Abstract

The wavelength accuracy of the Brewer spectrophotometer in the 280–360-nm spectral range is improved by a new grating-drive mechanism and a new dispersion function derived from the Brewer geometry. With the new mechanism, the reproducibility of wavelength settings for spectral emission lines is better than 0.3 pm (0.0003 nm) and, with a thermally compensated version, the effect of temperature is less than 0.4 pm K-1. The new dispersion function fits spectral line positions better than the standard function and is less prone to extrapolation error. Applying the new function to data from four new and ten standard drives shows that the new drives perform as well as the best of the standard ones and much better than the majority.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone: Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, C. S. Zereros, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Boston, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. I. Wardle, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, E. Wu, K. Lamb, “Laboratory tests on the double Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Proceedings of the 1996 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, Italy, 1998), pp. 997–1000.
  6. F. Kuik, W. Wauben, “UV intercomparison SUSPEN,” Technical Report TR-203 (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The Netherlands, 1998).
  7. H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bais, A. F.

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blumthaler, M.

H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W. F. J.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone: Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, C. S. Zereros, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Boston, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.
[CrossRef]

Huber, M.

H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. B.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone: Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, C. S. Zereros, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Boston, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.
[CrossRef]

D. I. Wardle, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, E. Wu, K. Lamb, “Laboratory tests on the double Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Proceedings of the 1996 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, Italy, 1998), pp. 997–1000.

Kuik, F.

H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Kuik, W. Wauben, “UV intercomparison SUSPEN,” Technical Report TR-203 (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The Netherlands, 1998).

Lamb, K.

D. I. Wardle, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, E. Wu, K. Lamb, “Laboratory tests on the double Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Proceedings of the 1996 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, Italy, 1998), pp. 997–1000.

McElroy, C. T.

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone: Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, C. S. Zereros, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Boston, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.
[CrossRef]

D. I. Wardle, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, E. Wu, K. Lamb, “Laboratory tests on the double Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Proceedings of the 1996 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, Italy, 1998), pp. 997–1000.

Meleti, C.

C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Olafson, R. A.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone: Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, C. S. Zereros, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Boston, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.
[CrossRef]

Reinen, H.

H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Slaper, H.

H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wardle, D. I.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone: Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, C. S. Zereros, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Boston, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.
[CrossRef]

D. I. Wardle, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, E. Wu, K. Lamb, “Laboratory tests on the double Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Proceedings of the 1996 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, Italy, 1998), pp. 997–1000.

Wauben, W.

F. Kuik, W. Wauben, “UV intercomparison SUSPEN,” Technical Report TR-203 (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The Netherlands, 1998).

Wu, E.

D. I. Wardle, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, E. Wu, K. Lamb, “Laboratory tests on the double Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Proceedings of the 1996 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, Italy, 1998), pp. 997–1000.

Zerefos, C. S.

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ziomas, I. C.

C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (3)

C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. T. McElroy, “Solar UVB measurements with the double- single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 833–836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

D. I. Wardle, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, E. Wu, K. Lamb, “Laboratory tests on the double Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Proceedings of the 1996 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, Italy, 1998), pp. 997–1000.

F. Kuik, W. Wauben, “UV intercomparison SUSPEN,” Technical Report TR-203 (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The Netherlands, 1998).

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, D. I. Wardle, R. A. Olafson, W. F. J. Evans, “The automated Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Atmospheric Ozone: Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, C. S. Zereros, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Boston, Mass., 1985), pp. 396–401.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

New grating drive for Brewer spectrophotometers: 1, front plate of monochromator that carries the entrance and exit slits; 2, arm that rotates with the grating; 3, monochromator base plate that is normally horizontal; 4, micrometer mounting block that clamps onto the micrometer spindle; 5, spindle of the micrometer; 6, one of the two arms in the linkage that prevents rotation of 7 and is approximately 70 mm above the micrometer; 7, middle part of the micrometer; 8, thimble of the micrometer; 9, main mirror of the monochromator; 10, tension spring; 11, gear wheel mounted on the thimble; 12, wire pivots at each end of 13; 13, push-rod showing the clamps that allow easy substitutions and the 43 and 57% proportions of aluminum and Invar.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of a 296.728-nm mercury line scan as well as the calculated center position using only the points between 20% and 80% of the maximum that are fitted to an isosceles triangle. The circles and crosses are the fitted points, respectively, for the increasing and decreasing wavelength scan.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral line measurements of the 296.728-nm mercury line for different temperatures and different push rod materials. The circles represent measurements of the 334.148-nm mercury line with the composite push rod (43% aluminum, 57% Invar) performed alternately with measurements of the 296.728-nm mercury line. In this plot, there is one symbol for every seven data points. All the measurements were obtained for decreasing temperatures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic view of the dispersive Brewer monochromator showing the instrument axis without the coma-correcting lens. The relevant dimensions are given in Table 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dispersion analysis results for DB 119 with the new grating drive. (a) Results from the new dispersion relation calculation using a quintic regression line and varying the slit positions to optimize the rms residuals of the fit with a total of 11 free parameters. The overall rms residuals of this analysis is 3.6 pm and uses 68 spectral line measurements. (b) The same data calculates the dispersion relation by separately fitting the data for every slit to a quadratic regression line (standard procedure). The rms residuals of this analysis is 8.2 pm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Points measured on slit 5 of DB 119 and those projected onto slit 5 from other slits by the new analysis, all relative to the new dispersion function. The curve is the difference between the quadratic regression fit using only spectral lines measured on slit 5 (standard method) and the new dispersion analysis. The cadmium multiplet at 361.163 ± 0.015 nm is not used for the derivation of either dispersion function but demonstrates the different extrapolation behavior of the two dispersion functions.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Brewer Design Statistics in Millimetersa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spectral Lines Used in the Dispersion Analyses

Tables Icon

Table 3 Results from the New Dispersion Analysis Applied to Spectral Line Data from 11 Different Brewers (7 Double and 4 Single)a

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sin ζ i 2 = S i R ,
d sin θ - ξ + sin θ + ζ = n λ i ,
λ P = d n sin θ + ζ 3 + sin θ - ξ .

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