Abstract

We show that at 1.55-μm wavelength the waveguide birefringence of ion-exchanged channel waveguides in glass can be broadly tuned by a potassium and silver double-ion exchange. Two different potassium and silver double-ion-exchange processes are used to make surface waveguides with negligible waveguide birefringence. This process is crucially important in the manufacture of devices for dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems. The dependence of the waveguide birefringence on the channel width is also reported.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, “Laser-trimmed four-port bandpass filter fabricated in single-mode photosensitive Ge-doped planar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 191–194 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236–250 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, I. Nishi, “Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength multiplexer on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 17, 499–501 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. M. Presby, ed., Selected Papers on Silica Integrated Optical Circuits (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1996).
  5. J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits from ArF laser irradiation through a phase mask,” in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 22–24.
  6. S. I. Najafi, ed., Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1992).
  7. B. Buchold, E. Voges, “Polarisation insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexers with ion-exchanged waveguides in glass,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2248–2250 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, A. Kévorkian, “Integrated optical current sensor with low-birefringence optical waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 104–107.
  9. H. Helmers, O. G. Helleso, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Single mode potassium and silver ion-exchanged glass waveguides with low losses and high index increase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2759–2760 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Four-port guided-wave nonsymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 150–152 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Zhang, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, C.-M. Wu, S. I. Najafi, “Glass integrated optics circuit for 1.48/1.55- and 1.30/1.55-μm-wavelength division multiplexing and 1/8 splitting,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3371–3374 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, M. McCourt, “Control of birefringence in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4710–4711 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Saarinen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, J. Huttunen, “Double-ion-exchange process in glass for the fabrication of computer-generated waveguide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3353–3359 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. L. Auger, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium- and silver-double-ion-exchanged slab glass waveguides: characterization and modeling,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3333–3337 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985).
  18. W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, “Integrated optical interferometer as relative humidity sensor and differential refractometer,” Sensors Actuators A 25–27, 185–188 (1991).
  19. A. Brandenburg, “Stress in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580–1593 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Buchold, E. Voges, “Polarisation insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexers with ion-exchanged waveguides in glass,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2248–2250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1993 (2)

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, “Laser-trimmed four-port bandpass filter fabricated in single-mode photosensitive Ge-doped planar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 191–194 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Four-port guided-wave nonsymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 150–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Helmers, O. G. Helleso, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Single mode potassium and silver ion-exchanged glass waveguides with low losses and high index increase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2759–2760 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, I. Nishi, “Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength multiplexer on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 17, 499–501 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

M. J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, “Integrated optical interferometer as relative humidity sensor and differential refractometer,” Sensors Actuators A 25–27, 185–188 (1991).

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

A. Brandenburg, “Stress in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580–1593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, “Laser-trimmed four-port bandpass filter fabricated in single-mode photosensitive Ge-doped planar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 191–194 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

M. J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits from ArF laser irradiation through a phase mask,” in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 22–24.

Auger, P. L.

Benech, P.

H. Helmers, O. G. Helleso, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Single mode potassium and silver ion-exchanged glass waveguides with low losses and high index increase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2759–2760 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits from ArF laser irradiation through a phase mask,” in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 22–24.

Brandenburg, A.

A. Brandenburg, “Stress in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580–1593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Buchold, B.

B. Buchold, E. Voges, “Polarisation insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexers with ion-exchanged waveguides in glass,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2248–2250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haruna, M.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985).

Helleso, O. G.

H. Helmers, O. G. Helleso, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Single mode potassium and silver ion-exchanged glass waveguides with low losses and high index increase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2759–2760 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Helmers, H.

H. Helmers, O. G. Helleso, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Single mode potassium and silver ion-exchanged glass waveguides with low losses and high index increase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2759–2760 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, I. Nishi, “Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength multiplexer on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 17, 499–501 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits from ArF laser irradiation through a phase mask,” in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 22–24.

Hill, K. O.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits from ArF laser irradiation through a phase mask,” in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 22–24.

Honkanen, S.

J. Saarinen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, J. Huttunen, “Double-ion-exchange process in glass for the fabrication of computer-generated waveguide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3353–3359 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zhang, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, C.-M. Wu, S. I. Najafi, “Glass integrated optics circuit for 1.48/1.55- and 1.30/1.55-μm-wavelength division multiplexing and 1/8 splitting,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3371–3374 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Four-port guided-wave nonsymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 150–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, M. McCourt, “Control of birefringence in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4710–4711 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huttunen, J.

Johnson, D. C.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits from ArF laser irradiation through a phase mask,” in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 22–24.

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, “Laser-trimmed four-port bandpass filter fabricated in single-mode photosensitive Ge-doped planar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 191–194 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kévorkian, A.

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, A. Kévorkian, “Integrated optical current sensor with low-birefringence optical waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 104–107.

Kitagawa, T.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits from ArF laser irradiation through a phase mask,” in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 22–24.

Leonelli, R.

M. J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. J.

M. J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lovato, J. L.

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, A. Kévorkian, “Integrated optical current sensor with low-birefringence optical waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 104–107.

Lukosz, W.

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, “Integrated optical interferometer as relative humidity sensor and differential refractometer,” Sensors Actuators A 25–27, 185–188 (1991).

Maxwell, G. D.

R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, “Laser-trimmed four-port bandpass filter fabricated in single-mode photosensitive Ge-doped planar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 191–194 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McCourt, M.

Mihailov, S. J.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits from ArF laser irradiation through a phase mask,” in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 22–24.

Minier, V.

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, A. Kévorkian, “Integrated optical current sensor with low-birefringence optical waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 104–107.

Najafi, S. I.

J. Saarinen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, J. Huttunen, “Double-ion-exchange process in glass for the fabrication of computer-generated waveguide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3353–3359 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Auger, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium- and silver-double-ion-exchanged slab glass waveguides: characterization and modeling,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3333–3337 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zhang, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, C.-M. Wu, S. I. Najafi, “Glass integrated optics circuit for 1.48/1.55- and 1.30/1.55-μm-wavelength division multiplexing and 1/8 splitting,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3371–3374 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Four-port guided-wave nonsymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 150–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, I.

Nishihara, H.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985).

Persegol, D.

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, A. Kévorkian, “Integrated optical current sensor with low-birefringence optical waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 104–107.

Rimet, R.

H. Helmers, O. G. Helleso, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Single mode potassium and silver ion-exchanged glass waveguides with low losses and high index increase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2759–2760 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Saarinen, J.

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stamm, Ch.

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, “Integrated optical interferometer as relative humidity sensor and differential refractometer,” Sensors Actuators A 25–27, 185–188 (1991).

Stryckman, D.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits from ArF laser irradiation through a phase mask,” in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 22–24.

Suhara, T.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985).

Takahashi, H.

Tervonen, A.

G. Zhang, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, C.-M. Wu, S. I. Najafi, “Glass integrated optics circuit for 1.48/1.55- and 1.30/1.55-μm-wavelength division multiplexing and 1/8 splitting,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3371–3374 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Four-port guided-wave nonsymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 150–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, M. McCourt, “Control of birefringence in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4710–4711 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Dam, C.

M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Voges, E.

B. Buchold, E. Voges, “Polarisation insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexers with ion-exchanged waveguides in glass,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2248–2250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. J.

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Four-port guided-wave nonsymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 150–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-M.

Zhang, G.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Four-port guided-wave nonsymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 150–152 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Helmers, O. G. Helleso, P. Benech, R. Rimet, “Single mode potassium and silver ion-exchanged glass waveguides with low losses and high index increase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2759–2760 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Buchold, E. Voges, “Polarisation insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexers with ion-exchanged waveguides in glass,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2248–2250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, “Laser-trimmed four-port bandpass filter fabricated in single-mode photosensitive Ge-doped planar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 191–194 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. Brandenburg, “Stress in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580–1593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sensors Actuators A (1)

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, “Integrated optical interferometer as relative humidity sensor and differential refractometer,” Sensors Actuators A 25–27, 185–188 (1991).

Other (5)

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985).

H. M. Presby, ed., Selected Papers on Silica Integrated Optical Circuits (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1996).

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarization-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits from ArF laser irradiation through a phase mask,” in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 22–24.

S. I. Najafi, ed., Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1992).

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, A. Kévorkian, “Integrated optical current sensor with low-birefringence optical waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 104–107.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement setup for determining the waveguide birefringence of channel waveguides. Light is incident upon the sample at an angle of 45° with respect to the vertical. After emerging from the sample, the light passes through a λ/2 plate (at an angle of 22.5°), and the intensities of both the vertical (I 1) and the horizontal (I 2) polarization components of the beam are measured. Next a λ/4 plate (at an angle of 45°) is added, and the intensities of the vertical (I 3) and the horizontal (I 4) polarization components of the beam are remeasured.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective refractive indices at 1.55-μm of slab waveguides for TE and TM modes after a 120-min potassium-ion exchange followed by silver-ion exchanges of different durations. The refractive index for the BGG31 glass substrate is n = 1.4525.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Waveguide birefringence of channel waveguides after several masked double-ion-exchange processes as a function of channel width. It can be seen that the silver-ion exchange decreases the birefringence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mode profile for a 7-μm-wide waveguide after 2-h potassium- and 7.5-min silver-ion exchanges. The contours are for normalized intensities of 0.1, 0.3, … , 0.9.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Waveguide birefringences after three double-ion-exchange processes. The potassium-ion exchange was done unmasked, and the silver-ion exchange was done through several different mask openings. All the channels were single mode at 1.55-μm wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mode profile for a 4-μm-wide waveguide after an unmasked 1-h potassium-ion and a masked 90-min silver-ion exchange. The contours are for normalized intensities of 0.1, 0.3, … , 0.9.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ Φ = 2 π λ 0 N TM - N TE L
A TE = I 0 / 2   exp i kL - ω t , A TM = I 0 / 2   exp i kL - ω t + Δ Φ ,
I 1 = | A TM + A TE | 2 = I 0 1 + cos Δ Φ ,
I 2 = | A TM - A TE | 2 = I 0 1 - cos Δ Φ .
I 3 = I 0 1 + sin Δ Φ ,     I 4 = I 0 1 - sin Δ Φ .
Δ Φ = arctan I 1 + I 2 I 3 - I 4 I 1 - I 2 I 3 + I 4

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