Abstract

We modify groove profile of various blazed gratings with groove densities as great as 3600 lines/mm by dip coating with hardenable liquids with the aim of reducing the blaze angle. The groove profiles resulting from coatings with different layer thickness are measured by atomic force microscopy. A highly reproducible blaze angle reduction to as high as a factor of 6 is achieved with mechanically ruled as well as ion-beam-etched holographic blazed gratings. Blaze angles, to as small as 0.7 deg, which are required for vacuum-UV and soft-x-ray applications but can hardly be formed with sufficient groove profile accuracy by direct ruling, are realized with this coating technique.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum–silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-1/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. Kleineberg, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Multilayer-coated soft-x-ray diffraction gratings,” BESSY Jahresber.487–488 (1992).
  4. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 13.6–14.2-nm wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. H. Underwood, C. Khan Malek, E. M. Gullikson, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer-coated echelle gratings for the soft x rays and extreme ultraviolet,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147–2150 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “The EUV performance of an ion-etched blazed diffraction grating,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 473–476 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal incidence efficiencies in the 11.5–34-nm wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, H. J. Stock, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, U. Heinzmann, “Mo/Si multilayer coated ruled blazed gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6506–6512 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7738–7346 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  15. R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. V. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, S. P. Vernon, Y. Cheng, “Silicide layer growth rates in Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6975–6980 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Osterried, “Reflexionsbeugungsgitter mit Multischichten für weiche Röntgenstrahlung und nahezu senkrechten Einfall,” Ph.D. dissertation (Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Germany, 1996).
  17. H. R. Dobler, “Verfahren zur Änderung der Reflexionseigenschaften von Oberflächen optischer Teile, insbesondere von Brillenlinsen,” Patentschrift DE3014597 C2, Deutsches Patentamt (15July1982).
  18. J. J. J. Staunton, “Diffraction gratings having a plurality of blaze angles,” U.S. patent3,045,532 (24July1962).
  19. F. Macco, B. Nelles, K. Osterried, K. F. Heidemann are preparing the following paper for publication: “XYZ calibration of scanning probe microscopes by optical gratings.”
  20. U. Kleineberg, H. J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1997

1996

U. Kleineberg, H. J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “The EUV performance of an ion-etched blazed diffraction grating,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 473–476 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal incidence efficiencies in the 11.5–34-nm wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, H. J. Stock, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, U. Heinzmann, “Mo/Si multilayer coated ruled blazed gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6506–6512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7738–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, C. Khan Malek, E. M. Gullikson, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer-coated echelle gratings for the soft x rays and extreme ultraviolet,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147–2150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

U. Kleineberg, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Multilayer-coated soft-x-ray diffraction gratings,” BESSY Jahresber.487–488 (1992).

1990

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum–silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-1/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1972

E. Spiller, “Low-loss reflection coatings using absorbing materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 365–367 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “The EUV performance of an ion-etched blazed diffraction grating,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 473–476 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal incidence efficiencies in the 11.5–34-nm wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7738–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 13.6–14.2-nm wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum–silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-1/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, C. N.

Brown, C. M.

Cheng, Y.

Cruddace, R. G.

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Mende, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “The EUV performance of an ion-etched blazed diffraction grating,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 473–476 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7738–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal incidence efficiencies in the 11.5–34-nm wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum–silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-1/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobler, H. R.

H. R. Dobler, “Verfahren zur Änderung der Reflexionseigenschaften von Oberflächen optischer Teile, insbesondere von Brillenlinsen,” Patentschrift DE3014597 C2, Deutsches Patentamt (15July1982).

Fuchs, D.

U. Kleineberg, H. J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, H. J. Stock, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, U. Heinzmann, “Mo/Si multilayer coated ruled blazed gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6506–6512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

J. H. Underwood, C. Khan Malek, E. M. Gullikson, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer-coated echelle gratings for the soft x rays and extreme ultraviolet,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147–2150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heidemann, K. F.

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Mende, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Kleineberg, H. J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, H. J. Stock, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, U. Heinzmann, “Mo/Si multilayer coated ruled blazed gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6506–6512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Kleineberg, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Multilayer-coated soft-x-ray diffraction gratings,” BESSY Jahresber.487–488 (1992).

F. Macco, B. Nelles, K. Osterried, K. F. Heidemann are preparing the following paper for publication: “XYZ calibration of scanning probe microscopes by optical gratings.”

Heinzmann, U.

Holland, G. E.

Hunter, W. R.

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Mende, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “The EUV performance of an ion-etched blazed diffraction grating,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 473–476 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7738–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal incidence efficiencies in the 11.5–34-nm wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 13.6–14.2-nm wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum–silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-1/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kassner, M. E.

Kleineberg, U.

Kloidt, A.

U. Kleineberg, H. J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Kleineberg, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Multilayer-coated soft-x-ray diffraction gratings,” BESSY Jahresber.487–488 (1992).

A. Kloidt, “Herstellung von Multischichtsystemen durch Elektronenstrahlverdampfung für die Anwendung als Röntgenspiegel,” Ph.D. dissertation (Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Germany, 1993).

Kowalski, M. P.

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Mende, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “The EUV performance of an ion-etched blazed diffraction grating,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 473–476 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal incidence efficiencies in the 11.5–34-nm wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7738–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 13.6–14.2-nm wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krumrey, M.

J. H. Underwood, C. Khan Malek, E. M. Gullikson, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer-coated echelle gratings for the soft x rays and extreme ultraviolet,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147–2150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Kleineberg, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Multilayer-coated soft-x-ray diffraction gratings,” BESSY Jahresber.487–488 (1992).

Macco, F.

F. Macco, B. Nelles, K. Osterried, K. F. Heidemann are preparing the following paper for publication: “XYZ calibration of scanning probe microscopes by optical gratings.”

Malek, C. Khan

J. H. Underwood, C. Khan Malek, E. M. Gullikson, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer-coated echelle gratings for the soft x rays and extreme ultraviolet,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147–2150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mende, D.

Menke, D.

Müller, P.

U. Kleineberg, H. J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, H. J. Stock, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, U. Heinzmann, “Mo/Si multilayer coated ruled blazed gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6506–6512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Kleineberg, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Multilayer-coated soft-x-ray diffraction gratings,” BESSY Jahresber.487–488 (1992).

Nelles, B.

U. Kleineberg, H. J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, H. J. Stock, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, U. Heinzmann, “Mo/Si multilayer coated ruled blazed gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6506–6512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Macco, B. Nelles, K. Osterried, K. F. Heidemann are preparing the following paper for publication: “XYZ calibration of scanning probe microscopes by optical gratings.”

Osterried, K.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Mende, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Kleineberg, H. J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, H. J. Stock, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, U. Heinzmann, “Mo/Si multilayer coated ruled blazed gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6506–6512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Macco, B. Nelles, K. Osterried, K. F. Heidemann are preparing the following paper for publication: “XYZ calibration of scanning probe microscopes by optical gratings.”

K. Osterried, “Reflexionsbeugungsgitter mit Multischichten für weiche Röntgenstrahlung und nahezu senkrechten Einfall,” Ph.D. dissertation (Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Germany, 1996).

Rife, J. C.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Mende, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “The EUV performance of an ion-etched blazed diffraction grating,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 473–476 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7738–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal incidence efficiencies in the 11.5–34-nm wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 13.6–14.2-nm wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum–silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-1/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, R. S.

R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. V. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, S. P. Vernon, Y. Cheng, “Silicide layer growth rates in Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6975–6980 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, “High performance multilayer mirrors for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 2–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schmiedeskamp, B.

U. Kleineberg, H. J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, H. J. Stock, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, U. Heinzmann, “Mo/Si multilayer coated ruled blazed gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6506–6512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Kleineberg, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Multilayer-coated soft-x-ray diffraction gratings,” BESSY Jahresber.487–488 (1992).

Scholze, F.

U. Kleineberg, H. J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, H. J. Stock, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, U. Heinzmann, “Mo/Si multilayer coated ruled blazed gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6506–6512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Kleineberg, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Multilayer-coated soft-x-ray diffraction gratings,” BESSY Jahresber.487–488 (1992).

Seely, J. F.

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Mende, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5–16.0-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “The EUV performance of an ion-etched blazed diffraction grating,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 473–476 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7738–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal incidence efficiencies in the 11.5–34-nm wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 13.6–14.2-nm wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, “Low-loss reflection coatings using absorbing materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 365–367 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Staunton, J. J. J.

J. J. J. Staunton, “Diffraction gratings having a plurality of blaze angles,” U.S. patent3,045,532 (24July1962).

Stearns, D. G.

R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. V. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, S. P. Vernon, Y. Cheng, “Silicide layer growth rates in Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6975–6980 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, “High performance multilayer mirrors for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 2–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stock, H. J.

U. Kleineberg, H. J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, H. J. Stock, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, U. Heinzmann, “Mo/Si multilayer coated ruled blazed gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6506–6512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Kleineberg, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Multilayer-coated soft-x-ray diffraction gratings,” BESSY Jahresber.487–488 (1992).

Ulm, G.

U. Kleineberg, H. J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood, C. Khan Malek, E. M. Gullikson, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer-coated echelle gratings for the soft x rays and extreme ultraviolet,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147–2150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, S. P.

Viliardos, M. V.

Appl. Opt.

J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, “Multilayer-coated blazed grating performance in the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2984–2986 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 13.6–14.2-nm wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal incidence efficiencies in the 11.5–34-nm wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, H. J. Stock, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, U. Heinzmann, “Mo/Si multilayer coated ruled blazed gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6506–6512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7738–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. V. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, S. P. Vernon, Y. Cheng, “Silicide layer growth rates in Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6975–6980 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Spiller, “Low-loss reflection coatings using absorbing materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 365–367 (1972).
[CrossRef]

BESSY Jahresber.

U. Kleineberg, A. Kloidt, H. J. Stock, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. F. Heidemann, “Multilayer-coated soft-x-ray diffraction gratings,” BESSY Jahresber.487–488 (1992).

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, “The EUV performance of an ion-etched blazed diffraction grating,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 473–476 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Kleineberg, H. J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Scr.

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum–silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-1/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. H. Underwood, C. Khan Malek, E. M. Gullikson, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer-coated echelle gratings for the soft x rays and extreme ultraviolet,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2147–2150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, “High performance multilayer mirrors for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 2–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Kloidt, “Herstellung von Multischichtsystemen durch Elektronenstrahlverdampfung für die Anwendung als Röntgenspiegel,” Ph.D. dissertation (Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Germany, 1993).

K. Osterried, “Reflexionsbeugungsgitter mit Multischichten für weiche Röntgenstrahlung und nahezu senkrechten Einfall,” Ph.D. dissertation (Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Germany, 1996).

H. R. Dobler, “Verfahren zur Änderung der Reflexionseigenschaften von Oberflächen optischer Teile, insbesondere von Brillenlinsen,” Patentschrift DE3014597 C2, Deutsches Patentamt (15July1982).

J. J. J. Staunton, “Diffraction gratings having a plurality of blaze angles,” U.S. patent3,045,532 (24July1962).

F. Macco, B. Nelles, K. Osterried, K. F. Heidemann are preparing the following paper for publication: “XYZ calibration of scanning probe microscopes by optical gratings.”

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Groove profiles of a blazed grating with a groove density of 430 lines/mm and a blaze angle of 10 deg measured by AFM (a) after mechanical ruling and after dip coating with photoresist of (b) 70-nm, (c) 270-nm, and (d) 900-nm mean layer thickness. The result of spin coating with (e) 400-nm mean coating thickness is shown for comparison.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Groove profiles of a mechanically ruled blazed grating with a groove density of 1200 lines/mm. The AFM scans show the reduction of the blaze angle from (a) 2.8 deg to (b) 1.1 deg, (c) 0.84 deg, and (d) 0.69 deg by photoresist dip coating. The corresponding mean coating thickness is (b) 20 nm, (c) 30 nm, and (d) 90 nm, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Groove profiles of two mechanically ruled blazed gratings with a groove density of 1221 lines/mm. The AFM scans show the reduction in the blaze angles from (a) 1.7 deg and (b) 1.8 deg to (c), (d) 0.8 deg by a 30-nm-thick dip-coating layer of photoresist.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Groove profiles of a holographically recorded ion-beam-etched blazed grating with a groove density of 3600 lines/mm. Photoresist dip coating with a mean layer thickness of 60 nm reduces the blaze angle from (a) 14 deg to (b) 2.4 deg.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Groove profiles of a holographically recorded and ion-beam-etched blazed grating with a groove density of 1440 lines/mm. The AFM scans show the blaze angle reduction from (a) 10.1 to (b) 2.3 deg and to (c) 1.3 deg as a result of Liquicoat Si dip coating with (b) 50- and (c) 80-nm-thick layers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Qualitative simulation of the dip-coating process at a blazed grating with a groove density of 1000 lines/mm and a blaze angle of 5 deg. The calculated lines represent the surface profiles of the liquid surface at equally spaced time intervals. The right axis denotes blaze angle Φ.

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