Abstract

Interest in digital imaging has led to the development of new detectors in the form of large-area displays. Most of the recent improvements are based on charge-coupled devices, a:Si photodiodes arrays, and so on. Some of these photodetectors must be coupled to scintillating screens to convert the ionizing radiation into light. Fiber-optic screens offer an advantage for achieving this interface because the length (thickness) of the interaction medium does not contribute too much to the degradation of the spatial resolution. We discuss the possibility of using a plastic scintillating fiber (PSF) array for x-ray detection and imaging in the 10-keV range. Modulation-transfer-function (MTF) measurements of the PSF array are compared with the optics MTF of the imaging system (without the sample); cross talk in the fiber array is negligible, even though the fiber array thickness is 20 mm. The optimal thickness of the array is estimated experimentally.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Sun, Q. Huang, J. A. Gilbert, “Comparing cross talk in doped scintillating-fiber bundles,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1536–1539 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Pavan, G. Zanella, R. Zannoni, A. Marigo, “Spatial resolution in x-ray imaging with scintillating glass optical fibre plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 327, 600–604 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Yu, J. M. Sabol, J. A. Seibert, J. M. Boone, “Scintillating fiber optic screens: a comparison of MTF, light conversion efficiency, and emission angle with Gd2O2S:Tb screens,” Med. Phys. 24, 279–285 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. L. Woody, S. P. Stoll, J. S. Frank, “Readout of undoped CsI and CeF3 crystals using scintillating fibers and bars,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 42, 292–297 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. D’Ambrosio, T. Gys, D. Puertolas “Particle tracking with scintillating fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43, 2115–2127 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Ottonello, G. A. Rottigni, G. Zanella, “Hard x-ray imaging with high detection efficiency and high spatial resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 346, 379–384 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Blumenfeld, E. Gaillard, P. Rebourgeard, “Measurement of the reflection coefficient at the core–cladding interface in plastic scintillating fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 309, 169–178 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, “Some emission characteristics of scintillating fibers for low energy x and γ rays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 408–414 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. O. White, “Scintillating fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 273, 820–825 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. B. Birks, The Theory and Practice of Scintillation Counting (Pergamon, New York, 1964).
  11. J. MarcouClub des Fibres Optiques Plastiques (CFOP), Plastic Optical Fibres: Physical Applications (Wiley, Chichester, UK1997).
  12. A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, “Radiation position-sensitive detector based on plastic scintillating fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2266–2269 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurements (Wiley, New York1989).
  14. A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, “Spatial and temporal characteristics of the x-ray emitted by a 1-J 50-ns vacuum discharge,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 669–675 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. L. Nickoloff, E. Donnelly, L. Eve, J. V. Atherton, T. Asch, “Mammographic resolution: influence of focal spot intensity distribution and geometry,” Med. Phys. 17, 436–447 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. P. Tzannes, J. M. Mooney, “Measurement of the modulation transfer function of infrared cameras,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1808–1817 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Krol, A. Ikhlef, J. C. Kieffer, D. Bassano, C. Chamberlain, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, S. Prasad, “Laser-based ultramicrofocused x-ray source for mammography: feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 24, 725–732 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

T. Yu, J. M. Sabol, J. A. Seibert, J. M. Boone, “Scintillating fiber optic screens: a comparison of MTF, light conversion efficiency, and emission angle with Gd2O2S:Tb screens,” Med. Phys. 24, 279–285 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Krol, A. Ikhlef, J. C. Kieffer, D. Bassano, C. Chamberlain, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, S. Prasad, “Laser-based ultramicrofocused x-ray source for mammography: feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 24, 725–732 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

C. D’Ambrosio, T. Gys, D. Puertolas “Particle tracking with scintillating fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43, 2115–2127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

C. L. Woody, S. P. Stoll, J. S. Frank, “Readout of undoped CsI and CeF3 crystals using scintillating fibers and bars,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 42, 292–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, Q. Huang, J. A. Gilbert, “Comparing cross talk in doped scintillating-fiber bundles,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1536–1539 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Tzannes, J. M. Mooney, “Measurement of the modulation transfer function of infrared cameras,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1808–1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

P. Ottonello, G. A. Rottigni, G. Zanella, “Hard x-ray imaging with high detection efficiency and high spatial resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 346, 379–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, “Some emission characteristics of scintillating fibers for low energy x and γ rays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 408–414 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

P. Pavan, G. Zanella, R. Zannoni, A. Marigo, “Spatial resolution in x-ray imaging with scintillating glass optical fibre plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 327, 600–604 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, “Radiation position-sensitive detector based on plastic scintillating fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2266–2269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, “Spatial and temporal characteristics of the x-ray emitted by a 1-J 50-ns vacuum discharge,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 669–675 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Blumenfeld, E. Gaillard, P. Rebourgeard, “Measurement of the reflection coefficient at the core–cladding interface in plastic scintillating fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 309, 169–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

E. L. Nickoloff, E. Donnelly, L. Eve, J. V. Atherton, T. Asch, “Mammographic resolution: influence of focal spot intensity distribution and geometry,” Med. Phys. 17, 436–447 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

T. O. White, “Scintillating fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 273, 820–825 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Asch, T.

E. L. Nickoloff, E. Donnelly, L. Eve, J. V. Atherton, T. Asch, “Mammographic resolution: influence of focal spot intensity distribution and geometry,” Med. Phys. 17, 436–447 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atherton, J. V.

E. L. Nickoloff, E. Donnelly, L. Eve, J. V. Atherton, T. Asch, “Mammographic resolution: influence of focal spot intensity distribution and geometry,” Med. Phys. 17, 436–447 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassano, D.

A. Krol, A. Ikhlef, J. C. Kieffer, D. Bassano, C. Chamberlain, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, S. Prasad, “Laser-based ultramicrofocused x-ray source for mammography: feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 24, 725–732 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, J. B.

J. B. Birks, The Theory and Practice of Scintillation Counting (Pergamon, New York, 1964).

Blumenfeld, H.

H. Blumenfeld, E. Gaillard, P. Rebourgeard, “Measurement of the reflection coefficient at the core–cladding interface in plastic scintillating fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 309, 169–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boone, J. M.

T. Yu, J. M. Sabol, J. A. Seibert, J. M. Boone, “Scintillating fiber optic screens: a comparison of MTF, light conversion efficiency, and emission angle with Gd2O2S:Tb screens,” Med. Phys. 24, 279–285 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamberlain, C.

A. Krol, A. Ikhlef, J. C. Kieffer, D. Bassano, C. Chamberlain, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, S. Prasad, “Laser-based ultramicrofocused x-ray source for mammography: feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 24, 725–732 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Ambrosio, C.

C. D’Ambrosio, T. Gys, D. Puertolas “Particle tracking with scintillating fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43, 2115–2127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, E.

E. L. Nickoloff, E. Donnelly, L. Eve, J. V. Atherton, T. Asch, “Mammographic resolution: influence of focal spot intensity distribution and geometry,” Med. Phys. 17, 436–447 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eve, L.

E. L. Nickoloff, E. Donnelly, L. Eve, J. V. Atherton, T. Asch, “Mammographic resolution: influence of focal spot intensity distribution and geometry,” Med. Phys. 17, 436–447 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, J. S.

C. L. Woody, S. P. Stoll, J. S. Frank, “Readout of undoped CsI and CeF3 crystals using scintillating fibers and bars,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 42, 292–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gaillard, E.

H. Blumenfeld, E. Gaillard, P. Rebourgeard, “Measurement of the reflection coefficient at the core–cladding interface in plastic scintillating fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 309, 169–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, J. A.

Gys, T.

C. D’Ambrosio, T. Gys, D. Puertolas “Particle tracking with scintillating fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43, 2115–2127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q.

Ikhlef, A.

A. Krol, A. Ikhlef, J. C. Kieffer, D. Bassano, C. Chamberlain, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, S. Prasad, “Laser-based ultramicrofocused x-ray source for mammography: feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 24, 725–732 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, “Some emission characteristics of scintillating fibers for low energy x and γ rays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 408–414 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, “Radiation position-sensitive detector based on plastic scintillating fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2266–2269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, “Spatial and temporal characteristics of the x-ray emitted by a 1-J 50-ns vacuum discharge,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 669–675 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

A. Krol, A. Ikhlef, J. C. Kieffer, D. Bassano, C. Chamberlain, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, S. Prasad, “Laser-based ultramicrofocused x-ray source for mammography: feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 24, 725–732 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J. C.

A. Krol, A. Ikhlef, J. C. Kieffer, D. Bassano, C. Chamberlain, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, S. Prasad, “Laser-based ultramicrofocused x-ray source for mammography: feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 24, 725–732 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoll, G. F.

G. F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurements (Wiley, New York1989).

Krol, A.

A. Krol, A. Ikhlef, J. C. Kieffer, D. Bassano, C. Chamberlain, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, S. Prasad, “Laser-based ultramicrofocused x-ray source for mammography: feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 24, 725–732 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcou, J.

J. MarcouClub des Fibres Optiques Plastiques (CFOP), Plastic Optical Fibres: Physical Applications (Wiley, Chichester, UK1997).

Marigo, A.

P. Pavan, G. Zanella, R. Zannoni, A. Marigo, “Spatial resolution in x-ray imaging with scintillating glass optical fibre plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 327, 600–604 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, J. M.

A. P. Tzannes, J. M. Mooney, “Measurement of the modulation transfer function of infrared cameras,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1808–1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nickoloff, E. L.

E. L. Nickoloff, E. Donnelly, L. Eve, J. V. Atherton, T. Asch, “Mammographic resolution: influence of focal spot intensity distribution and geometry,” Med. Phys. 17, 436–447 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ottonello, P.

P. Ottonello, G. A. Rottigni, G. Zanella, “Hard x-ray imaging with high detection efficiency and high spatial resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 346, 379–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pavan, P.

P. Pavan, G. Zanella, R. Zannoni, A. Marigo, “Spatial resolution in x-ray imaging with scintillating glass optical fibre plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 327, 600–604 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, H.

A. Krol, A. Ikhlef, J. C. Kieffer, D. Bassano, C. Chamberlain, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, S. Prasad, “Laser-based ultramicrofocused x-ray source for mammography: feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 24, 725–732 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, S.

A. Krol, A. Ikhlef, J. C. Kieffer, D. Bassano, C. Chamberlain, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, S. Prasad, “Laser-based ultramicrofocused x-ray source for mammography: feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 24, 725–732 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puertolas, D.

C. D’Ambrosio, T. Gys, D. Puertolas “Particle tracking with scintillating fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43, 2115–2127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rebourgeard, P.

H. Blumenfeld, E. Gaillard, P. Rebourgeard, “Measurement of the reflection coefficient at the core–cladding interface in plastic scintillating fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 309, 169–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rottigni, G. A.

P. Ottonello, G. A. Rottigni, G. Zanella, “Hard x-ray imaging with high detection efficiency and high spatial resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 346, 379–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sabol, J. M.

T. Yu, J. M. Sabol, J. A. Seibert, J. M. Boone, “Scintillating fiber optic screens: a comparison of MTF, light conversion efficiency, and emission angle with Gd2O2S:Tb screens,” Med. Phys. 24, 279–285 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibert, J. A.

T. Yu, J. M. Sabol, J. A. Seibert, J. M. Boone, “Scintillating fiber optic screens: a comparison of MTF, light conversion efficiency, and emission angle with Gd2O2S:Tb screens,” Med. Phys. 24, 279–285 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skowronek, M.

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, “Some emission characteristics of scintillating fibers for low energy x and γ rays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 408–414 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, “Spatial and temporal characteristics of the x-ray emitted by a 1-J 50-ns vacuum discharge,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 669–675 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, “Radiation position-sensitive detector based on plastic scintillating fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2266–2269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stoll, S. P.

C. L. Woody, S. P. Stoll, J. S. Frank, “Readout of undoped CsI and CeF3 crystals using scintillating fibers and bars,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 42, 292–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Tzannes, A. P.

A. P. Tzannes, J. M. Mooney, “Measurement of the modulation transfer function of infrared cameras,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1808–1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

White, T. O.

T. O. White, “Scintillating fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 273, 820–825 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Woody, C. L.

C. L. Woody, S. P. Stoll, J. S. Frank, “Readout of undoped CsI and CeF3 crystals using scintillating fibers and bars,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 42, 292–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

T. Yu, J. M. Sabol, J. A. Seibert, J. M. Boone, “Scintillating fiber optic screens: a comparison of MTF, light conversion efficiency, and emission angle with Gd2O2S:Tb screens,” Med. Phys. 24, 279–285 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zanella, G.

P. Ottonello, G. A. Rottigni, G. Zanella, “Hard x-ray imaging with high detection efficiency and high spatial resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 346, 379–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Pavan, G. Zanella, R. Zannoni, A. Marigo, “Spatial resolution in x-ray imaging with scintillating glass optical fibre plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 327, 600–604 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zannoni, R.

P. Pavan, G. Zanella, R. Zannoni, A. Marigo, “Spatial resolution in x-ray imaging with scintillating glass optical fibre plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 327, 600–604 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (3)

C. L. Woody, S. P. Stoll, J. S. Frank, “Readout of undoped CsI and CeF3 crystals using scintillating fibers and bars,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 42, 292–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Ambrosio, T. Gys, D. Puertolas “Particle tracking with scintillating fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43, 2115–2127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, “Some emission characteristics of scintillating fibers for low energy x and γ rays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 408–414 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, “Spatial and temporal characteristics of the x-ray emitted by a 1-J 50-ns vacuum discharge,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 669–675 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (3)

E. L. Nickoloff, E. Donnelly, L. Eve, J. V. Atherton, T. Asch, “Mammographic resolution: influence of focal spot intensity distribution and geometry,” Med. Phys. 17, 436–447 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yu, J. M. Sabol, J. A. Seibert, J. M. Boone, “Scintillating fiber optic screens: a comparison of MTF, light conversion efficiency, and emission angle with Gd2O2S:Tb screens,” Med. Phys. 24, 279–285 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Krol, A. Ikhlef, J. C. Kieffer, D. Bassano, C. Chamberlain, Z. Jiang, H. Pepin, S. Prasad, “Laser-based ultramicrofocused x-ray source for mammography: feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 24, 725–732 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (4)

P. Pavan, G. Zanella, R. Zannoni, A. Marigo, “Spatial resolution in x-ray imaging with scintillating glass optical fibre plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 327, 600–604 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. O. White, “Scintillating fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 273, 820–825 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Ottonello, G. A. Rottigni, G. Zanella, “Hard x-ray imaging with high detection efficiency and high spatial resolution,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 346, 379–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Blumenfeld, E. Gaillard, P. Rebourgeard, “Measurement of the reflection coefficient at the core–cladding interface in plastic scintillating fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 309, 169–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. P. Tzannes, J. M. Mooney, “Measurement of the modulation transfer function of infrared cameras,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1808–1817 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, “Radiation position-sensitive detector based on plastic scintillating fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2266–2269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurements (Wiley, New York1989).

J. B. Birks, The Theory and Practice of Scintillation Counting (Pergamon, New York, 1964).

J. MarcouClub des Fibres Optiques Plastiques (CFOP), Plastic Optical Fibres: Physical Applications (Wiley, Chichester, UK1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the optical propagation in the fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurement of the optimal fiber length.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Radiography of copper electric wire and its coating using the plastic scintillating fiber array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Edge scan transfer function for both cases: solid curve, optics ESF without the detector sample (fiber array); dotted curve, ESF with the sample. (b) MTF for both cases: dotted–dashed curve, optics MTF without the detector sample (fiber array); dotted curve, MTF with the sample; solid curve, the ratio of the two curves.

Equations (1)

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F x = D + a exp x - b / c + 1 .

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