Abstract

Under 805-nm diode-laser excitation we detected intense upconversion signals at 410, 380, and 275 nm in BaF2:Er3+. Energy upconversion schemes and efficiencies are discussed in detail. Intensity parameters of Er3+ in BaF2 were derived as Ω2 = 1.048 ± 0.117 × 10-20 cm2, Ω4 = 1.478 ± 0.180 × 10-20 cm2, and Ω6 = 1.009 ± 0.127 × 10-20 cm2.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Tanabe, K. Takahara, M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, “Spectroscopic studies of radiative transitions and upconversion characteristics of Er3+ ions in simple pseudoternary fluoride glasses MFn–BaF2–YF3 (M:Zr, Hf, Al, Sc, Ga, In, or Zn),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 786–793 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Multiphoton relaxation and infrared to visible conversion of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in barium–thorium fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266–275 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Gharavi, G. L. McPherson, “Visible UV upconversion in Er3+ doped cadmium chloride and zinc chloride glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2635–2637 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. L. Pope, B. R. Reddy, S. K. Nash-Stevenson, “Efficient violet upconversion signal from a fluoride fiber doped with erbium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 295–297 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. F. Massicott, M. C. Brierly, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. Szebesta, “Low threshold, diode pumped operation of a green, Er3+ doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2119–2120 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Xie, S. C. Rand, “Visible cooperative upconversion laser in Er:LiYF4,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1198–1200 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, “Upconversion lasers,” Opt. Photon. News 3, 8–15 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, N. L. Moise, “Upconversion pumped infrared erbium laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 4077–4086 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, “Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125–1138 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. R. Tallant, J. C. Wright, “Selective laser excitation of charge compensated sites in CaF2:Er3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 2074–2085 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Ray Bullock, B. R. Reddy, P. Venkateswarlu, S. K. Nash-Stevenson, “Site-selective energy upconversion in CaF2:Ho3+,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 553–559 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, R. S. Rana, P. Vandevelde, L. Fluyt, C. Görller-Walrand, “Crystal field analysis of Ho3+–LaF3 and Er3+–LaF3 in C2v site symmetry,” J. Less-Common Met. 116, 17–29 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–279 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. T. Carnall, H. M. Crosswhite, H. Crosswhite, “Energy level structure and transition probabilities of the trivalent lanthanides in LaF3,” Special Rep. ANL-78-XX-95 (Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill., 1978).
  16. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).
  17. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: Physics and Properties (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).
  18. R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, Lasers and Excited States of Rare Earths (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Kaiser, W. G. Spitzer, R. H. Kaiser, L. E. Howarth, “Infrared properties of CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1950–1954 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. Richman, “Vibronic spectra of SrF2:Sm2+ and BaF2:Sm2+,” Phys. Rev. 133, A1364–A1366 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. P. Hurrell, V. J. Minkiewicz, “The crystal dynamics of barium fluoride,” Solid State Commun. 8, 463–466 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Schlesinger, G. W. F. Drake, “On the vibronic spectrum of rare earths in calcium fluoride,” Can. J. Phys. 54, 1699–1701 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

J. F. Massicott, M. C. Brierly, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. Szebesta, “Low threshold, diode pumped operation of a green, Er3+ doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2119–2120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

P. Xie, S. C. Rand, “Visible cooperative upconversion laser in Er:LiYF4,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1198–1200 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gharavi, G. L. McPherson, “Visible UV upconversion in Er3+ doped cadmium chloride and zinc chloride glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2635–2637 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, “Upconversion lasers,” Opt. Photon. News 3, 8–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Multiphoton relaxation and infrared to visible conversion of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in barium–thorium fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266–275 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, R. S. Rana, P. Vandevelde, L. Fluyt, C. Görller-Walrand, “Crystal field analysis of Ho3+–LaF3 and Er3+–LaF3 in C2v site symmetry,” J. Less-Common Met. 116, 17–29 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, N. L. Moise, “Upconversion pumped infrared erbium laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 4077–4086 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. Schlesinger, G. W. F. Drake, “On the vibronic spectrum of rare earths in calcium fluoride,” Can. J. Phys. 54, 1699–1701 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

D. R. Tallant, J. C. Wright, “Selective laser excitation of charge compensated sites in CaF2:Er3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 2074–2085 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, “Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125–1138 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. P. Hurrell, V. J. Minkiewicz, “The crystal dynamics of barium fluoride,” Solid State Commun. 8, 463–466 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–279 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

I. Richman, “Vibronic spectra of SrF2:Sm2+ and BaF2:Sm2+,” Phys. Rev. 133, A1364–A1366 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

W. Kaiser, W. G. Spitzer, R. H. Kaiser, L. E. Howarth, “Infrared properties of CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1950–1954 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Brierly, M. C.

J. F. Massicott, M. C. Brierly, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. Szebesta, “Low threshold, diode pumped operation of a green, Er3+ doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2119–2120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bullock, S. Ray

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, R. S. Rana, P. Vandevelde, L. Fluyt, C. Görller-Walrand, “Crystal field analysis of Ho3+–LaF3 and Er3+–LaF3 in C2v site symmetry,” J. Less-Common Met. 116, 17–29 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, H. M. Crosswhite, H. Crosswhite, “Energy level structure and transition probabilities of the trivalent lanthanides in LaF3,” Special Rep. ANL-78-XX-95 (Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill., 1978).

Chang, D. B.

S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, N. L. Moise, “Upconversion pumped infrared erbium laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 4077–4086 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Crosswhite, H.

W. T. Carnall, H. M. Crosswhite, H. Crosswhite, “Energy level structure and transition probabilities of the trivalent lanthanides in LaF3,” Special Rep. ANL-78-XX-95 (Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill., 1978).

Crosswhite, H. M.

W. T. Carnall, H. M. Crosswhite, H. Crosswhite, “Energy level structure and transition probabilities of the trivalent lanthanides in LaF3,” Special Rep. ANL-78-XX-95 (Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill., 1978).

Davey, S. T.

J. F. Massicott, M. C. Brierly, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. Szebesta, “Low threshold, diode pumped operation of a green, Er3+ doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2119–2120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Drake, G. W. F.

M. Schlesinger, G. W. F. Drake, “On the vibronic spectrum of rare earths in calcium fluoride,” Can. J. Phys. 54, 1699–1701 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Drexhage, M. G.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Multiphoton relaxation and infrared to visible conversion of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in barium–thorium fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266–275 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fluyt, L.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, R. S. Rana, P. Vandevelde, L. Fluyt, C. Görller-Walrand, “Crystal field analysis of Ho3+–LaF3 and Er3+–LaF3 in C2v site symmetry,” J. Less-Common Met. 116, 17–29 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gharavi, A.

A. Gharavi, G. L. McPherson, “Visible UV upconversion in Er3+ doped cadmium chloride and zinc chloride glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2635–2637 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, G. L.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, R. S. Rana, P. Vandevelde, L. Fluyt, C. Görller-Walrand, “Crystal field analysis of Ho3+–LaF3 and Er3+–LaF3 in C2v site symmetry,” J. Less-Common Met. 116, 17–29 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Görller-Walrand, C.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, R. S. Rana, P. Vandevelde, L. Fluyt, C. Görller-Walrand, “Crystal field analysis of Ho3+–LaF3 and Er3+–LaF3 in C2v site symmetry,” J. Less-Common Met. 116, 17–29 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Guggenheim, H. J.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, “Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125–1138 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Howarth, L. E.

W. Kaiser, W. G. Spitzer, R. H. Kaiser, L. E. Howarth, “Infrared properties of CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1950–1954 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Hurrell, J. P.

J. P. Hurrell, V. J. Minkiewicz, “The crystal dynamics of barium fluoride,” Solid State Commun. 8, 463–466 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, “Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125–1138 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, C. K.

R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, Lasers and Excited States of Rare Earths (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, R. H.

W. Kaiser, W. G. Spitzer, R. H. Kaiser, L. E. Howarth, “Infrared properties of CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1950–1954 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

W. Kaiser, W. G. Spitzer, R. H. Kaiser, L. E. Howarth, “Infrared properties of CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1950–1954 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A.

A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).

A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: Physics and Properties (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).

Kawamoto, Y.

Lenth, W.

W. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, “Upconversion lasers,” Opt. Photon. News 3, 8–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R. M.

W. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, “Upconversion lasers,” Opt. Photon. News 3, 8–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Massicott, J. F.

J. F. Massicott, M. C. Brierly, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. Szebesta, “Low threshold, diode pumped operation of a green, Er3+ doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2119–2120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McPherson, G. L.

A. Gharavi, G. L. McPherson, “Visible UV upconversion in Er3+ doped cadmium chloride and zinc chloride glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2635–2637 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Minkiewicz, V. J.

J. P. Hurrell, V. J. Minkiewicz, “The crystal dynamics of barium fluoride,” Solid State Commun. 8, 463–466 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Moise, N. L.

S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, N. L. Moise, “Upconversion pumped infrared erbium laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 4077–4086 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nash-Stevenson, S. K.

Ostermayer, F. W.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, “Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125–1138 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, S. A.

S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, N. L. Moise, “Upconversion pumped infrared erbium laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 4077–4086 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pope, C. L.

Rana, R. S.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, R. S. Rana, P. Vandevelde, L. Fluyt, C. Görller-Walrand, “Crystal field analysis of Ho3+–LaF3 and Er3+–LaF3 in C2v site symmetry,” J. Less-Common Met. 116, 17–29 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rand, S. C.

Reddy, B. R.

Reisfeld, R.

R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, Lasers and Excited States of Rare Earths (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).
[CrossRef]

Rich, T. C.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, “Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125–1138 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Richman, I.

I. Richman, “Vibronic spectra of SrF2:Sm2+ and BaF2:Sm2+,” Phys. Rev. 133, A1364–A1366 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Schlesinger, M.

M. Schlesinger, G. W. F. Drake, “On the vibronic spectrum of rare earths in calcium fluoride,” Can. J. Phys. 54, 1699–1701 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sibley, W. A.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Multiphoton relaxation and infrared to visible conversion of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in barium–thorium fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266–275 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Soga, N.

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spitzer, W. G.

W. Kaiser, W. G. Spitzer, R. H. Kaiser, L. E. Howarth, “Infrared properties of CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1950–1954 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Suscavage, M.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Multiphoton relaxation and infrared to visible conversion of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in barium–thorium fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266–275 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Szebesta, D.

J. F. Massicott, M. C. Brierly, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. Szebesta, “Low threshold, diode pumped operation of a green, Er3+ doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2119–2120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takahara, K.

Takahashi, M.

Tallant, D. R.

D. R. Tallant, J. C. Wright, “Selective laser excitation of charge compensated sites in CaF2:Er3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 2074–2085 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, S.

S. Tanabe, K. Takahara, M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, “Spectroscopic studies of radiative transitions and upconversion characteristics of Er3+ ions in simple pseudoternary fluoride glasses MFn–BaF2–YF3 (M:Zr, Hf, Al, Sc, Ga, In, or Zn),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 786–793 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vandevelde, P.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, R. S. Rana, P. Vandevelde, L. Fluyt, C. Görller-Walrand, “Crystal field analysis of Ho3+–LaF3 and Er3+–LaF3 in C2v site symmetry,” J. Less-Common Met. 116, 17–29 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Venkateswarlu, P.

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–279 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wright, J. C.

D. R. Tallant, J. C. Wright, “Selective laser excitation of charge compensated sites in CaF2:Er3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 2074–2085 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

J. F. Massicott, M. C. Brierly, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. Szebesta, “Low threshold, diode pumped operation of a green, Er3+ doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2119–2120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xie, P.

Yeh, D. C.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Multiphoton relaxation and infrared to visible conversion of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in barium–thorium fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266–275 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yoshii, S.

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Gharavi, G. L. McPherson, “Visible UV upconversion in Er3+ doped cadmium chloride and zinc chloride glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2635–2637 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

M. Schlesinger, G. W. F. Drake, “On the vibronic spectrum of rare earths in calcium fluoride,” Can. J. Phys. 54, 1699–1701 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. F. Massicott, M. C. Brierly, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. Szebesta, “Low threshold, diode pumped operation of a green, Er3+ doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2119–2120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, M. Suscavage, M. G. Drexhage, “Multiphoton relaxation and infrared to visible conversion of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in barium–thorium fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 266–275 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, N. L. Moise, “Upconversion pumped infrared erbium laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 4077–4086 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, “Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125–1138 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. R. Tallant, J. C. Wright, “Selective laser excitation of charge compensated sites in CaF2:Er3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 2074–2085 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Less-Common Met. (1)

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, R. S. Rana, P. Vandevelde, L. Fluyt, C. Görller-Walrand, “Crystal field analysis of Ho3+–LaF3 and Er3+–LaF3 in C2v site symmetry,” J. Less-Common Met. 116, 17–29 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

W. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, “Upconversion lasers,” Opt. Photon. News 3, 8–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (3)

W. Kaiser, W. G. Spitzer, R. H. Kaiser, L. E. Howarth, “Infrared properties of CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1950–1954 (1962).
[CrossRef]

I. Richman, “Vibronic spectra of SrF2:Sm2+ and BaF2:Sm2+,” Phys. Rev. 133, A1364–A1366 (1964).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–279 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, N. Soga, “Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620–4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

J. P. Hurrell, V. J. Minkiewicz, “The crystal dynamics of barium fluoride,” Solid State Commun. 8, 463–466 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

W. T. Carnall, H. M. Crosswhite, H. Crosswhite, “Energy level structure and transition probabilities of the trivalent lanthanides in LaF3,” Special Rep. ANL-78-XX-95 (Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill., 1978).

A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).

A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: Physics and Properties (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).

R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, Lasers and Excited States of Rare Earths (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of BaF2:Er3+. The ionic ground state is 4 I 15/2, and the excited states are identified in the figure. Sample thickness is 0.4 cm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Partial energy-level diagram of Er3+ in BaF2 depicting the excitation schemes and the emission wavelengths. The dashed line represents a phonon-coupled level.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy upconversion spectrum of BaF2:Er3+ under 801-nm Ti:sapphire laser excitation. The peak at 550 nm is the strongest, and that at 275 nm is the weakest. The numbers below the peaks are the multiplication factors used to obtain the spectral recording.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ d λ λ   =   8 π 3 e 2 3 ch 2 J + 1 η 2 + 2 2 S 9 η ,
S = t   Ω t | J | U t | J | 2 ,     t = 2 ,   4 ,   6 .
σ = ln I 0 λ / I λ Nx = 2.303 × O . D . Nx ,
η = number of violet photons emitted number of green photons emitted × number of green photons emitted number of IR photons absorbed .

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