Abstract

Pressure-induced fractional changes of 10-7 in the geometry of a large He–Ne ring laser gyroscope induce backscatter phase changes and thus a fractional pulling of the Sagnac frequency of ∼5 × 10-3. To counter this, the optical frequency was stabilized against an iodine-stabilized laser with a high-finesse Fabry–Perot interferometer and piezoelectric control of the ring perimeter. This scheme, although limited in principle by residual geometric asymmetry and in practice by low beam powers (10 pW), stabilized the perimeter to 2.4 nm (6 × 10-10 or 300 kHz for the optical frequency) and the Sagnac frequency to 100 parts per million over several days.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. E. Stedman, “Ring laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 60, 615–688 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. R. Bilger, U. Schreiber, G. E. Stedman, “Design and application of large perimeter ring lasers,” in Proceedings of the Symposium for Gyro Technology, H. Sorg, ed. (Institut für Mechanik A, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1996), pp. 8.0–8.8.
  3. H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, “Ring lasers for geodesy,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (special issue for CPEM/94: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Boulder, Colo., June 27–July 1, 1994) 44, 468–470 (1995).
  4. U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium for Gyro Technology, H. Sorg, ed. (Institut für Mechanik A, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.
  5. D. P. McLeod, G. E. Stedman, T. H. Webb, U. Schreiber, “Comparison of standard and ring laser rotational seismograms,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. (to be published).
  6. T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, M. A. Kasevich, “Precision rotation measurements with an atom interferometer gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046–2049 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Lenef, T. D. Hammond, E. T. Smith, M. S. Chapman, R. A. Rubenstein, D. E. Pritchard, “Rotation sensing with an atom interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 760–763 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Aronowitz, “The laser gyro,” in Laser Applications, M. Ross, ed. (Academic, New York, 1971), Vol. 1, 133–200.
  9. R. Rodloff, “A laser gyro with optimized resonator geometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 438–445 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, A. D. McGregor, H. R. Bilger, “Harmonic analysis in a precision ring laser with back-scatter induced pulling,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4944–4958 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. R. Wilkinson, “Ring lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 11, 1–103 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, “Stability of ring lasers with mirror misalignment,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3710–3716 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Z. Li, G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, “Asymmetric response profile of a scanning Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 100, 240–247 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. R. Bilger, “Low frequency noise in ring laser gyros,” SPIE 487 in Physics of Optical Ring Gyros, S. F. Jacobs, J. E. Killpatrick, V. E. Sanders, M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, J. H. Simpson, eds. Proc. SPIE487, 42–48 (1984).

1997 (3)

G. E. Stedman, “Ring laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 60, 615–688 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, M. A. Kasevich, “Precision rotation measurements with an atom interferometer gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046–2049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lenef, T. D. Hammond, E. T. Smith, M. S. Chapman, R. A. Rubenstein, D. E. Pritchard, “Rotation sensing with an atom interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 760–763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, A. D. McGregor, H. R. Bilger, “Harmonic analysis in a precision ring laser with back-scatter induced pulling,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4944–4958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

Z. Li, G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, “Asymmetric response profile of a scanning Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 100, 240–247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

J. R. Wilkinson, “Ring lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 11, 1–103 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, “Stability of ring lasers with mirror misalignment,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3710–3716 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rodloff, “A laser gyro with optimized resonator geometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 438–445 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Aronowitz, F.

F. Aronowitz, “The laser gyro,” in Laser Applications, M. Ross, ed. (Academic, New York, 1971), Vol. 1, 133–200.

Bilger, H. R.

G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, A. D. McGregor, H. R. Bilger, “Harmonic analysis in a precision ring laser with back-scatter induced pulling,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4944–4958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, “Asymmetric response profile of a scanning Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 100, 240–247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, “Stability of ring lasers with mirror misalignment,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3710–3716 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Bilger, U. Schreiber, G. E. Stedman, “Design and application of large perimeter ring lasers,” in Proceedings of the Symposium for Gyro Technology, H. Sorg, ed. (Institut für Mechanik A, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1996), pp. 8.0–8.8.

H. R. Bilger, “Low frequency noise in ring laser gyros,” SPIE 487 in Physics of Optical Ring Gyros, S. F. Jacobs, J. E. Killpatrick, V. E. Sanders, M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, J. H. Simpson, eds. Proc. SPIE487, 42–48 (1984).

Bouyer, P.

T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, M. A. Kasevich, “Precision rotation measurements with an atom interferometer gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046–2049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, M. S.

A. Lenef, T. D. Hammond, E. T. Smith, M. S. Chapman, R. A. Rubenstein, D. E. Pritchard, “Rotation sensing with an atom interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 760–763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, S. J.

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium for Gyro Technology, H. Sorg, ed. (Institut für Mechanik A, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

Gustavson, T. L.

T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, M. A. Kasevich, “Precision rotation measurements with an atom interferometer gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046–2049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, T. D.

A. Lenef, T. D. Hammond, E. T. Smith, M. S. Chapman, R. A. Rubenstein, D. E. Pritchard, “Rotation sensing with an atom interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 760–763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kasevich, M. A.

T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, M. A. Kasevich, “Precision rotation measurements with an atom interferometer gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046–2049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

King, B. T.

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium for Gyro Technology, H. Sorg, ed. (Institut für Mechanik A, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

Lenef, A.

A. Lenef, T. D. Hammond, E. T. Smith, M. S. Chapman, R. A. Rubenstein, D. E. Pritchard, “Rotation sensing with an atom interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 760–763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, A. D. McGregor, H. R. Bilger, “Harmonic analysis in a precision ring laser with back-scatter induced pulling,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4944–4958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, “Asymmetric response profile of a scanning Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 100, 240–247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McGregor, A. D.

G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, A. D. McGregor, H. R. Bilger, “Harmonic analysis in a precision ring laser with back-scatter induced pulling,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4944–4958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLeod, D. P.

D. P. McLeod, G. E. Stedman, T. H. Webb, U. Schreiber, “Comparison of standard and ring laser rotational seismograms,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. (to be published).

Pritchard, D. E.

A. Lenef, T. D. Hammond, E. T. Smith, M. S. Chapman, R. A. Rubenstein, D. E. Pritchard, “Rotation sensing with an atom interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 760–763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rodloff, R.

R. Rodloff, “A laser gyro with optimized resonator geometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 438–445 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, C. H.

G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, A. D. McGregor, H. R. Bilger, “Harmonic analysis in a precision ring laser with back-scatter induced pulling,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4944–4958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium for Gyro Technology, H. Sorg, ed. (Institut für Mechanik A, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

Rubenstein, R. A.

A. Lenef, T. D. Hammond, E. T. Smith, M. S. Chapman, R. A. Rubenstein, D. E. Pritchard, “Rotation sensing with an atom interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 760–763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, M.

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium for Gyro Technology, H. Sorg, ed. (Institut für Mechanik A, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

Schreiber, U.

H. R. Bilger, U. Schreiber, G. E. Stedman, “Design and application of large perimeter ring lasers,” in Proceedings of the Symposium for Gyro Technology, H. Sorg, ed. (Institut für Mechanik A, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1996), pp. 8.0–8.8.

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium for Gyro Technology, H. Sorg, ed. (Institut für Mechanik A, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

D. P. McLeod, G. E. Stedman, T. H. Webb, U. Schreiber, “Comparison of standard and ring laser rotational seismograms,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. (to be published).

Seeger, H.

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium for Gyro Technology, H. Sorg, ed. (Institut für Mechanik A, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

Smith, E. T.

A. Lenef, T. D. Hammond, E. T. Smith, M. S. Chapman, R. A. Rubenstein, D. E. Pritchard, “Rotation sensing with an atom interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 760–763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stedman, G. E.

G. E. Stedman, “Ring laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 60, 615–688 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, A. D. McGregor, H. R. Bilger, “Harmonic analysis in a precision ring laser with back-scatter induced pulling,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4944–4958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, “Asymmetric response profile of a scanning Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 100, 240–247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, “Stability of ring lasers with mirror misalignment,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3710–3716 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Bilger, U. Schreiber, G. E. Stedman, “Design and application of large perimeter ring lasers,” in Proceedings of the Symposium for Gyro Technology, H. Sorg, ed. (Institut für Mechanik A, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1996), pp. 8.0–8.8.

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium for Gyro Technology, H. Sorg, ed. (Institut für Mechanik A, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

D. P. McLeod, G. E. Stedman, T. H. Webb, U. Schreiber, “Comparison of standard and ring laser rotational seismograms,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. (to be published).

Webb, T. H.

D. P. McLeod, G. E. Stedman, T. H. Webb, U. Schreiber, “Comparison of standard and ring laser rotational seismograms,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. (to be published).

Wilkinson, J. R.

J. R. Wilkinson, “Ring lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 11, 1–103 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wright, D. N.

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium for Gyro Technology, H. Sorg, ed. (Institut für Mechanik A, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Rodloff, “A laser gyro with optimized resonator geometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 438–445 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Li, G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, “Asymmetric response profile of a scanning Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 100, 240–247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, A. D. McGregor, H. R. Bilger, “Harmonic analysis in a precision ring laser with back-scatter induced pulling,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4944–4958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, M. A. Kasevich, “Precision rotation measurements with an atom interferometer gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046–2049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lenef, T. D. Hammond, E. T. Smith, M. S. Chapman, R. A. Rubenstein, D. E. Pritchard, “Rotation sensing with an atom interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 760–763 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. R. Wilkinson, “Ring lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 11, 1–103 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Progr. Phys. (1)

G. E. Stedman, “Ring laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 60, 615–688 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. R. Bilger, U. Schreiber, G. E. Stedman, “Design and application of large perimeter ring lasers,” in Proceedings of the Symposium for Gyro Technology, H. Sorg, ed. (Institut für Mechanik A, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1996), pp. 8.0–8.8.

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, “Ring lasers for geodesy,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (special issue for CPEM/94: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Boulder, Colo., June 27–July 1, 1994) 44, 468–470 (1995).

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium for Gyro Technology, H. Sorg, ed. (Institut für Mechanik A, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

D. P. McLeod, G. E. Stedman, T. H. Webb, U. Schreiber, “Comparison of standard and ring laser rotational seismograms,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. (to be published).

F. Aronowitz, “The laser gyro,” in Laser Applications, M. Ross, ed. (Academic, New York, 1971), Vol. 1, 133–200.

H. R. Bilger, “Low frequency noise in ring laser gyros,” SPIE 487 in Physics of Optical Ring Gyros, S. F. Jacobs, J. E. Killpatrick, V. E. Sanders, M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, J. H. Simpson, eds. Proc. SPIE487, 42–48 (1984).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured Sagnac frequency of the C-II ring laser as well as the ambient pressure versus time from 25 to 26 July 1997. The Sagnac variations are caused by changes in the scale factor of the instrument (the ratio of Sagnac frequency to angular frequency).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the FSR of the C-II ring laser on atmospheric pressure during a 3.5-h run.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of the Sagnac frequency of the C-II ring laser under small perimeter changes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for the frequency stabilization of the C-II ring laser cavity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fabry–Perot spectrum of the mixed beams from the C-II ring laser and the Winters 100 reference laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Frequency drift of the SR-130 scanning Fabry–Perot device.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Histogram of absolute frequency determinations of the C-II ring laser from 395 frequency stabilization cycles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Drift of the C-II ring laser relative to the reference laser with atmospheric pressure change. (b) Residual drift of the regulated C-II ring laser with atmospheric pressure change.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relative Allan variance of the Sagnac signal for the C-II ring laser with and without frequency stabilization (filled and open circles, respectively).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Magnitudes of Induced Changes in Perimeter L of the C-II Ring Laser for a Given Perturbation in Temperature and Pressurea

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ f = 4 A · Ω E λ P .
W = 2 π hf 0 3 / Q 2 P o ,
S = Ω N t = cP 4 AQ hf 0 P o 1 / 2 .
δ f FSR = f FSR δ P P .
d E ±   exp   i ω ± t z / c d t = i ω ± + π a - β E ± 2 - ξ E 2 E ±   exp   i ω ± t z / c + n   K ˜ n E   exp   i ω t z / c ± 2 z n / c .
n   K ˜ n   exp ± 2 i ω Z n / c A   exp i ε ,
δ ϕ = 2 k δ z - z δ P / P .
δ z 12 = δ z 14 = ε - δ 2 ,     δ z 23 = δ z 43 = - ε 2 .

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