Abstract

A homogeneous series of systematic observations of sky optical phenomena in the Netherlands has been gathered by the Dutch Observing Network since 1965. This continues the Dutch observation series that started at the end of the nineteenth century. A time series of ice-crystal halo frequencies from 1920 to 1996 and frequency diagrams of some specific halos the period from 1970 to 1996 are shown and discussed. Systematic observation recording by means of diaries and exchanging routines among observers are described. Methods are given for establishing and maintaining a network of volunteers that can provide, in a homogeneous time series, sky optical phenomena recordings.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Verschijnselen Onweders enz., in Nederland naar Vrijwillige Waarnemingen (Thunderstorms, Optical Phenomena, etc., in The Netherlands from Voluntary Observations) [annually edited by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The Netherlands, 1891–1965], parts 12–82.
  2. J. M. Pernter, F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed., (Braumüller, Vienna, 1922), pp. 304–312.
  3. S. W. Visser, “Die Haloerscheinungen,” in Handbuch der Geophysik (Borntraeger, Berlin, 1960), Vol. 8, p. 1071.
  4. W. R. Corliss, “Rare halos, mirages, anomalous rainbows,” in Sourcebook Project (Sourcebook Project, Glen Arm, Md., 1984); see, for example, pp. 8, 9, 84, 140, 197.
  5. M. Minnaert, De Natuurkunde van’t Vrije Veld (Thieme, Zutphen, The Netherlands, 1968), Part 1, Sect. 226, p. 322.
  6. M. Pekkola, “Finnish Halo Observing Network: search for rare halo phenomena,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3542–3544 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Eresmaa, A. Jokinen, V. Mäkelä, M. Pekkola, J. Ruoskanen, M. Sillanpää, European Halo Project: Report of May 1996 (Helsinki, Finland, 1996); European Halo Project 1997: Report of April 1997 (Helsinki, Finland, 1997).

1991

Corliss, W. R.

W. R. Corliss, “Rare halos, mirages, anomalous rainbows,” in Sourcebook Project (Sourcebook Project, Glen Arm, Md., 1984); see, for example, pp. 8, 9, 84, 140, 197.

Eresmaa, R.

R. Eresmaa, A. Jokinen, V. Mäkelä, M. Pekkola, J. Ruoskanen, M. Sillanpää, European Halo Project: Report of May 1996 (Helsinki, Finland, 1996); European Halo Project 1997: Report of April 1997 (Helsinki, Finland, 1997).

Exner, F. M.

J. M. Pernter, F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed., (Braumüller, Vienna, 1922), pp. 304–312.

Jokinen, A.

R. Eresmaa, A. Jokinen, V. Mäkelä, M. Pekkola, J. Ruoskanen, M. Sillanpää, European Halo Project: Report of May 1996 (Helsinki, Finland, 1996); European Halo Project 1997: Report of April 1997 (Helsinki, Finland, 1997).

Mäkelä, V.

R. Eresmaa, A. Jokinen, V. Mäkelä, M. Pekkola, J. Ruoskanen, M. Sillanpää, European Halo Project: Report of May 1996 (Helsinki, Finland, 1996); European Halo Project 1997: Report of April 1997 (Helsinki, Finland, 1997).

Minnaert, M.

M. Minnaert, De Natuurkunde van’t Vrije Veld (Thieme, Zutphen, The Netherlands, 1968), Part 1, Sect. 226, p. 322.

Pekkola, M.

M. Pekkola, “Finnish Halo Observing Network: search for rare halo phenomena,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3542–3544 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Eresmaa, A. Jokinen, V. Mäkelä, M. Pekkola, J. Ruoskanen, M. Sillanpää, European Halo Project: Report of May 1996 (Helsinki, Finland, 1996); European Halo Project 1997: Report of April 1997 (Helsinki, Finland, 1997).

Pernter, J. M.

J. M. Pernter, F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed., (Braumüller, Vienna, 1922), pp. 304–312.

Ruoskanen, J.

R. Eresmaa, A. Jokinen, V. Mäkelä, M. Pekkola, J. Ruoskanen, M. Sillanpää, European Halo Project: Report of May 1996 (Helsinki, Finland, 1996); European Halo Project 1997: Report of April 1997 (Helsinki, Finland, 1997).

Sillanpää, M.

R. Eresmaa, A. Jokinen, V. Mäkelä, M. Pekkola, J. Ruoskanen, M. Sillanpää, European Halo Project: Report of May 1996 (Helsinki, Finland, 1996); European Halo Project 1997: Report of April 1997 (Helsinki, Finland, 1997).

Visser, S. W.

S. W. Visser, “Die Haloerscheinungen,” in Handbuch der Geophysik (Borntraeger, Berlin, 1960), Vol. 8, p. 1071.

Appl. Opt.

Other

R. Eresmaa, A. Jokinen, V. Mäkelä, M. Pekkola, J. Ruoskanen, M. Sillanpää, European Halo Project: Report of May 1996 (Helsinki, Finland, 1996); European Halo Project 1997: Report of April 1997 (Helsinki, Finland, 1997).

Verschijnselen Onweders enz., in Nederland naar Vrijwillige Waarnemingen (Thunderstorms, Optical Phenomena, etc., in The Netherlands from Voluntary Observations) [annually edited by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The Netherlands, 1891–1965], parts 12–82.

J. M. Pernter, F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed., (Braumüller, Vienna, 1922), pp. 304–312.

S. W. Visser, “Die Haloerscheinungen,” in Handbuch der Geophysik (Borntraeger, Berlin, 1960), Vol. 8, p. 1071.

W. R. Corliss, “Rare halos, mirages, anomalous rainbows,” in Sourcebook Project (Sourcebook Project, Glen Arm, Md., 1984); see, for example, pp. 8, 9, 84, 140, 197.

M. Minnaert, De Natuurkunde van’t Vrije Veld (Thieme, Zutphen, The Netherlands, 1968), Part 1, Sect. 226, p. 322.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Page from the observation diary, 1996, part 2, by the author in Deventer, The Netherlands.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two examples of observation sketches of optical phenomena: (a) small part of a Wegener anthelic arc (Deventer, The Netherlands, 29 April 1985), (b) a fogbow seen from a high building (Arnhem, The Netherlands, 10 September 1986) (drawings by the author).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Annual number of days with halo recording in the Netherlands during the period from 1920 to 1996 (lower curve). The dashed horizontal line indicates the average number, 227 days. The upper curve shows the annual numbers of days with Bishop’s Ring recordings in the Netherlands during the period from 1977 to 1996 (all-Network observations). The years 1969 and 1970 have not been connected by the curve because they are less reliable (see text).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Annual number of days with circumzenithal arc (upper diagram), Parry arc (middle), and 120° parhelion (lower) in the period from 1970 to 1996 in the Netherlands (individual observations by the author).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average number of halo days per month during the period from 1966 to 1996 in the Netherlands (all-Network observations).

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