Abstract

Sagnac interferometers have recently been proposed as a potential alternative to Michelson interferometers for the purpose of large-scale laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. We report on an experimental investigation of the Sagnac interferometer in two configurations: with arm cavities, and with resonant sideband extraction. Resonant sideband extraction was shown to increase the signal bandwidth by a factor of 6.5 compared with the arm cavity device, corresponding to an increase in sensitivity of as much as 6 dB for signals outside the arm cavity bandwidth. Moreover, we compare the performance of a Sagnac interferometer with resonant sideband extraction to a Michelson interferometer with resonant sideband extraction.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K.-X. Sun, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, “Sagnac interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3053–3056 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K.-X. Sun, M. M. Fejer, E. K. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, “Balanced heterodyne signal extraction in a postmodulated Sagnac interferometer at low frequency,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1485–1487 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K.-X. Sun, E. K. Gustafson, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, “Polarization-based balanced heterodyne detection method in a Sagnac interferometer for precision phase measurement,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1359–1361 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Mizuno, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Frequency response of Michelson- and Sagnac-based interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 138, 383–393 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Petrovichev, M. Gray, D. McClelland, “Simulating the performance of Michelson- and Sagnac-based laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors in the presence of mirror tilt and curvature errors,” Gen. Relat. Gravit. (to be published).
  6. J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. B. Gray, A. J. Stevenson, H.-A. Bachor, D. E. McClelland, “Broadband and tuned signal recycling with a simple Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5886–5893 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. R. Saulson, Fundamentals of Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors (World Scientific, Singapore, 1994).
  10. B. J. Meers, “Recycling in laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 38, 2317–2326 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, “Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A. 44, 7022–7036 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, J. Mizuno, P. G. Nelson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, “Thermal lensing in recycling interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 194, 124–132 (1994).
  13. W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, “Birefringence-induced losses in interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 245–252 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. B. Gray, D. A. Shaddock, C. C. Harb, H.-A. Bachor, “Photodetector designs for experiments in quantum optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).
  16. J. Mizuno, “Comparison of optical configurations for laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Ph.D. dissertation (Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany, 1995).
  17. S. E. Whitcomb, Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (personal communication, 1998).
  18. K. A. Strain, B. J. Meers, “Experimental demonstration of dual recycling for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1391–1394 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

1996 (2)

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K.-X. Sun, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, “Sagnac interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3053–3056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, J. Mizuno, P. G. Nelson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, “Thermal lensing in recycling interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 194, 124–132 (1994).

W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, “Birefringence-induced losses in interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 245–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, “Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A. 44, 7022–7036 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Strain, B. J. Meers, “Experimental demonstration of dual recycling for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1391–1394 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

B. J. Meers, “Recycling in laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 38, 2317–2326 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bachor, H.-A.

M. B. Gray, A. J. Stevenson, H.-A. Bachor, D. E. McClelland, “Broadband and tuned signal recycling with a simple Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5886–5893 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gray, D. A. Shaddock, C. C. Harb, H.-A. Bachor, “Photodetector designs for experiments in quantum optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Byer, R. L.

Chen, J. M.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

J. Mizuno, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Frequency response of Michelson- and Sagnac-based interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 138, 383–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, “Birefringence-induced losses in interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 245–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, J. Mizuno, P. G. Nelson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, “Thermal lensing in recycling interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 194, 124–132 (1994).

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, “Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A. 44, 7022–7036 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M.

B. Petrovichev, M. Gray, D. McClelland, “Simulating the performance of Michelson- and Sagnac-based laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors in the presence of mirror tilt and curvature errors,” Gen. Relat. Gravit. (to be published).

Gray, M. B.

M. B. Gray, A. J. Stevenson, H.-A. Bachor, D. E. McClelland, “Broadband and tuned signal recycling with a simple Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5886–5893 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gray, D. A. Shaddock, C. C. Harb, H.-A. Bachor, “Photodetector designs for experiments in quantum optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Gustafson, E.

K.-X. Sun, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, “Sagnac interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3053–3056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustafson, E. K.

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Harb, C. C.

M. B. Gray, D. A. Shaddock, C. C. Harb, H.-A. Bachor, “Photodetector designs for experiments in quantum optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Heinzel, G.

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D.

B. Petrovichev, M. Gray, D. McClelland, “Simulating the performance of Michelson- and Sagnac-based laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors in the presence of mirror tilt and curvature errors,” Gen. Relat. Gravit. (to be published).

McClelland, D. E.

Meers, B. J.

K. A. Strain, B. J. Meers, “Experimental demonstration of dual recycling for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1391–1394 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Meers, “Recycling in laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 38, 2317–2326 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, J.

J. Mizuno, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Frequency response of Michelson- and Sagnac-based interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 138, 383–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, J. Mizuno, P. G. Nelson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, “Thermal lensing in recycling interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 194, 124–132 (1994).

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, “Comparison of optical configurations for laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Ph.D. dissertation (Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany, 1995).

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, P. G.

K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, J. Mizuno, P. G. Nelson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, “Thermal lensing in recycling interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 194, 124–132 (1994).

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Petrovichev, B.

B. Petrovichev, M. Gray, D. McClelland, “Simulating the performance of Michelson- and Sagnac-based laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors in the presence of mirror tilt and curvature errors,” Gen. Relat. Gravit. (to be published).

Rudiger, A.

J. Mizuno, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Frequency response of Michelson- and Sagnac-based interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 138, 383–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, “Birefringence-induced losses in interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 245–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, J. Mizuno, P. G. Nelson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, “Thermal lensing in recycling interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 194, 124–132 (1994).

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, “Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A. 44, 7022–7036 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saulson, P. R.

P. R. Saulson, Fundamentals of Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors (World Scientific, Singapore, 1994).

Schilling, R.

J. Mizuno, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Frequency response of Michelson- and Sagnac-based interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 138, 383–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, “Birefringence-induced losses in interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 245–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, J. Mizuno, P. G. Nelson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, “Thermal lensing in recycling interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 194, 124–132 (1994).

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, “Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A. 44, 7022–7036 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaddock, D. A.

M. B. Gray, D. A. Shaddock, C. C. Harb, H.-A. Bachor, “Photodetector designs for experiments in quantum optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Stevenson, A. J.

Strain, K. A.

K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, J. Mizuno, P. G. Nelson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, “Thermal lensing in recycling interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 194, 124–132 (1994).

W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, “Birefringence-induced losses in interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 245–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Strain, B. J. Meers, “Experimental demonstration of dual recycling for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1391–1394 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, K.-X.

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Whitcomb, S. E.

S. E. Whitcomb, Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (personal communication, 1998).

Winkler, W.

J. Mizuno, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Frequency response of Michelson- and Sagnac-based interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 138, 383–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, “Birefringence-induced losses in interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 245–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, J. Mizuno, P. G. Nelson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, “Thermal lensing in recycling interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 194, 124–132 (1994).

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, “Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A. 44, 7022–7036 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, “Birefringence-induced losses in interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 245–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Frequency response of Michelson- and Sagnac-based interferometers,” Opt. Commun. 138, 383–393 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Lett. A (2)

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. G. Nelson, J. M. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rudiger, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, J. Mizuno, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, K. Danzmann, “An experimental demonstration of resonant sideband extraction for laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 217, 305–314 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

K. A. Strain, K. Danzmann, J. Mizuno, P. G. Nelson, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, W. Winkler, “Thermal lensing in recycling interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 194, 124–132 (1994).

Phys. Rev. A. (1)

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, “Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A. 44, 7022–7036 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

B. J. Meers, “Recycling in laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 38, 2317–2326 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K.-X. Sun, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, “Sagnac interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3053–3056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Strain, B. J. Meers, “Experimental demonstration of dual recycling for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1391–1394 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

B. Petrovichev, M. Gray, D. McClelland, “Simulating the performance of Michelson- and Sagnac-based laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors in the presence of mirror tilt and curvature errors,” Gen. Relat. Gravit. (to be published).

P. R. Saulson, Fundamentals of Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors (World Scientific, Singapore, 1994).

M. B. Gray, D. A. Shaddock, C. C. Harb, H.-A. Bachor, “Photodetector designs for experiments in quantum optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

J. Mizuno, “Comparison of optical configurations for laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Ph.D. dissertation (Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany, 1995).

S. E. Whitcomb, Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (personal communication, 1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic layout for RSE in a Sagnac interferometer. Ring cavities are used to increase the stored power while the SEM optimizes the storage time of the signal sidebands. BS, main beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical and electronic configuration for a RSE Sagnac interferometer. EOM, electro-optic modulator; PD’s, photodetectors; BS, beam splitter; M’s, mirrors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (jagged curve) and calculated (smooth curve) signal response for a Sagnac interferometer with arm cavities.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of an arm cavity Sagnac interferometer signal response [calculated (highest smooth curve) and measured (highest jagged curve)] with that of a RSE Sagnac interferometer [calculated (lowest smooth curve) and measured (lowest jagged curve)].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Frequency response of (a) an arm cavity Sagnac interferometer (no SEM), (b) a RSE Sagnac interferometer with 50% SEM, (c) a RSE Sagnac interferometer with 70% SEM, (d) a RSE Sagnac interferometer with 90% SEM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Frequency response of a RSE Sagnac interferometer for SEM detuning (SEM reflectivity, 50%): (a) signal recycling, (b) detuned point, (c) RSE.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A ω = - t 1 2 J 1 δ 1 - r 1 r 2 r 3 1 - r 1 r 2 r 3   exp i ω p / c ,
E + ω = E 0 r bs A ω r cav ω - A ω r cav 0 exp i ω L c / c ,
E - ω = E 0 it bs - A ω r cav ω + A ω r cav 0 × exp i ω L c / c ,
E ac ω = E 0 A ω r bs 2 + t bs 2 r cav ω - r cav 0 × exp i ω L c / c ,
E ac ω = E 0 A ω S ω ,
S ω = r bs 2 + t bs 2 r cav ω - r cav 0 exp i ω L c / c .
ω = it s 1 - 2 ir bs t bs r s r cav ω 2   exp i ω p s / c + δ s ,
T ω = E 0 A ω S ω ω .

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