Abstract

The Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) was launched on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite to measure the Earth’s upper-atmospheric wind and temperature. It is a remote-sensing instrument that employs a field-compensated Michelson interferometer to measure the Doppler shift, line width, and emission rate of naturally occurring airglow emission lines. The data analysis uses calibration data that were obtained in the laboratory prior to launch. A calibration package to monitor instrument parameters was built and placed in the instrument. This package consists of a He–Ne laser, spectral lamps, and a tungsten lamp. These sources and their performance during six years of operation in orbit are described. It is shown that the WINDII principle of wind measurement can be assessed fully by the use of in-flight calibration data and that the preflight and in-flight phase calibrations can be related to each other with a precision of the order of 1 ms-1.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, L. Bourg, G. G. Shepherd, “The MICADO wind measurements for the Observatoire de Haute-Provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10431–10440 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  10. G. Thuillier, J.-F. Brun, J. M. Alunni, J. J. Roland, “Frequency stabilized He–Ne laser for WINDII interferometer calibration on board the UARS–NASA satellite,” Opt. Eng. 3, 567–572 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1996

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, L. Bourg, G. G. Shepherd, “The MICADO wind measurements for the Observatoire de Haute-Provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10431–10440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Reber, C. E. Trevathan, R. J. McNeal, M. R. Luther, “The Upper Atmospherics Research Satellite (UARS) mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10643–10647 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

G. Thuillier, J.-F. Brun, J. M. Alunni, J. J. Roland, “Frequency stabilized He–Ne laser for WINDII interferometer calibration on board the UARS–NASA satellite,” Opt. Eng. 3, 567–572 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1985

1980

U. Finkenzeller, W. Schwarz, D. Labs, “Deuteriumlamp und Wolframbandlampen als raumfahrttaugliche Kontinuumsstrahler im Spektralbereich 160 nm–3.5 μm,” Mittellungen Astron. Gesellshaft 50, 51–53 (1980).

1963

P. Bouchareine, P. Connes, “Interferometer with compensated field for Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Phys. 24, 134–138 (1963).

Alunni, J. M.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, J.-F. Brun, J. M. Alunni, J. J. Roland, “Frequency stabilized He–Ne laser for WINDII interferometer calibration on board the UARS–NASA satellite,” Opt. Eng. 3, 567–572 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bouchareine, P.

P. Bouchareine, P. Connes, “Interferometer with compensated field for Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Phys. 24, 134–138 (1963).

Bourg, L.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, L. Bourg, G. G. Shepherd, “The MICADO wind measurements for the Observatoire de Haute-Provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10431–10440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brun, J.-F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, J.-F. Brun, J. M. Alunni, J. J. Roland, “Frequency stabilized He–Ne laser for WINDII interferometer calibration on board the UARS–NASA satellite,” Opt. Eng. 3, 567–572 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brune, S.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burrage, M. D.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Charlot, P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Connes, P.

P. Bouchareine, P. Connes, “Interferometer with compensated field for Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Phys. 24, 134–138 (1963).

Desaulniers, D.-L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W. F. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fauliot, V.

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, L. Bourg, G. G. Shepherd, “The MICADO wind measurements for the Observatoire de Haute-Provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10431–10440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Finkenzeller, U.

U. Finkenzeller, W. Schwarz, D. Labs, “Deuteriumlamp und Wolframbandlampen als raumfahrttaugliche Kontinuumsstrahler im Spektralbereich 160 nm–3.5 μm,” Mittellungen Astron. Gesellshaft 50, 51–53 (1980).

Franke, S. J.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gattinger, R.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W. A.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Girod, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harvie, D.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, G.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hersé, M.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, L. Bourg, G. G. Shepherd, “The MICADO wind measurements for the Observatoire de Haute-Provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10431–10440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, “Thermally stable field compensated Michelson interferometer for measurement of temperature and wind of the planetary atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1210–1220 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hersom, C.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hersom, C. H.

Hum, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, D. J. W.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Labs, D.

U. Finkenzeller, W. Schwarz, D. Labs, “Deuteriumlamp und Wolframbandlampen als raumfahrttaugliche Kontinuumsstrahler im Spektralbereich 160 nm–3.5 μm,” Mittellungen Astron. Gesellshaft 50, 51–53 (1980).

Lathuillere, C.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Llewellyn, E. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, R. P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Luther, M. R.

C. A. Reber, C. E. Trevathan, R. J. McNeal, M. R. Luther, “The Upper Atmospherics Research Satellite (UARS) mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10643–10647 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Manson, A.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McLandress, C.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McNeal, R. J.

C. A. Reber, C. E. Trevathan, R. J. McNeal, M. R. Luther, “The Upper Atmospherics Research Satellite (UARS) mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10643–10647 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Niciejewski, R.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ohrt, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pasternak, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peillet, O.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Powell, I.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reber, C. A.

C. A. Reber, C. E. Trevathan, R. J. McNeal, M. R. Luther, “The Upper Atmospherics Research Satellite (UARS) mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10643–10647 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, Y.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roland, J. J.

G. Thuillier, J.-F. Brun, J. M. Alunni, J. J. Roland, “Frequency stabilized He–Ne laser for WINDII interferometer calibration on board the UARS–NASA satellite,” Opt. Eng. 3, 567–572 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, W.

U. Finkenzeller, W. Schwarz, D. Labs, “Deuteriumlamp und Wolframbandlampen als raumfahrttaugliche Kontinuumsstrahler im Spektralbereich 160 nm–3.5 μm,” Mittellungen Astron. Gesellshaft 50, 51–53 (1980).

Shepherd, G. G.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, L. Bourg, G. G. Shepherd, “The MICADO wind measurements for the Observatoire de Haute-Provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10431–10440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hersom, G. G. Shepherd, “Characterization of the Wind Imaging Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2871–2879 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, “Fully compensated Michelson interferometer of fixed path difference,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1599–1603 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solheim, B. H.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tai, C.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thuillier, G.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, L. Bourg, G. G. Shepherd, “The MICADO wind measurements for the Observatoire de Haute-Provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10431–10440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, J.-F. Brun, J. M. Alunni, J. J. Roland, “Frequency stabilized He–Ne laser for WINDII interferometer calibration on board the UARS–NASA satellite,” Opt. Eng. 3, 567–572 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, “Thermally stable field compensated Michelson interferometer for measurement of temperature and wind of the planetary atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1210–1220 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, “Fully compensated Michelson interferometer of fixed path difference,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1599–1603 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trevathan, C. E.

C. A. Reber, C. E. Trevathan, R. J. McNeal, M. R. Luther, “The Upper Atmospherics Research Satellite (UARS) mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10643–10647 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, R. A.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ward, W. E.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wiens, R. H.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. P.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Geophys. Res.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, F. Girod, D. Harvie, M. Hersé, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, “The wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.

P. Bouchareine, P. Connes, “Interferometer with compensated field for Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Phys. 24, 134–138 (1963).

J. Geophys. Res.

C. A. Reber, C. E. Trevathan, R. J. McNeal, M. R. Luther, “The Upper Atmospherics Research Satellite (UARS) mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10643–10647 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10441–10554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, L. Bourg, G. G. Shepherd, “The MICADO wind measurements for the Observatoire de Haute-Provence for the validation of WINDII green line data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10431–10440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mittellungen Astron. Gesellshaft

U. Finkenzeller, W. Schwarz, D. Labs, “Deuteriumlamp und Wolframbandlampen als raumfahrttaugliche Kontinuumsstrahler im Spektralbereich 160 nm–3.5 μm,” Mittellungen Astron. Gesellshaft 50, 51–53 (1980).

Opt. Eng.

G. Thuillier, J.-F. Brun, J. M. Alunni, J. J. Roland, “Frequency stabilized He–Ne laser for WINDII interferometer calibration on board the UARS–NASA satellite,” Opt. Eng. 3, 567–572 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tungsten-ribbon lamp.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical arrangement of the WINDII calibration-package components. The direction of the light is indicated by arrows. The light is carried from the sources to the injection point by optical fibers. Kr (krypton), Ne (neon), Ar(1) (argon-1), and Ar(2) (argon-2) are the phase calibration (spectral) lamps, W is the tungsten filament lamp, and F indicates the filters used to isolate the emission lines used for calibration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Tungsten-ribbon lamp data in orbit: (a) Normalized response, main detector. The numbers refer to the filter numbers through which the tungsten lamp is observed. (b) Normalized intensity monitor response.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser data in orbit (632.8 nm). The filled triangle on the vertical axis of (c) indicates preflight values. (a) Normalized intensities: main detector (D) and monitor (M). (b) Instrument phase as measured with the laser line. (c) Instrument visibility as measured by the laser. (d) Phase difference: laser–neon (630.4 nm).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Krypton spectral lamp data in orbit (557.0 nm). The filled triangles on the vertical axes indicate preflight values. (a) Normalized intensities: main detector (D) and monitor (M). (b) Instrument phase; the preflight value has been corrected for vacuum. (c) Visibility (combined instrument and emission-line factors).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Neon spectral lamp data in orbit (630.5 nm). The filled triangles on the vertical axes indicate preflight values. (a) Normalized intensities: main detector (D) and monitor (M). (b) Instrument phase; the preflight value has been corrected for vacuum. (c) Visibility (combined instrument and emission-line factors).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Argon-1 spectral lamp data in orbit (738.4 nm). The filled triangles on the vertical axis of (b) indicate preflight values. (a) Normalized intensities: main detector (D) and monitor (M). (b) Instrument phase; the preflight value has been corrected for vacuum. (c) Visibility (combined instrument and emission-line factors).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Argon-2 spectral lamp data in orbit (763.5 nm). The filled triangles on the vertical axes indicate preflight values. (a) Normalized intensities: main detector (D) and monitor (M). (b) Instrument phase; the preflight value has been corrected for vacuum. (c) Visibility (combined instrument and emission-line factors).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Emission Lines (Species and Wavelength λ0) Observed in the Atmosphere and Calibration Lines from Krypton, Neon, and Argon (Line Wavelength λ c and Filter-Center Wavelength λ f /Bandwidth)a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Changes in Intensity, Phase, and Visibility Measured with the Laser and the Krypton, Neon, and Argon Lamps from the Beginning of On-Orbit Calibrations to Day 1650

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of On-Orbit Phase Variations

Tables Icon

Table 4 Measured Phase and Phase Differences on Day 41 in Orbit for Testing the Method of Transferring the Zero-Wind Calibration to Orbit

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S x = I 0 1 + UV L cos 2 π λ Δ λ + x + I B ,
V L = exp - Q 0 T Δ 2 ,
J 1 = 1 δ 0 δ   S x d x = I 0 + I B ,
J 2 = 2 δ 0 δ   S x cos ω x d x = I 0 UV L cos Φ 0 + Φ v ,
J 3 = 2 δ 0 δ   S x sin ω x d x = I 0 UV L sin Φ 0 + Φ v ,
ω = 2 π λ 0 ,
Φ v = 2 π λ 0   D   v c ,
D = Δ 0 - λ 0 Δ 0 λ ,
W = K 1 ϕ - ϕ 0 ,
Δ Φ = 2 π λ c   .
K = K + 2 π 1 λ c - 1 λ 0 ,

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