Abstract

We present a mathematical model that describes the spatial distribution of photons in fluorescence endoscopic images, resulting in expressions for image signal-to-noise ratio and resolution. This model was applied to quantitative analysis of fluorescence images collected from human colonic mucosa with a fiber-optic and an electronic endoscope. It provides a tool for the design of fluorescence endoscopic imaging systems and for extraction of quantitative information about image features. The results apply generally to endoscopic imaging of remote structures in biological and industrial settings, in which light of weak intensity such as fluorescence as well as reflected white light is used.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “A portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 2081–2088 (1993).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

W. D. Tope, E. V. Ross, N. Kollias, A. Martin, R. Gillies, R. R. Anderson, “Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence induced by basal cell carcinoma by oral δ-aminolevulinic acid,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 249–255 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

S. J. Mentzer, S. J. Swanson, M. M. Decamp, R. Bueno, D. J. Sugarbaker, “Mediastinoscopy, thoracoscopy, and video-assisted thoracic surgery in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer,” Chest 112, 239–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Jichlinski, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, T. Glanzmann, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnieres, G. Zimmer, L. Guillou, F. Schmidlin, P. Graber, P. H. van den Bergh, H. J. Leisinger, “Clinical evaluation of a method for detecting superficial surgical transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by light-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX following the topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Webber, D. Kessel, D. Fromm, “Side effects and photosensitization of human tissues after aminolevulinic acid,” J. Surg. Res. 68, 31–37 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Brennan, T. J. Romer, R. S. Lees, A. M. Tercyak, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Determination of human coronary artery composition by Raman spectroscopy,” Circulation 96, 99–105 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

R. M. Cothren, M. V. Sivak, J. Van Dam, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, J. M. Crawford, J. Wu, J. F. Brennan, R. P. Rava, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Detection of dysplasia at colonoscopy using laser-induced fluorescence: a blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 44, 168–176 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Forkert, H. Watanabe, K. Sutherland, S. Vincent, J. T. Fisher, “Quantitative videobronchoscopy—a new technique to assess airway caliber,” Am. J. Respirat. Crit. Care Medi. 154, 1794–1803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Leunig, K. Rick, H. Stepp, R. Gutmann, G. Alwin, R. Baumgartner, J. Feyh, “Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of 5-aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX for the detection of neoplastic lesions in the oral cavity,” Am. J. Surg. 172, 674–677 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuchel, H. Stepp, F. Hofstadter, A. Hofstetter, “Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid induced porphyrin fluorescence,” J. Urol. 155, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. A. Preisinger, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopic imaging for detection of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. L. Harries, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Qu, B. Palcic, “Diagnostic imaging of the larynx: autofluorescence of laryngeal tumours using the helium–cadmium laser,” J. Laryngol. Otol. 109, 108–110 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Medical diagnostic system based on simultaneous multispectral fluorescence imaging,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8022–8028 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Dobson, J. Ribeiro, “The primary aberration characteristics of thin lens models of common relay systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 32–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Vakil, W. Smith, K. Bourgeois, E. C. Everbach, K. Knyrim, “Endoscopic measurement of lesion size—improved accuracy with image processing,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 40, 178–183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kato, T. Okunaka, N. Ikeda, C. Konaka, “Application of simple imaging technique for fluorescence bronchoscopy: preliminary report,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 1, 79–81 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “A portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 2081–2088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Grasso, M. Beaghler, D. H. Bagley, S. Strup, “Actively deflectable, flexible cystoscopes—no longer solely a diagnostic instrument,” J. Endourol. 7, 527–530 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Franzeck, R. Munch, M. Wachter, B. Vesti, R. Ammann, A. Bollinger, “Dynamic fluorescence video endoscopy for intravital evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 39, 806–809 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Hung, J. LeRiche, A. E. Profio, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ with a lung imaging fluorescence endoscope,” J. Thoracic Cardiovasc. Surg. 105, 1035–1040 (1993).

1992

S. Lam, J. Y. Hung, S. M. Kennedy, J. C. Leriche, S. Vedal, B. Nelems, C. E. Macaulay, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ by ratio fluorometry,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, G. Canti, “Use of time-gated fluorescence imaging for diagnosis in biomedicine,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B—Biol. 12, 109–113 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Kennedy, R. Pottier, “Endogenous protoporphyrin IX: a clinically useful photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. 14, 275–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. MacAulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging techniques,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

S. Lam, B. Palcic, D. McLean, J. Hung, M. Korbelik, A. E. Profio, “Detection of early lung cancer using low dose photofrin II,” Chest 97, 333–337 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

P. S. Andersson, S. Montan, S. Svanberg, “Multispectral system for medical fluorescence imaging,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1798–1805 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Classen, K. Knyrim, H. K. Seidlitz, F. Hagenmuller, “Electronic endoscopy—the latest technology,” Endoscopy 19, 118–123 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abela, G.

S. E. Friedl, G. Abela, T. Tomaru, G. R. Barbeau, R. A. Haley, “Quantitative endovascular angioscopy,” in Optical Fibers in Medicine IV, A. Katzir, ed., Proc. SPIE1067, 131–136 (1989).

Alwin, G.

A. Leunig, K. Rick, H. Stepp, R. Gutmann, G. Alwin, R. Baumgartner, J. Feyh, “Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of 5-aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX for the detection of neoplastic lesions in the oral cavity,” Am. J. Surg. 172, 674–677 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ammann, R.

U. K. Franzeck, R. Munch, M. Wachter, B. Vesti, R. Ammann, A. Bollinger, “Dynamic fluorescence video endoscopy for intravital evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 39, 806–809 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

W. D. Tope, E. V. Ross, N. Kollias, A. Martin, R. Gillies, R. R. Anderson, “Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence induced by basal cell carcinoma by oral δ-aminolevulinic acid,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 249–255 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson, P. S.

P. S. Andersson, S. Montan, S. Svanberg, “Multispectral system for medical fluorescence imaging,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1798–1805 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Bagley, D. H.

M. Grasso, M. Beaghler, D. H. Bagley, S. Strup, “Actively deflectable, flexible cystoscopes—no longer solely a diagnostic instrument,” J. Endourol. 7, 527–530 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbeau, G. R.

S. E. Friedl, G. Abela, T. Tomaru, G. R. Barbeau, R. A. Haley, “Quantitative endovascular angioscopy,” in Optical Fibers in Medicine IV, A. Katzir, ed., Proc. SPIE1067, 131–136 (1989).

Baumgartner, R.

A. Leunig, K. Rick, H. Stepp, R. Gutmann, G. Alwin, R. Baumgartner, J. Feyh, “Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of 5-aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX for the detection of neoplastic lesions in the oral cavity,” Am. J. Surg. 172, 674–677 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuchel, H. Stepp, F. Hofstadter, A. Hofstetter, “Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid induced porphyrin fluorescence,” J. Urol. 155, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaghler, M.

M. Grasso, M. Beaghler, D. H. Bagley, S. Strup, “Actively deflectable, flexible cystoscopes—no longer solely a diagnostic instrument,” J. Endourol. 7, 527–530 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blackstone, M. O.

M. O. Blackstone, Endoscopic Interpretation: Normal and Pathologic Appearances of the Gastrointestinal Tract (Raven, New York, 1984).

Bollinger, A.

U. K. Franzeck, R. Munch, M. Wachter, B. Vesti, R. Ammann, A. Bollinger, “Dynamic fluorescence video endoscopy for intravital evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 39, 806–809 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference, and Diffraction of Light, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), Chap. 4, p. 182.

Bourgeois, K.

N. Vakil, W. Smith, K. Bourgeois, E. C. Everbach, K. Knyrim, “Endoscopic measurement of lesion size—improved accuracy with image processing,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 40, 178–183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braichotte, D.

P. Jichlinski, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, T. Glanzmann, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnieres, G. Zimmer, L. Guillou, F. Schmidlin, P. Graber, P. H. van den Bergh, H. J. Leisinger, “Clinical evaluation of a method for detecting superficial surgical transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by light-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX following the topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brennan, J. F.

J. F. Brennan, T. J. Romer, R. S. Lees, A. M. Tercyak, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Determination of human coronary artery composition by Raman spectroscopy,” Circulation 96, 99–105 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, M. V. Sivak, J. Van Dam, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, J. M. Crawford, J. Wu, J. F. Brennan, R. P. Rava, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Detection of dysplasia at colonoscopy using laser-induced fluorescence: a blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 44, 168–176 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “A portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 2081–2088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bueno, R.

S. J. Mentzer, S. J. Swanson, M. M. Decamp, R. Bueno, D. J. Sugarbaker, “Mediastinoscopy, thoracoscopy, and video-assisted thoracic surgery in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer,” Chest 112, 239–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, I. D.

I. D. Campbell, R. A. Dwek, Biological Spectroscopy (Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif., 1984), Chap. 5.

Canti, G.

R. Cubeddu, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, G. Canti, “Use of time-gated fluorescence imaging for diagnosis in biomedicine,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B—Biol. 12, 109–113 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Classen, M.

M. Classen, K. Knyrim, H. K. Seidlitz, F. Hagenmuller, “Electronic endoscopy—the latest technology,” Endoscopy 19, 118–123 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cothren, R. M.

R. M. Cothren, M. V. Sivak, J. Van Dam, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, J. M. Crawford, J. Wu, J. F. Brennan, R. P. Rava, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Detection of dysplasia at colonoscopy using laser-induced fluorescence: a blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 44, 168–176 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

R. M. Cothren, M. V. Sivak, J. Van Dam, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, J. M. Crawford, J. Wu, J. F. Brennan, R. P. Rava, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Detection of dysplasia at colonoscopy using laser-induced fluorescence: a blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 44, 168–176 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. A. Preisinger, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopic imaging for detection of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, J. Van Dam, “Clinical use of fluorescence endoscopic images to detect colonic dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (in press).

J. M. Crawford, “The gastrointestinal tract,” in Pathological Basis of Disease, S. L. Robbins, R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, eds. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994), pp. 811–815.

Csorba, I. P.

I. P. Csorba, Image Tubes (Howard W. Sams, Indianapolis, Ind., 1985), Chap. 8.

Cubeddu, R.

R. Cubeddu, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, G. Canti, “Use of time-gated fluorescence imaging for diagnosis in biomedicine,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B—Biol. 12, 109–113 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “A portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 2081–2088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Decamp, M. M.

S. J. Mentzer, S. J. Swanson, M. M. Decamp, R. Bueno, D. J. Sugarbaker, “Mediastinoscopy, thoracoscopy, and video-assisted thoracic surgery in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer,” Chest 112, 239–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dobson, S. J.

S. J. Dobson, J. Ribeiro, “The primary aberration characteristics of thin lens models of common relay systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 32–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dwek, R. A.

I. D. Campbell, R. A. Dwek, Biological Spectroscopy (Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif., 1984), Chap. 5.

Everbach, E. C.

N. Vakil, W. Smith, K. Bourgeois, E. C. Everbach, K. Knyrim, “Endoscopic measurement of lesion size—improved accuracy with image processing,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 40, 178–183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

J. F. Brennan, T. J. Romer, R. S. Lees, A. M. Tercyak, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Determination of human coronary artery composition by Raman spectroscopy,” Circulation 96, 99–105 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, M. V. Sivak, J. Van Dam, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, J. M. Crawford, J. Wu, J. F. Brennan, R. P. Rava, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Detection of dysplasia at colonoscopy using laser-induced fluorescence: a blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 44, 168–176 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. A. Preisinger, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopic imaging for detection of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “A portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 2081–2088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, J. Van Dam, “Clinical use of fluorescence endoscopic images to detect colonic dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (in press).

Feyh, J.

A. Leunig, K. Rick, H. Stepp, R. Gutmann, G. Alwin, R. Baumgartner, J. Feyh, “Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of 5-aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX for the detection of neoplastic lesions in the oral cavity,” Am. J. Surg. 172, 674–677 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, J. T.

L. Forkert, H. Watanabe, K. Sutherland, S. Vincent, J. T. Fisher, “Quantitative videobronchoscopy—a new technique to assess airway caliber,” Am. J. Respirat. Crit. Care Medi. 154, 1794–1803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fitzmaurice, M.

R. M. Cothren, M. V. Sivak, J. Van Dam, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, J. M. Crawford, J. Wu, J. F. Brennan, R. P. Rava, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Detection of dysplasia at colonoscopy using laser-induced fluorescence: a blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 44, 168–176 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forkert, L.

L. Forkert, H. Watanabe, K. Sutherland, S. Vincent, J. T. Fisher, “Quantitative videobronchoscopy—a new technique to assess airway caliber,” Am. J. Respirat. Crit. Care Medi. 154, 1794–1803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Forrer, M.

P. Jichlinski, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, T. Glanzmann, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnieres, G. Zimmer, L. Guillou, F. Schmidlin, P. Graber, P. H. van den Bergh, H. J. Leisinger, “Clinical evaluation of a method for detecting superficial surgical transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by light-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX following the topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franzeck, U. K.

U. K. Franzeck, R. Munch, M. Wachter, B. Vesti, R. Ammann, A. Bollinger, “Dynamic fluorescence video endoscopy for intravital evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 39, 806–809 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedl, S. E.

S. E. Friedl, G. Abela, T. Tomaru, G. R. Barbeau, R. A. Haley, “Quantitative endovascular angioscopy,” in Optical Fibers in Medicine IV, A. Katzir, ed., Proc. SPIE1067, 131–136 (1989).

Fromm, D.

J. Webber, D. Kessel, D. Fromm, “Side effects and photosensitization of human tissues after aminolevulinic acid,” J. Surg. Res. 68, 31–37 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillies, R.

W. D. Tope, E. V. Ross, N. Kollias, A. Martin, R. Gillies, R. R. Anderson, “Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence induced by basal cell carcinoma by oral δ-aminolevulinic acid,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 249–255 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glanzmann, T.

P. Jichlinski, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, T. Glanzmann, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnieres, G. Zimmer, L. Guillou, F. Schmidlin, P. Graber, P. H. van den Bergh, H. J. Leisinger, “Clinical evaluation of a method for detecting superficial surgical transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by light-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX following the topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graber, P.

P. Jichlinski, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, T. Glanzmann, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnieres, G. Zimmer, L. Guillou, F. Schmidlin, P. Graber, P. H. van den Bergh, H. J. Leisinger, “Clinical evaluation of a method for detecting superficial surgical transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by light-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX following the topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grasso, M.

M. Grasso, M. Beaghler, D. H. Bagley, S. Strup, “Actively deflectable, flexible cystoscopes—no longer solely a diagnostic instrument,” J. Endourol. 7, 527–530 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guillou, L.

P. Jichlinski, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, T. Glanzmann, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnieres, G. Zimmer, L. Guillou, F. Schmidlin, P. Graber, P. H. van den Bergh, H. J. Leisinger, “Clinical evaluation of a method for detecting superficial surgical transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by light-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX following the topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutmann, R.

A. Leunig, K. Rick, H. Stepp, R. Gutmann, G. Alwin, R. Baumgartner, J. Feyh, “Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of 5-aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX for the detection of neoplastic lesions in the oral cavity,” Am. J. Surg. 172, 674–677 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagenmuller, F.

M. Classen, K. Knyrim, H. K. Seidlitz, F. Hagenmuller, “Electronic endoscopy—the latest technology,” Endoscopy 19, 118–123 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haley, R. A.

S. E. Friedl, G. Abela, T. Tomaru, G. R. Barbeau, R. A. Haley, “Quantitative endovascular angioscopy,” in Optical Fibers in Medicine IV, A. Katzir, ed., Proc. SPIE1067, 131–136 (1989).

Harries, M. L.

M. L. Harries, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Qu, B. Palcic, “Diagnostic imaging of the larynx: autofluorescence of laryngeal tumours using the helium–cadmium laser,” J. Laryngol. Otol. 109, 108–110 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayes, G. B.

J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “A portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 2081–2088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1987), Chaps. 5, 6.

Hofstadter, F.

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuchel, H. Stepp, F. Hofstadter, A. Hofstetter, “Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid induced porphyrin fluorescence,” J. Urol. 155, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, A.

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuchel, H. Stepp, F. Hofstadter, A. Hofstetter, “Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid induced porphyrin fluorescence,” J. Urol. 155, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, J.

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Hung, J. LeRiche, A. E. Profio, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ with a lung imaging fluorescence endoscope,” J. Thoracic Cardiovasc. Surg. 105, 1035–1040 (1993).

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. MacAulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging techniques,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lam, B. Palcic, D. McLean, J. Hung, M. Korbelik, A. E. Profio, “Detection of early lung cancer using low dose photofrin II,” Chest 97, 333–337 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, J. Y.

S. Lam, J. Y. Hung, S. M. Kennedy, J. C. Leriche, S. Vedal, B. Nelems, C. E. Macaulay, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ by ratio fluorometry,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, N.

H. Kato, T. Okunaka, N. Ikeda, C. Konaka, “Application of simple imaging technique for fluorescence bronchoscopy: preliminary report,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 1, 79–81 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, J. Van Dam, “Clinical use of fluorescence endoscopic images to detect colonic dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (in press).

Jichlinski, P.

P. Jichlinski, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, T. Glanzmann, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnieres, G. Zimmer, L. Guillou, F. Schmidlin, P. Graber, P. H. van den Bergh, H. J. Leisinger, “Clinical evaluation of a method for detecting superficial surgical transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by light-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX following the topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansson, J.

Kato, H.

H. Kato, T. Okunaka, N. Ikeda, C. Konaka, “Application of simple imaging technique for fluorescence bronchoscopy: preliminary report,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 1, 79–81 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Kato, Electronic Videoendoscopy (Harwood Academic, Langhorne, Pa., 1993), Chap. 1.

Kennedy, J.

J. Kennedy, R. Pottier, “Endogenous protoporphyrin IX: a clinically useful photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. 14, 275–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, S. M.

S. Lam, J. Y. Hung, S. M. Kennedy, J. C. Leriche, S. Vedal, B. Nelems, C. E. Macaulay, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ by ratio fluorometry,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kessel, D.

J. Webber, D. Kessel, D. Fromm, “Side effects and photosensitization of human tissues after aminolevulinic acid,” J. Surg. Res. 68, 31–37 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knuchel, R.

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuchel, H. Stepp, F. Hofstadter, A. Hofstetter, “Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid induced porphyrin fluorescence,” J. Urol. 155, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knyrim, K.

N. Vakil, W. Smith, K. Bourgeois, E. C. Everbach, K. Knyrim, “Endoscopic measurement of lesion size—improved accuracy with image processing,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 40, 178–183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Classen, K. Knyrim, H. K. Seidlitz, F. Hagenmuller, “Electronic endoscopy—the latest technology,” Endoscopy 19, 118–123 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollias, N.

W. D. Tope, E. V. Ross, N. Kollias, A. Martin, R. Gillies, R. R. Anderson, “Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence induced by basal cell carcinoma by oral δ-aminolevulinic acid,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 249–255 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konaka, C.

H. Kato, T. Okunaka, N. Ikeda, C. Konaka, “Application of simple imaging technique for fluorescence bronchoscopy: preliminary report,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 1, 79–81 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Korbelik, M.

S. Lam, B. Palcic, D. McLean, J. Hung, M. Korbelik, A. E. Profio, “Detection of early lung cancer using low dose photofrin II,” Chest 97, 333–337 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kramer, J. R.

J. F. Brennan, T. J. Romer, R. S. Lees, A. M. Tercyak, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Determination of human coronary artery composition by Raman spectroscopy,” Circulation 96, 99–105 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kriegmair, M.

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuchel, H. Stepp, F. Hofstadter, A. Hofstetter, “Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid induced porphyrin fluorescence,” J. Urol. 155, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

M. L. Harries, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Qu, B. Palcic, “Diagnostic imaging of the larynx: autofluorescence of laryngeal tumours using the helium–cadmium laser,” J. Laryngol. Otol. 109, 108–110 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Hung, J. LeRiche, A. E. Profio, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ with a lung imaging fluorescence endoscope,” J. Thoracic Cardiovasc. Surg. 105, 1035–1040 (1993).

S. Lam, J. Y. Hung, S. M. Kennedy, J. C. Leriche, S. Vedal, B. Nelems, C. E. Macaulay, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ by ratio fluorometry,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. MacAulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging techniques,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lam, B. Palcic, D. McLean, J. Hung, M. Korbelik, A. E. Profio, “Detection of early lung cancer using low dose photofrin II,” Chest 97, 333–337 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lees, R. S.

J. F. Brennan, T. J. Romer, R. S. Lees, A. M. Tercyak, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Determination of human coronary artery composition by Raman spectroscopy,” Circulation 96, 99–105 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leisinger, H. J.

P. Jichlinski, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, T. Glanzmann, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnieres, G. Zimmer, L. Guillou, F. Schmidlin, P. Graber, P. H. van den Bergh, H. J. Leisinger, “Clinical evaluation of a method for detecting superficial surgical transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by light-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX following the topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeRiche, J.

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Hung, J. LeRiche, A. E. Profio, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ with a lung imaging fluorescence endoscope,” J. Thoracic Cardiovasc. Surg. 105, 1035–1040 (1993).

Leriche, J. C.

S. Lam, J. Y. Hung, S. M. Kennedy, J. C. Leriche, S. Vedal, B. Nelems, C. E. Macaulay, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ by ratio fluorometry,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leunig, A.

A. Leunig, K. Rick, H. Stepp, R. Gutmann, G. Alwin, R. Baumgartner, J. Feyh, “Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of 5-aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX for the detection of neoplastic lesions in the oral cavity,” Am. J. Surg. 172, 674–677 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacAulay, C.

M. L. Harries, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Qu, B. Palcic, “Diagnostic imaging of the larynx: autofluorescence of laryngeal tumours using the helium–cadmium laser,” J. Laryngol. Otol. 109, 108–110 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Hung, J. LeRiche, A. E. Profio, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ with a lung imaging fluorescence endoscope,” J. Thoracic Cardiovasc. Surg. 105, 1035–1040 (1993).

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. MacAulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging techniques,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macaulay, C. E.

S. Lam, J. Y. Hung, S. M. Kennedy, J. C. Leriche, S. Vedal, B. Nelems, C. E. Macaulay, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ by ratio fluorometry,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macovski, A.

A. Macovski, Medical Imaging Systems (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs N.J., 1983), Chap. 8.

Manoharan, R.

R. M. Cothren, M. V. Sivak, J. Van Dam, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, J. M. Crawford, J. Wu, J. F. Brennan, R. P. Rava, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Detection of dysplasia at colonoscopy using laser-induced fluorescence: a blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 44, 168–176 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, A.

W. D. Tope, E. V. Ross, N. Kollias, A. Martin, R. Gillies, R. R. Anderson, “Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence induced by basal cell carcinoma by oral δ-aminolevulinic acid,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 249–255 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLean, D.

S. Lam, B. Palcic, D. McLean, J. Hung, M. Korbelik, A. E. Profio, “Detection of early lung cancer using low dose photofrin II,” Chest 97, 333–337 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mentzer, S. J.

S. J. Mentzer, S. J. Swanson, M. M. Decamp, R. Bueno, D. J. Sugarbaker, “Mediastinoscopy, thoracoscopy, and video-assisted thoracic surgery in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer,” Chest 112, 239–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mizeret, J.

P. Jichlinski, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, T. Glanzmann, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnieres, G. Zimmer, L. Guillou, F. Schmidlin, P. Graber, P. H. van den Bergh, H. J. Leisinger, “Clinical evaluation of a method for detecting superficial surgical transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by light-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX following the topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montan, S.

P. S. Andersson, S. Montan, S. Svanberg, “Multispectral system for medical fluorescence imaging,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1798–1805 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Munch, R.

U. K. Franzeck, R. Munch, M. Wachter, B. Vesti, R. Ammann, A. Bollinger, “Dynamic fluorescence video endoscopy for intravital evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 39, 806–809 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelems, B.

S. Lam, J. Y. Hung, S. M. Kennedy, J. C. Leriche, S. Vedal, B. Nelems, C. E. Macaulay, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ by ratio fluorometry,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okunaka, T.

H. Kato, T. Okunaka, N. Ikeda, C. Konaka, “Application of simple imaging technique for fluorescence bronchoscopy: preliminary report,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 1, 79–81 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Palcic, B.

M. L. Harries, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Qu, B. Palcic, “Diagnostic imaging of the larynx: autofluorescence of laryngeal tumours using the helium–cadmium laser,” J. Laryngol. Otol. 109, 108–110 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Hung, J. LeRiche, A. E. Profio, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ with a lung imaging fluorescence endoscope,” J. Thoracic Cardiovasc. Surg. 105, 1035–1040 (1993).

S. Lam, J. Y. Hung, S. M. Kennedy, J. C. Leriche, S. Vedal, B. Nelems, C. E. Macaulay, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ by ratio fluorometry,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. MacAulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging techniques,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lam, B. Palcic, D. McLean, J. Hung, M. Korbelik, A. E. Profio, “Detection of early lung cancer using low dose photofrin II,” Chest 97, 333–337 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petras, R. E.

R. M. Cothren, M. V. Sivak, J. Van Dam, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, J. M. Crawford, J. Wu, J. F. Brennan, R. P. Rava, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Detection of dysplasia at colonoscopy using laser-induced fluorescence: a blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 44, 168–176 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pottier, R.

J. Kennedy, R. Pottier, “Endogenous protoporphyrin IX: a clinically useful photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. 14, 275–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Preisinger, E. A.

T. D. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. A. Preisinger, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopic imaging for detection of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prescott, R.

R. Prescott, “Model for the assessment of image quality in endoscopes,” in Image Quality, P. S. Cheatham, ed., Proc. SPIE310, 53–57 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Profio, A. E.

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Hung, J. LeRiche, A. E. Profio, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ with a lung imaging fluorescence endoscope,” J. Thoracic Cardiovasc. Surg. 105, 1035–1040 (1993).

S. Lam, B. Palcic, D. McLean, J. Hung, M. Korbelik, A. E. Profio, “Detection of early lung cancer using low dose photofrin II,” Chest 97, 333–337 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, J.

M. L. Harries, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Qu, B. Palcic, “Diagnostic imaging of the larynx: autofluorescence of laryngeal tumours using the helium–cadmium laser,” J. Laryngol. Otol. 109, 108–110 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rava, R. P.

R. M. Cothren, M. V. Sivak, J. Van Dam, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, J. M. Crawford, J. Wu, J. F. Brennan, R. P. Rava, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Detection of dysplasia at colonoscopy using laser-induced fluorescence: a blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 44, 168–176 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “A portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 2081–2088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, J.

S. J. Dobson, J. Ribeiro, “The primary aberration characteristics of thin lens models of common relay systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 32–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rick, K.

A. Leunig, K. Rick, H. Stepp, R. Gutmann, G. Alwin, R. Baumgartner, J. Feyh, “Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of 5-aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX for the detection of neoplastic lesions in the oral cavity,” Am. J. Surg. 172, 674–677 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romer, T. J.

J. F. Brennan, T. J. Romer, R. S. Lees, A. M. Tercyak, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Determination of human coronary artery composition by Raman spectroscopy,” Circulation 96, 99–105 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, E. V.

W. D. Tope, E. V. Ross, N. Kollias, A. Martin, R. Gillies, R. R. Anderson, “Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence induced by basal cell carcinoma by oral δ-aminolevulinic acid,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 249–255 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidlin, F.

P. Jichlinski, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, T. Glanzmann, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnieres, G. Zimmer, L. Guillou, F. Schmidlin, P. Graber, P. H. van den Bergh, H. J. Leisinger, “Clinical evaluation of a method for detecting superficial surgical transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by light-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX following the topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidlitz, H. K.

M. Classen, K. Knyrim, H. K. Seidlitz, F. Hagenmuller, “Electronic endoscopy—the latest technology,” Endoscopy 19, 118–123 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivak, M. V.

R. M. Cothren, M. V. Sivak, J. Van Dam, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, J. M. Crawford, J. Wu, J. F. Brennan, R. P. Rava, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Detection of dysplasia at colonoscopy using laser-induced fluorescence: a blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 44, 168–176 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, Gastroenterologic Endoscopy (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1987), Chap. 2.

Sliney, D.

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Laser and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980), Chap. 8, pp. 262–263.

Smith, W.

N. Vakil, W. Smith, K. Bourgeois, E. C. Everbach, K. Knyrim, “Endoscopic measurement of lesion size—improved accuracy with image processing,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 40, 178–183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepp, H.

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuchel, H. Stepp, F. Hofstadter, A. Hofstetter, “Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid induced porphyrin fluorescence,” J. Urol. 155, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Leunig, K. Rick, H. Stepp, R. Gutmann, G. Alwin, R. Baumgartner, J. Feyh, “Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of 5-aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX for the detection of neoplastic lesions in the oral cavity,” Am. J. Surg. 172, 674–677 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strup, S.

M. Grasso, M. Beaghler, D. H. Bagley, S. Strup, “Actively deflectable, flexible cystoscopes—no longer solely a diagnostic instrument,” J. Endourol. 7, 527–530 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugarbaker, D. J.

S. J. Mentzer, S. J. Swanson, M. M. Decamp, R. Bueno, D. J. Sugarbaker, “Mediastinoscopy, thoracoscopy, and video-assisted thoracic surgery in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer,” Chest 112, 239–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, K.

L. Forkert, H. Watanabe, K. Sutherland, S. Vincent, J. T. Fisher, “Quantitative videobronchoscopy—a new technique to assess airway caliber,” Am. J. Respirat. Crit. Care Medi. 154, 1794–1803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Medical diagnostic system based on simultaneous multispectral fluorescence imaging,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8022–8028 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Andersson, S. Montan, S. Svanberg, “Multispectral system for medical fluorescence imaging,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1798–1805 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, S. J.

S. J. Mentzer, S. J. Swanson, M. M. Decamp, R. Bueno, D. J. Sugarbaker, “Mediastinoscopy, thoracoscopy, and video-assisted thoracic surgery in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer,” Chest 112, 239–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taroni, P.

R. Cubeddu, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, G. Canti, “Use of time-gated fluorescence imaging for diagnosis in biomedicine,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B—Biol. 12, 109–113 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tercyak, A. M.

J. F. Brennan, T. J. Romer, R. S. Lees, A. M. Tercyak, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Determination of human coronary artery composition by Raman spectroscopy,” Circulation 96, 99–105 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomaru, T.

S. E. Friedl, G. Abela, T. Tomaru, G. R. Barbeau, R. A. Haley, “Quantitative endovascular angioscopy,” in Optical Fibers in Medicine IV, A. Katzir, ed., Proc. SPIE1067, 131–136 (1989).

Tope, W. D.

W. D. Tope, E. V. Ross, N. Kollias, A. Martin, R. Gillies, R. R. Anderson, “Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence induced by basal cell carcinoma by oral δ-aminolevulinic acid,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 249–255 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakil, N.

N. Vakil, W. Smith, K. Bourgeois, E. C. Everbach, K. Knyrim, “Endoscopic measurement of lesion size—improved accuracy with image processing,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 40, 178–183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentini, G.

R. Cubeddu, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, G. Canti, “Use of time-gated fluorescence imaging for diagnosis in biomedicine,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B—Biol. 12, 109–113 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Van Dam, J.

T. D. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. A. Preisinger, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopic imaging for detection of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, M. V. Sivak, J. Van Dam, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, J. M. Crawford, J. Wu, J. F. Brennan, R. P. Rava, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Detection of dysplasia at colonoscopy using laser-induced fluorescence: a blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 44, 168–176 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, J. Van Dam, “Clinical use of fluorescence endoscopic images to detect colonic dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (in press).

van den Bergh, P. H.

P. Jichlinski, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, T. Glanzmann, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnieres, G. Zimmer, L. Guillou, F. Schmidlin, P. Graber, P. H. van den Bergh, H. J. Leisinger, “Clinical evaluation of a method for detecting superficial surgical transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by light-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX following the topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vedal, S.

S. Lam, J. Y. Hung, S. M. Kennedy, J. C. Leriche, S. Vedal, B. Nelems, C. E. Macaulay, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ by ratio fluorometry,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vesti, B.

U. K. Franzeck, R. Munch, M. Wachter, B. Vesti, R. Ammann, A. Bollinger, “Dynamic fluorescence video endoscopy for intravital evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 39, 806–809 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincent, S.

L. Forkert, H. Watanabe, K. Sutherland, S. Vincent, J. T. Fisher, “Quantitative videobronchoscopy—a new technique to assess airway caliber,” Am. J. Respirat. Crit. Care Medi. 154, 1794–1803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wachter, M.

U. K. Franzeck, R. Munch, M. Wachter, B. Vesti, R. Ammann, A. Bollinger, “Dynamic fluorescence video endoscopy for intravital evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 39, 806–809 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagnieres, G.

P. Jichlinski, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, T. Glanzmann, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnieres, G. Zimmer, L. Guillou, F. Schmidlin, P. Graber, P. H. van den Bergh, H. J. Leisinger, “Clinical evaluation of a method for detecting superficial surgical transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by light-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX following the topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

T. D. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. A. Preisinger, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopic imaging for detection of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “A portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 2081–2088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Wang, “Fluorescence endoscopic imaging system for detection of colonic adenomas,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1996).

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, J. Van Dam, “Clinical use of fluorescence endoscopic images to detect colonic dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (in press).

Wang, Y.

T. D. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. A. Preisinger, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopic imaging for detection of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, J. Van Dam, “Clinical use of fluorescence endoscopic images to detect colonic dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (in press).

Watanabe, H.

L. Forkert, H. Watanabe, K. Sutherland, S. Vincent, J. T. Fisher, “Quantitative videobronchoscopy—a new technique to assess airway caliber,” Am. J. Respirat. Crit. Care Medi. 154, 1794–1803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Webber, J.

J. Webber, D. Kessel, D. Fromm, “Side effects and photosensitization of human tissues after aminolevulinic acid,” J. Surg. Res. 68, 31–37 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolbarsht, M.

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Laser and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980), Chap. 8, pp. 262–263.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference, and Diffraction of Light, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), Chap. 4, p. 182.

Wu, J.

R. M. Cothren, M. V. Sivak, J. Van Dam, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, J. M. Crawford, J. Wu, J. F. Brennan, R. P. Rava, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Detection of dysplasia at colonoscopy using laser-induced fluorescence: a blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 44, 168–176 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmer, G.

P. Jichlinski, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, T. Glanzmann, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnieres, G. Zimmer, L. Guillou, F. Schmidlin, P. Graber, P. H. van den Bergh, H. J. Leisinger, “Clinical evaluation of a method for detecting superficial surgical transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by light-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX following the topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G. I.

J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “A portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 2081–2088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Respirat. Crit. Care Medi.

L. Forkert, H. Watanabe, K. Sutherland, S. Vincent, J. T. Fisher, “Quantitative videobronchoscopy—a new technique to assess airway caliber,” Am. J. Respirat. Crit. Care Medi. 154, 1794–1803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Surg.

A. Leunig, K. Rick, H. Stepp, R. Gutmann, G. Alwin, R. Baumgartner, J. Feyh, “Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of 5-aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX for the detection of neoplastic lesions in the oral cavity,” Am. J. Surg. 172, 674–677 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. Rev. Respir. Dis.

S. Lam, J. Y. Hung, S. M. Kennedy, J. C. Leriche, S. Vedal, B. Nelems, C. E. Macaulay, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ by ratio fluorometry,” Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spectrosc.

J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “A portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 2081–2088 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chest

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. MacAulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging techniques,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Mentzer, S. J. Swanson, M. M. Decamp, R. Bueno, D. J. Sugarbaker, “Mediastinoscopy, thoracoscopy, and video-assisted thoracic surgery in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer,” Chest 112, 239–241 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Lam, B. Palcic, D. McLean, J. Hung, M. Korbelik, A. E. Profio, “Detection of early lung cancer using low dose photofrin II,” Chest 97, 333–337 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circulation

J. F. Brennan, T. J. Romer, R. S. Lees, A. M. Tercyak, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Determination of human coronary artery composition by Raman spectroscopy,” Circulation 96, 99–105 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc.

H. Kato, T. Okunaka, N. Ikeda, C. Konaka, “Application of simple imaging technique for fluorescence bronchoscopy: preliminary report,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 1, 79–81 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Endoscopy

M. Classen, K. Knyrim, H. K. Seidlitz, F. Hagenmuller, “Electronic endoscopy—the latest technology,” Endoscopy 19, 118–123 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology

T. D. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, E. A. Preisinger, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence endoscopic imaging for detection of human colonic adenomas,” Gastroenterology 111, 1182–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc.

U. K. Franzeck, R. Munch, M. Wachter, B. Vesti, R. Ammann, A. Bollinger, “Dynamic fluorescence video endoscopy for intravital evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 39, 806–809 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vakil, W. Smith, K. Bourgeois, E. C. Everbach, K. Knyrim, “Endoscopic measurement of lesion size—improved accuracy with image processing,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 40, 178–183 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, M. V. Sivak, J. Van Dam, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, J. M. Crawford, J. Wu, J. F. Brennan, R. P. Rava, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Detection of dysplasia at colonoscopy using laser-induced fluorescence: a blinded study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 44, 168–176 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. S. Andersson, S. Montan, S. Svanberg, “Multispectral system for medical fluorescence imaging,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1798–1805 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Endourol.

M. Grasso, M. Beaghler, D. H. Bagley, S. Strup, “Actively deflectable, flexible cystoscopes—no longer solely a diagnostic instrument,” J. Endourol. 7, 527–530 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Laryngol. Otol.

M. L. Harries, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Qu, B. Palcic, “Diagnostic imaging of the larynx: autofluorescence of laryngeal tumours using the helium–cadmium laser,” J. Laryngol. Otol. 109, 108–110 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol.

J. Kennedy, R. Pottier, “Endogenous protoporphyrin IX: a clinically useful photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. 14, 275–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B—Biol.

R. Cubeddu, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, G. Canti, “Use of time-gated fluorescence imaging for diagnosis in biomedicine,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B—Biol. 12, 109–113 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Surg. Res.

J. Webber, D. Kessel, D. Fromm, “Side effects and photosensitization of human tissues after aminolevulinic acid,” J. Surg. Res. 68, 31–37 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thoracic Cardiovasc. Surg.

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. Hung, J. LeRiche, A. E. Profio, B. Palcic, “Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ with a lung imaging fluorescence endoscope,” J. Thoracic Cardiovasc. Surg. 105, 1035–1040 (1993).

J. Urol.

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuchel, H. Stepp, F. Hofstadter, A. Hofstetter, “Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid induced porphyrin fluorescence,” J. Urol. 155, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

P. Jichlinski, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, T. Glanzmann, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnieres, G. Zimmer, L. Guillou, F. Schmidlin, P. Graber, P. H. van den Bergh, H. J. Leisinger, “Clinical evaluation of a method for detecting superficial surgical transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by light-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX following the topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid: preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

S. J. Dobson, J. Ribeiro, “The primary aberration characteristics of thin lens models of common relay systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 32–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol.

W. D. Tope, E. V. Ross, N. Kollias, A. Martin, R. Gillies, R. R. Anderson, “Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence induced by basal cell carcinoma by oral δ-aminolevulinic acid,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 249–255 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

I. D. Campbell, R. A. Dwek, Biological Spectroscopy (Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif., 1984), Chap. 5.

H. Kato, Electronic Videoendoscopy (Harwood Academic, Langhorne, Pa., 1993), Chap. 1.

J. M. Crawford, “The gastrointestinal tract,” in Pathological Basis of Disease, S. L. Robbins, R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, eds. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994), pp. 811–815.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference, and Diffraction of Light, 5th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), Chap. 4, p. 182.

E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1987), Chaps. 5, 6.

Photomultiplier Tubes, Principles and Applications (Phillips Components, 100 Providence Pike, Slaterville, R.I., 1994).

Oriel Corporation Catalog, (Oriel Corporation, 250 Long Beach Blvd., P.O. Box 872, Stratford, Conn., 1994).

A. Macovski, Medical Imaging Systems (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs N.J., 1983), Chap. 8.

I. P. Csorba, Image Tubes (Howard W. Sams, Indianapolis, Ind., 1985), Chap. 8.

Olympus CF-10L Data Sheet (Olympus Corporation, 4 Nevada Dr., Lake Success, N.Y., 1996).

Pentax EC-3800TL Data Sheet (Pentax Precision Instruments Corporation, 30 Ramland Rd., Orangeburg, N.Y., 1996).

R. Prescott, “Model for the assessment of image quality in endoscopes,” in Image Quality, P. S. Cheatham, ed., Proc. SPIE310, 53–57 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Friedl, G. Abela, T. Tomaru, G. R. Barbeau, R. A. Haley, “Quantitative endovascular angioscopy,” in Optical Fibers in Medicine IV, A. Katzir, ed., Proc. SPIE1067, 131–136 (1989).

M. V. Sivak, Gastroenterologic Endoscopy (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1987), Chap. 2.

M. O. Blackstone, Endoscopic Interpretation: Normal and Pathologic Appearances of the Gastrointestinal Tract (Raven, New York, 1984).

T. D. Wang, J. M. Crawford, Y. Wang, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, J. Van Dam, “Clinical use of fluorescence endoscopic images to detect colonic dysplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (in press).

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Laser and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980), Chap. 8, pp. 262–263.

User’s Manual for ISG-204 (Xybion Electronics Systems Corporation, 8380 Miralani Dr., San Diego, Calif., 1989).

Area Array Image Sensor Products (Texas Instruments, P.O. Box 655303, Dallas, Tex., 1996).

T. D. Wang, “Fluorescence endoscopic imaging system for detection of colonic adenomas,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Endoscope oriented at normal incidence to a flat object.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

For a fiber-optic imaging bundle, the rays of light captured by a single optical fiber are limited to those whose angle of incidence falls within a cone defined by the N.A. of the fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of endoscopically collected fluorescence intensity over the range of distances between 5 and 35 mm shown in a log–log plot. The distances in millimeters are shown in parentheses below the corresponding data point.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profile through the center of an endoscopically collected fluorescence image of colonic mucosa along d = 20 mm shown with predicted model results.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) White-light image taken in vivo with the distal end of the electronic colonoscope oriented perpendicular to the mucosa. A colonic adenoma is located in the bottom half of the image near the center. (b) Fluorescence image collected in a sequential frame that shows decreased fluorescence intensity at the site of the adenoma. A vascular pattern can be seen on both images, which were collected in 33-ms frames.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mathematical Symbols with Corresponding Definitions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Input Parameters used in the Model to Predict the Number of Fluorescence Photons Detected by the Fiber-Optic and the Electronic Endoscopesa

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E i λ i = P i λ i Δ t .
F i r = P i Δ t   cos   θ 2 π 1 - cos   θ mi r 2 i r .
F i ρ ,   d = P i Δ t 2 π 1 - cos   θ mi d 2 1 + ρ d 2 2 .
A r = π d   tan   θ mr 2 n r .
E r ρ ,   d = π d   tan   θ mr 2 ε r F i ρ ,   d n r .
C r = π r L 2 4 π r 2 .
E c ρ ,   d = r L 2   tan 2   θ mr ε r P i Δ t 8 1 - cos   θ mi n r d 2 1 + | ρ - ρ 0 | d 2 2 1 + ρ d 2 2 .
N p ρ ,   d = K d 2 1 + | ρ - ρ 0 | d 2 2 1 + ρ d 2 2 ,
K = λ r b 2 T 0 f p hc r L 2 ε r   tan 2   θ mr P i Δ t 8 1 - cos   θ mi n r .
SNR = η N p η N p + D Δ t + N ro 2 1 / 2 .
SNR = η N p 1 / 2 .
R = 2 bd   tan   θ mr n r .

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