorenwendt, “Über den Einfluss von Rauhen Oberflähen bei der Interferentiellen Längenmessung,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 9–16 (1972).

PTB-Mitteilungen (1)

M. Dühmke, W. Fischer, “Der Einfluss des Materials der Anschubplatte auf den gemessenen Endmasswert,” PTB-Mitteilungen 76, 519–521 (1966).

Rev. Opt. (1)

G. G. Hunzinger, “Un nouvel interféromètre à trois ondes,” Rev. Opt. 36, 285–291 (1957).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Michel, “Automation of length measurements which involve analysis of interference patterns,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 860–865 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

V. M. Khavinson, L. F. Khavinson, “Two-side interferometer for measuring the length of gauge blocks,” in Investigations in the Field of Length and Angle Measurements, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, N. P. Gerasimov, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1983), pp. 14–18 (in Russian).

F. H. Rolt, “Use of light waves for controlling the accuracy of block gauges,” in Metrology of Gauge Blocks, Proceedings of a Symposium on Gauge Blocks, 11–12 August 1955, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ.581, 27–41 (1957).

H. Böhme, “Interferentielle Messung von Parallelendmassen aus Wolframkarbid bei Anschub auf Hilfsplatten aus nicht gleichem Werkstoff,” (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany, 1974), Part 2, Section 1, p. 132.

K. Dorenwendt, “Interferentielle Messung von nicht angeschobenen Parallelendmassen,” (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany, 1973), Part 2, Section 1, p. 121.

L. F. Khavinson, “On uncertainties in high-precision interferometric measurement of the length of gauge blocks,” in Metrology and Increase in Quality of Products Manufactured by Enterprises of Leningrad, Proceedings of the Seminar on Society Knowledge, 12–13 May 1980, B. N. Oleynik, A. V. Kotkov, eds. (Scientific Technical Popularization House, Leningrad, 1981), pp. 57–68 (in Russian).

M. Dühmke, E. Engelhard, “Herstellung einer Einrichtung zur Bestimmung der Rauhigkeitskorrektion von Parallel-Endmassen,” (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany, 1950), Vol. 7, No. 2, p. 4.

E. Engelhard, “Precise interferometric measurement of gauge blocks,” in Metrology of Gauge Blocks, Proceedings of a Symposium on Gauge Blocks, 11–12 August 1955, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ.581, 1–20 (1957).

A. A. Bolonin, L. F. Vitushkin, T. I. Glosman, O. D. Glukhov, Yu. G. Zakharenko, N. A. Kalinin, G. I. Leibengardt, N. A. Melnikov, V. B. Piljushin, V. L. Phendorin, L. F. Khavinson, V. L. Shur, “The new primary standard of the length unit—meter,” in Current Problems of Improvement in Tools for Measuring Mechanical Quantities, Proceedings of the D. I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, A. P. Stchjolkin, ed. (Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1986) pp. 4–10 (in Russian).

F. H. Rolt, Gauges and Fine Measurements (Macmillan, London, 1929), Vol. 1.

Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale, “End standards of length (gauge blocks),” (Bureau International de Métrologie Légale, Paris, 1981).

C. Candler, Modern Interferometers (Hilger & Watts, Glasgow, UK, 1951).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the interferometer. Abbreviations are defined in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interfering wave fronts at the interferometer exit. Abbreviations are defined in text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Techniques for changing the optical path differences in the interferometer. Abbreviations are defined in the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarizing entrance devices for changing the phase differences in the outgoing beams: EOM’s, electro-optical modulators; BS1’s, auxiliary beam splitters; PP’s, phase plates; P, polarizer. Other abbreviations are defined in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematics of entrance devices with retroreflectors: RR’s, retroreflectors; BS’s auxiliary beam splitters. Other abbreviations are defined in the text.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Directions of coordinate axes in the interferometer. Abbreviations are defined in the text.

Equations (77)

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vˆ·nˆ1=nˆ2·nˆ3,
vˆ·nˆ3=nˆ2·nˆ1.
φa=ψA+2π/λla+ψG+ψτ+ψρ+2ψ2+2ψ3, φb=ψB+2π/λlb+2ψτ+ψ1+ψ2+ψ3, φa=ψA+2π/λla+ψρ+ψρ+ψ1+ψ2+ψ3, φb=ψB+2π/λlb+ψG+ψρ+ψτ+2ψ1,
IG1=1+cos ΔG1, IG2=1+cos ΔG2,
ΔG1=φa-φb=ψA-ψB+2π/λla-lb-ψG+ψ2+ψ3-ψ1+ψρ-ψτ,
ΔG2=φb-φa=-ψA-ψB+2π/λlb-la-ψG-ψ2+ψ3-ψ1+ψρ-ψτ.
2L=2l-la+lb.
ΔG1+ΔG2=4π/λL-2δG,
Δ1=φb-φb=2π/λlb-lb+ψρ-ψρ-2ψ1+2ψ2+2ψ3, Δ2=φa-φa=2π/λla-la-ψρ-ψρ-2ψ1+2ψ2+2ψ3, Δ1+Δ2=2π/λlb+la-lb+la=4π/λ×LI-LII,
M=expiϕ00expiϕ.
V=expiβexpiβ
T=t000
R=000r
F=0110,
VA=T·M·V=texpiβ+ϕ0, VB=F·R·M·V=rexpiβ+ϕ0,
R=r1001,  T=t1001,
R=r00r,  T=t00t,
P=1000
ψA-ψBS=-2π/λla-lb+ψG-ψ2+ψ3-ψ1+ψρ-ψτ
ψA-ψBE=2π/λlb-la-ψG-ψ2+ψ3-ψ1+ψρ-ψτ.
VP=H expiαK expiα.
N=p expiψ00p expiψ.
G=pG expiψG-1001.
Mf=pf, expiφf,00pf, expiφf,,
φa,=ψA+2π/λla+ψG+π+ψτ,+ψρ,+2ψ2,+2ψ3,,
φa,=ψA+2π/λla+ψG+ψτ,+ψρ,+2ψ2,+2ψ3,,
φb,=ψB+2π/λlb+2ψτ,+ψ1,+ψ2,+ψ3,,
φa,=ψA+2π/λla+ψρ,+ψρ,+ψ1,+ψ2,+ψ3,,
φb,=ψB+2π/λlb+ψG+π+ψρ,+ψτ,+2ψ1,,
φb,=ψB+2π/λlb+ψG+ψρ,+ψτ,+2ψ1,;
pa,=ρτp2,2p3,2pG,
pb,=τ2p1,p2,p3,,
pa,=ρ2p1,p2,p3,,
pb,=ρτp1,2pG;
VG1=MG1VP,  VG2=MG2VP.
MG1=P expiϑ00P expiϑ, MG2=P expiϑ00P expiϑ
VG1=HP expiϑ+α00KP expiϑ+α, VG2=HP expiϑ+α00KP expiϑ+α,
P=pa,2+pb,2+2pa,pb,cos Δ1/2, P=pa,2+pb,2+2pa,pb,cos Δ1/2, Δ=φb,-φa,,  Δ=φa,-φb,.
I=H2P2+K2P2,  I=H2P2+K2P2,
I=I0+I1 cos Δ,  I=I0+I1 cos Δ,
Δ=Δ+Δ/2+d, Δ=Δ+Δ/2+d, d=arctanA-BA+BtanΔ-Δ2, d=arctanA-BA+BtanΔ-Δ2, A=H2pa,pb,,  B=K2pa,pb,,
A=H2pa,pb,,  B=K2pa,pb,.
Δ-Δ=-Δ-Δ+2π.
Δ+Δ=Δ+Δ/2+Δ+Δ/2+δ=2L-2δG+δ,
δ=d+d=arctan2AB-ABtanΔ-Δ/2A+BA+B-A-BA-BtanΔ-Δ/22.
φaIx, z=2π/λlaI+2δG+ψA-x, z+ψτ-x, z+ψρ-x, z+2ψ3-x, z+2ψ2x, z,
φbIx, z=2π/λlbI+ψBx, z+ψτ-x, z+ψτx, z+ψ1-x, z+ψ2-x, z+ψ3x, z,
φaIx, z=2π/λlaI+ψAx, z+ψρx, z+ψρ-x, z+ψ3-x, z+ψ2x, z+ψ1x, z,
φbIx, z=2π/λlbI+2δG+ψB-x, z+ψρ-x, z+ψτ-x, z+2ψ1-x, z,
jG1Ix, z=j0,G1Ix, z+j,G1Ix, zcosΔG1Ix, z,
jG2Ix, z=j0,G2Ix, z+j,G2Ix, zcosΔG2Ix, z,
ΔG1Ix, z=φaIx, z-φbIx, z=Ψx, z+Θx, z+2π/λlaI-lbI-2δG,
ΔG2Ix, z=φbIx, z-φaIx, z=Φx, z-Θ-x, z+2π/λlbI-laI-2δG,
Θx, z=ψAx, z-ψB-x, z,
Φx, z=ψτx, z-ψρ-x, z+ψ1-x, z+ψ2-x, z-2ψ2x, z+ψ3x, z-2ψ3-x, z,
Ψx, z=ψρ-x, z-ψτ-x, z+ψρx, z-ψρ-x, z+ψ1x, z-2ψ1-x, z+ψ2x, z+ψ3-x, z.
ΔIx, z=ΔG1Ix, z+ΔG2I-x, z=4π/λL-2δG+Fx, z,
Fx, z=Ψx, z+Φ-x, z=ψρx, z-ψρ-x, z+ψρ-x, z-ψρx, z+2ψ1x, z-ψ1-x, z+2ψ2x, z-ψ2-x, z-2ψ3x, z-ψ3-x, z
Fx, z=-F-x, z.
φaIIx, z=2π/λlaII+ψAx, z+ψτx, z+ψτ-x, z+ψ1-x, z+ψ2-x, z+ψ3x, z,
φbIIx, z=2π/λlbII+2δG+ψB-x, z+ψτ-x, z+ψρ-x, z+2ψ3-x, z+2ψ2x, z,
φaIIx, z=2π/λlaII+2δG+ψA-x, z+ψρ-x, z+ψτ-x, z+2ψ1-x, z,
φbIIx, z=2π/λlbII+ψBx, z+ψρx, z+ψρ-x, z+ψ1x, z+ψ2x, z+ψ3-x, z,
ΔG1IIx, z=φaIIx, z-φbIIx, z=Φx, z+Θx, z)+2π/λlaII-lb(II-2δG,
ΔG2IIx, z=φbIIx, z-φaIIx, z=Ψx, z-Θ-x, z+2π/λlbII-laII-2δG
ΔIIx, z=ΔG2II-x, z+ΔG1IIx, z=4π/λL-2δG+F-x, z.
L-2δG=λ/4πΔIx, z+ΔIIx, z/2.
JG1I=J0,G1I+CG1IS1cos ΔG1Ix, zdS, JG2I=J0,G2I+CG2IS2cos ΔG2Ix, zdS=J0,G2I+CG2IS1cos ΔG2I-x, zdS,
JG1I=J0,G1I+DG1I cos2π/λlbI-laI-2δG+γG1I, JG2I=J0,G2I+CG2I cos2π/λlaI-lbI-2δG+γG2I,
γG1I=arctanS1 sinΘx, z+Ψx, zdSS1 cosΘx, z+Ψx, zdS, γG2I=arctanS1 sin-Θx, z+Φ-x, zdSS1 cos-Θx, z+Φ-x, zdS.
ΔI=4π/λL-2δG+ΓI,
ΓI=γG1I+γG2I=arctanS1S1 sinΘx, z-Θξ, z+Ψx, z+Φ-ξ, zdSdσS1S1 cosΘx, z-Θξ, z+Ψx, z+Φ-ξ, zdSdσ.
ΓIarctan1SS Fx, zdS.
ΔII=4π/λL-2δG+ΓII,
ΓIIarctan1SS F-x, zdS.
ΓI-ΓII,
L-2δG=λ/4πΔI+ΔII/2.

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